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Wildlife Ecology, Conservation, and Management

489 Pages · 2005 · 2.7 MB · English

  • Wildlife Ecology, Conservation, and Management

    WECA01 08/17/2005 04:34PM Page i


    Wildlife Ecology, Conservation, and Management WECA01 08/17/2005 04:34PM Page ii


    To our colleagues Graeme Caughley, Peter Yodzis, and James N.M.


    Smith who have influenced both our approach to wildlife biology


    and the writing of this book. WECA01 08/17/2005 04:34PM Page iii


    Wildlife Ecology, Conservation,


    and Management


    Second Edition


    Anthony R.E. Sinclair PhD, FRS


    Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia,


    Vancouver, Canada


    John M. Fryxell PhD


    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph,


    Canada


    Graeme Caughley PhD


    CSIRO, Canberra, Australia WECA01 08/17/2005 04:34PM Page iv


    © 2006 by Anthony R.E. Sinclair and John M. Fryxell


    © 1994 by Blackwell Science


    BLACKWELL PUBLISHING


    350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA


    9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK


    550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia


    The right of Anthony R.E. Sinclair and John M. Fryxell to be identified as the Authors of this


    Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988.


    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,


    or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or


    otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the


    prior permission of the publisher.


    First edition published 1994


    Second edition published 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd


    1 2006


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Sinclair, A.R.E. (Anthony Ronald Entrican)


    Wildlife ecology, conservation, and management / Anthony R.E.


    Sinclair, John M. Fryxell, Graeme Caughley. – 2nd ed.


    p. cm.


    Rev. ed. of: Wildlife ecology and management / Graeme Caughley,


    Anthony R.E. Sinclair.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-0737-2 (pbk. : alk. paper)


    ISBN-10: 1-4051-0737-5 (pbk. : alk. paper)


    1. Wildlife management. 2. Wildlife conservation. 3. Animal ecology.


    I. Fryxell, John M., 1954– II. Caughley, Graeme. III. Caughley, Graeme.


    =


    Wildlife ecology and management. IV. Title. 20


    SK355.C38 2005


    639.9–dc22


    2005007229


    A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.


    Set in 9.5/12pt Berkeley


    by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong


    Printed and bound in India


    by Replika Press


    The publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry


    policy, and which hasbeen manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary


    chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board


    used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards.


    For further information on


    Blackwell Publishing, visit our website:


