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World History in Documents

354 Pages · 2012 · 2.66 MB · English

  • World History in Documents

    WORLD HISTORY IN DOCUMENTS WORLD HISTORY IN DOCUMENTS


    A COMPARATIVE READER SECOND EDITION


    Edited by Peter N. Stearns NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS


    New York and London


    www.nyupress.org


    © 2008 by New York University


    All rights reserved


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data World history in documents : a


    comparative reader / edited by Peter N. Stearns. — 2nd. ed.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN-13: 978-0-8147-4047-7 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-8147-4047-2 (cloth :


    alk. paper) ISBN-13: 978-0-8147-4048-4 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-8147-4048-


    0 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. World history—Sources. I. Stearns, Peter N.


    D5.W67 2007


    909—dc22 2007025223


    New York University Press books are printed on acid-free paper and their binding


    materials are chosen for strength and durability.


    Manufactured in the United States of America c 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    p 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENTS


    Acknowledgments


    Introduction: Comparative World History


    : River Valley Civilizations, 3500–1000 ., and the Classical Period, 1000


    PART I B.C.E


    .–450 .


    B.C.E C.E


    1. Creation Stories


    A Kabyl Story


    A North American Version


    The Haida Story


    A Babylonian Story


    An Egyptian Story


    The Mayan Story, from Popol Vuh


    2. Comparing Laws: The Importance of the State


    Mesopotamia: Hammurabi’s Code


    Jewish Law


    3. Political Ideals in China and Greece


    Confucianism: Chinese Political Values


    Athenian Democracy: Pericles’ Funeral Oration


    4. Social Inequality


    India’s Caste System: The Laws of Manu


    Roman Slavery


    5. Conditions of Women in the Classical Civilizations: China and India


    China: “Mother of Mencius” and Ban Zhao


    The Mother of Mencius


    Ban Zhao’s Admonitions for Women


    India: The Ramayana


    6. Military Roles in China and Rome


    Sun-Tzu, The Art of War


    Vegetius, Epitome of Military Science


    7. Buddhism and Christianity


    Buddhism


    The Four Noble Truths


    The Way, from the Dhammapada


    Christianity


    Letter from Paul to the Romans


    Vincent of Lerins : The Postclassical Period, 450–1450


    PART II


    8. Religion and State in Islam and Christianity


    A Muslim View: Nizam al-Mulk


    A Christian Debate: Canon Lawyers in the Twelfth Century


    9. Conditions of Women in Islam, Byzantine Christianity, and Western Christianity


    Women in Islam


    The Quran


    The Hadith


    Rules for Muslim Government


    The Byzantine Empire


    A Marriage Contract


    A History of Anna Comnena


    Legal Status


    Western Europe: City and Canon Law


    A German City’s Laws


    Church (Canon) Law on Marriage


    10. Feudalism in Western Europe and Japan


    European Feudalism


    European Feudal Documents


    The Magna Carta


    Japanese Feudalism


    Japanese Feudal Documents


    11. The Crusades: Muslim and European Reactions


    A Christian Account


    The Crusade of Richard I


    Muslim Accounts


    Beh-ed-Din


    Usamah Ibn-Munqidh


    12. Merchants and Trade


    A Muslim View: Ibn Khaldun


    Characteristics of Traders


    A Christian View: Reginald of Durham on Saint Godric


    A Chinese View: Chang Han


    Essay on Merchants


    13. The Mongol Era: Conquests and Connections


    Mongols in China: Li Chih-Ch’ang and The Secret History of the Mongols


    Li Chih-Ch’ang


    The Secret History of the Mongols Russian Reactions: The Novgorod Chronicle


    The West and the Mongols: Marco Polo


    14. Africa in the Postclassical World


    Abd al-Aziz al-Bakri


    Ghana and the Customs of Its Inhabitants


    Ibn Battuta


    Anecdote concerning the Massufa Who Inhabit Iwalatan


    Africa through the Eyes of a European Merchant


