World History in Documents

354 Pages · 2012 · 2.66 MB · English

  • World History in Documents



    Edited by Peter N. Stearns NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS

    New York and London


    © 2008 by New York University

    All rights reserved

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data World history in documents : a

    comparative reader / edited by Peter N. Stearns. — 2nd. ed.

    p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN-13: 978-0-8147-4047-7 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-8147-4047-2 (cloth :

    alk. paper) ISBN-13: 978-0-8147-4048-4 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-8147-4048-

    0 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. World history—Sources. I. Stearns, Peter N.

    D5.W67 2007

    909—dc22 2007025223

    New York University Press books are printed on acid-free paper and their binding

    materials are chosen for strength and durability.

    Manufactured in the United States of America c 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    p 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENTS


    Introduction: Comparative World History

    : River Valley Civilizations, 3500–1000 ., and the Classical Period, 1000

    PART I B.C.E

    .–450 .

    B.C.E C.E

    1. Creation Stories

    A Kabyl Story

    A North American Version

    The Haida Story

    A Babylonian Story

    An Egyptian Story

    The Mayan Story, from Popol Vuh

    2. Comparing Laws: The Importance of the State

    Mesopotamia: Hammurabi’s Code

    Jewish Law

    3. Political Ideals in China and Greece

    Confucianism: Chinese Political Values

    Athenian Democracy: Pericles’ Funeral Oration

    4. Social Inequality

    India’s Caste System: The Laws of Manu

    Roman Slavery

    5. Conditions of Women in the Classical Civilizations: China and India

    China: “Mother of Mencius” and Ban Zhao

    The Mother of Mencius

    Ban Zhao’s Admonitions for Women

    India: The Ramayana

    6. Military Roles in China and Rome

    Sun-Tzu, The Art of War

    Vegetius, Epitome of Military Science

    7. Buddhism and Christianity


    The Four Noble Truths

    The Way, from the Dhammapada


    Letter from Paul to the Romans

    Vincent of Lerins : The Postclassical Period, 450–1450


    8. Religion and State in Islam and Christianity

    A Muslim View: Nizam al-Mulk

    A Christian Debate: Canon Lawyers in the Twelfth Century

    9. Conditions of Women in Islam, Byzantine Christianity, and Western Christianity

    Women in Islam

    The Quran

    The Hadith

    Rules for Muslim Government

    The Byzantine Empire

    A Marriage Contract

    A History of Anna Comnena

    Legal Status

    Western Europe: City and Canon Law

    A German City’s Laws

    Church (Canon) Law on Marriage

    10. Feudalism in Western Europe and Japan

    European Feudalism

    European Feudal Documents

    The Magna Carta

    Japanese Feudalism

    Japanese Feudal Documents

    11. The Crusades: Muslim and European Reactions

    A Christian Account

    The Crusade of Richard I

    Muslim Accounts


    Usamah Ibn-Munqidh

    12. Merchants and Trade

    A Muslim View: Ibn Khaldun

    Characteristics of Traders

    A Christian View: Reginald of Durham on Saint Godric

    A Chinese View: Chang Han

    Essay on Merchants

    13. The Mongol Era: Conquests and Connections

    Mongols in China: Li Chih-Ch’ang and The Secret History of the Mongols

    Li Chih-Ch’ang

    The Secret History of the Mongols Russian Reactions: The Novgorod Chronicle

    The West and the Mongols: Marco Polo

    14. Africa in the Postclassical World

    Abd al-Aziz al-Bakri

    Ghana and the Customs of Its Inhabitants

    Ibn Battuta

    Anecdote concerning the Massufa Who Inhabit Iwalatan

    Africa through the Eyes of a European Merchant

    Antonius Malfante

    15. Chinese and Portuguese Voyages in the Fifteenth Century

    Ma Huan

    Vasco da Gama

    : The Early Modern Period, 1450–1750


    16. Europeans and American Indians: Explorers, Conquerors, and Aztec Reactions

    Spanish Reactions: Chanca and Cortés

    Dr. Diego Alvarez Chanca on the Caribe Indians

    Cortés in Mexico

    French Reactions: Champlain

    French Encounters in North America

    Aztec Reactions: The Broken Spears

    17. The Spread of Slavery and the Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Slave Trader’s View: John Barbot

    The African Slave Experience: Olaudah Equiano

    18. The Scientific Revolution and Global Impact


    Galileo’s letter to the Grand Duchess of Tuscany

    Condorcet and the Enlightenment Idea of Progress

    Father de Halde and Science in China

    Science in the Ottoman Empire: Lady Montague

    Reaction in Japan: Sugita Genpaku

    19. The Gunpowder Empires

    The Ottoman Empire: Busbecq

    The Mughal Empire: Monserate and Bernier


    European Awe at Other Empires


    The Russian Empire: Peter the Great (1682–1725)

    20. Coffee in Early Modern World History A Middle Eastern Account

    English Accounts

    Two Descriptions of English Coffee Houses

    The Character of a Coffee-House

    Coffee-Houses Vindicated

    : The Long Nineteenth Century


    21. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions

    The American Revolution

    Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress

    The French Revolution

    Declaration of the Rights of Man

    Decree Abolishing Feudalism

    Edmund Burke

    The Haitian Revolution

    From a French Newspaper

    22. Nationalism

    The French Revolution and Nationalism: A 1792 Decree


    A Proclamation by the Prussian King, 1813

    The King of Prussia Rouses His People against Napoleon


    Political Ideals and Nationalism in Latin America: Simón Bolívar

    The 1813 Proclamation

    The 1819 Proclamation

    23. The Opium War: Chinese and English Views

    China: Official Statements

    Imperial Edict to the Grand Secretariat

    Reports by Kiying, Imperial Commissioner

    Britain: A View from a Participant

    Wei Yuan’s Defense Plan, 1842

    24. The Emancipations and Their Consequences

    The Emancipation Manifesto, 1861

    The Emancipation Proclamation, 1862

    Joachim Nabuco and Brazilian Abolitionism

    Brazilian Abolition Law No. 3353, Abolishing Slavery in Brazil

    Russian Peasants after Emancipation: Peasant Petitions

    Petition from Peasants in Balashov District

    Petition from Peasants in Podosinovka African Americans after Slavery: Petitions in the South

    Joint Affidavit from George Underwood, Ben Harris, and Isiah Fuller

    Memorial from Alabama Negroes

    25. Russian and Japanese Conservatism



    Yamagata Arimoto

    26. Business Values in the Industrial Revolution: Western Europe and Japan

    Business Ideals in Britain: Samuel Smiles

    A French Businessman: Narcisse Faucheur

    Praising Individualism: Fukuzawa Yukichi

    On Education

    On Business

    A Japanese Businessman’s Views: Shibuzawa Eiichi

    From the Autobiography

    From “My View of Life”

    From “Independence and Self-Reliance”

    27. Women and Education in the Nineteenth Century


    The United States

    Eliza Duffey

    Elizabeth Cady Stanton


    : The Contemporary Period, 1914–Present

    PART V

    28. Twentieth-Century Revolutions


    Francisco Madero: The Plan of San Luis Potosi

    The Plan of Ayala


    Proclamation of the Abdication of the Manchus

    Sun Yat-sen: Fundamentals of National Reconstruction


    V.I. Lenin, What Is To Be Done

    Lenin’s Call to Power

    The Fundamental Law of Land Socialization

    29. Authoritarianism on the Right: Italian Fascism, German Nazism, and Argentine


    Italian Fascism: Mussolini

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