    Antonius Malfante


    15. Chinese and Portuguese Voyages in the Fifteenth Century


    Ma Huan


    Vasco da Gama


    : The Early Modern Period, 1450–1750


    PART III


    16. Europeans and American Indians: Explorers, Conquerors, and Aztec Reactions


    Spanish Reactions: Chanca and Cortés


    Dr. Diego Alvarez Chanca on the Caribe Indians


    Cortés in Mexico


    French Reactions: Champlain


    French Encounters in North America


    Aztec Reactions: The Broken Spears


    17. The Spread of Slavery and the Atlantic Slave Trade


    The Slave Trader’s View: John Barbot


    The African Slave Experience: Olaudah Equiano


    18. The Scientific Revolution and Global Impact


    Galileo


    Galileo’s letter to the Grand Duchess of Tuscany


    Condorcet and the Enlightenment Idea of Progress


    Father de Halde and Science in China


    Science in the Ottoman Empire: Lady Montague


    Reaction in Japan: Sugita Genpaku


    19. The Gunpowder Empires


    The Ottoman Empire: Busbecq


    The Mughal Empire: Monserate and Bernier


    Monserate


    European Awe at Other Empires


    Bernier


    The Russian Empire: Peter the Great (1682–1725)


    20. Coffee in Early Modern World History A Middle Eastern Account


    English Accounts


    Two Descriptions of English Coffee Houses


    The Character of a Coffee-House


    Coffee-Houses Vindicated


    : The Long Nineteenth Century


    PART IV


    21. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions


    The American Revolution


    Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress


    The French Revolution


    Declaration of the Rights of Man


    Decree Abolishing Feudalism


    Edmund Burke


    The Haitian Revolution


    From a French Newspaper


    22. Nationalism


    The French Revolution and Nationalism: A 1792 Decree


    Fichte


    A Proclamation by the Prussian King, 1813


    The King of Prussia Rouses His People against Napoleon


    Bismarck


    Political Ideals and Nationalism in Latin America: Simón Bolívar


    The 1813 Proclamation


    The 1819 Proclamation


    23. The Opium War: Chinese and English Views


    China: Official Statements


    Imperial Edict to the Grand Secretariat


    Reports by Kiying, Imperial Commissioner


    Britain: A View from a Participant


    Wei Yuan’s Defense Plan, 1842


    24. The Emancipations and Their Consequences


    The Emancipation Manifesto, 1861


    The Emancipation Proclamation, 1862


    Joachim Nabuco and Brazilian Abolitionism


    Brazilian Abolition Law No. 3353, Abolishing Slavery in Brazil


    Russian Peasants after Emancipation: Peasant Petitions


    Petition from Peasants in Balashov District


    Petition from Peasants in Podosinovka African Americans after Slavery: Petitions in the South


    Joint Affidavit from George Underwood, Ben Harris, and Isiah Fuller


    Memorial from Alabama Negroes


    25. Russian and Japanese Conservatism


    Danilevsky


    Pobedonostsev


    Yamagata Arimoto


    26. Business Values in the Industrial Revolution: Western Europe and Japan


    Business Ideals in Britain: Samuel Smiles


    A French Businessman: Narcisse Faucheur


    Praising Individualism: Fukuzawa Yukichi


    On Education


    On Business


    A Japanese Businessman’s Views: Shibuzawa Eiichi


    From the Autobiography


    From “My View of Life”


    From “Independence and Self-Reliance”


    27. Women and Education in the Nineteenth Century


    France


    The United States


    Eliza Duffey


    Elizabeth Cady Stanton


    India


    : The Contemporary Period, 1914–Present


    PART V


    28. Twentieth-Century Revolutions


    Mexico


    Francisco Madero: The Plan of San Luis Potosi


    The Plan of Ayala


    China


    Proclamation of the Abdication of the Manchus


    Sun Yat-sen: Fundamentals of National Reconstruction


    Russia


    V.I. Lenin, What Is To Be Done


    Lenin’s Call to Power


    The Fundamental Law of Land Socialization


    29. Authoritarianism on the Right: Italian Fascism, German Nazism, and Argentine


    Peronism


    Italian Fascism: Mussolini


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