    www.blackwellpublishing.com WECA01 08/17/2005 04:34PM Page v


    Contents


    Preface xi


    1 Introduction: goals and decisions 1


    1.1 How to use this book 1


    1.2 What is wildlife conservation and management? 2


    1.3 Goals of management 3


    1.4 Hierarchies of decision 5


    1.5 Policy goals 7


    1.6 Feasible options 8


    1.7 Summary 8


    Part 1 Wildlife ecology 9


    2 Biomes 11


    2.1 Introduction 11


    2.2 Forest biomes 12


    2.3 Woodland biomes 14


    2.4 Shrublands 14


    2.5 Grassland biomes 15


    2.6 Semi-desert scrub 17


    2.7 Deserts 17


    2.8 Marine biomes 17


    2.9 Summary 18


    3 Animals as individuals 19


    3.1 Introduction 19


    3.2 Adaptation 19


    3.3 The theory of natural selection 19


    3.4 Examples of adaptation 21


    3.5 The effects of history 23


    3.6 The abiotic environment 27


    3.7 Genetic characteristics of individuals 27


    3.8 Applied aspects 33


    3.9 Summary 35


    v WECA01 08/17/2005 04:34PM Page vi


    vi CONTENTS


    4 Food and nutrition 36


    4.1 Introduction 36


    4.2 Constituents of food 36


    4.3 Variation in food supply 40


    4.4 Measurement of food supply 42


    4.5 Basal metabolic rate and food requirement 46


    4.6 Morphology of herbivore digestion 49


    4.7 Food passage rate and food requirement 51


    4.8 Body size and diet selection 52


    4.9 Indices of body condition 53


    4.10 Summary 59


    5 The ecology of behavior 60


    5.1 Introduction 60


    5.2 Diet selection 60


    5.3 Optimal patch or habitat use 66


    5.4 Risk-sensitive habitat use 69


    5.5 Quantifying habitat preference using resource


    selection functions 70


    5.6 Social behavior and foraging 72


    5.7 Summary 77


    6 Population growth 78


    6.1 Introduction 78


    6.2 Rate of increase 78


    6.3 Fecundity rate 82


    6.4 Mortality rate 82


    6.5 Direct estimation of life-table parameters 84


    6.6 Indirect estimation of life-table parameters 85


    6.7 Relationship between parameters 87


    6.8 Geometric or exponential population growth 88


    6.9 Summary 89


    7 Dispersal, dispersion, and distribution 90


    7.1 Introduction 90


    7.2 Dispersal 90


    7.3 Dispersion 92


    7.4 Distribution 93


    7.5 Distribution, abundance, and range collapse 98


    7.6 Species reintroductions or invasions 99


    7.7 Dispersal and the sustainability of metapopulations 104


    7.8 Summary 108


    8 Population regulation, fluctuation, and competition within


    species 109


    8.1 Introduction 109


    8.2 Stability of populations 109


    8.3 The theory of population limitation and regulation 111 WECA01 08/17/2005 04:34PM Page vii


    CONTENTS vii


    8.4 Evidence for regulation 116


    8.5 Applications of regulation 120


    8.6 Logistic model of population regulation 121


    8.7 Stability, cycles, and chaos 125


    8.8 Intraspecific competition 131


    8.9 Interactions of food, predators, and disease 134


    8.10 Summary 134


    9 Competition and facilitation between species 135


    9.1 Introduction 135


    9.2 Theoretical aspects of interspecific competition 136


    9.3 Experimental demonstrations of competition 138


    9.4 The concept of the niche 143


    9.5 The competitive exclusion principle 146


    9.6 Resource partitioning and habitat selection 146


    9.7 Competition in variable environments 153


    9.8 Apparent competition 153


    9.9 Facilitation 154


    9.10 Applied aspects of competition 159


    9.11 Summary 162


    10 Predation 163


    10.1 Introduction 163


    10.2 Predation and management 163


    10.3 Definitions 163


    10.4 The effect of predators on prey density 164


    10.5 The behavior of predators 165


    10.6 Numerical response of predators to prey density 169


    10.7 The total response 170


    10.8 Behavior of the prey 176


    10.9 Summary 178


    11 Parasites and pathogens 179


    11.1 Introduction and definitions 179


    11.2 Effects of parasites 179


    11.3 The basic parameters of epidemiology 180


    11.4 Determinants of spread 183


    11.5 Endemic pathogens 184


    11.6 Endemic pathogens: synergistic interactions with food


    and predators 184


    11.7 Epizootic diseases 186


    11.8 Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife 187


    11.9 Parasites and the regulation of host populations 188


    11.10 Parasites and host communities 190


    11.11 Parasites and conservation 191


    11.12 Parasites and control of pests 194


    11.13 Summary 195 WECA01 08/17/2005 04:34PM Page viii


    viii CONTENTS


    12 Consumer–resource dynamics 196


    12.1 Introduction 196


    12.2 Quality and quantity of a resource 196


    12.3 Kinds of resources 196


    12.4 Consumer–resource dynamics: general theory 197


    12.5 Kangaroos and their food plants in semi-arid


    Australian savannas 200


    12.6 Wolf–moose–woody plant dynamics in the boreal forest 207


    12.7 Other population cycles 212


    12.8 Summary 215


    Part 2 Wildlife conservation and management 217


    13 Counting animals 219


    13.1 Introduction 219


    13.2 Estimates 219


    13.3 Total counts 219


    13.4 Sampled counts: the logic 221


    13.5 Sampled counts: methods and arithmetic 226


    13.6 Indirect estimates of population size 235


    13.7 Indices 241


    13.8 Summary 243


    14 Age and stage structure 244


    14.1 Age-specific population models 244


    14.2 Stage-specific models 247


    14.3 Sensitivity and elasticity of matrix models 248


    14.4 Short-term changes in structured populations 251


    14.5 Summary 252


    15 Model evaluation and adaptive management 253


    15.1 Introduction 253


    15.2 Fitting models to data and estimation of parameters 254


    15.3 Measuring the likelihood of models in light of


    the observed data 256


    15.4 Evaluating the likelihood of alternative models using AIC 258


    15.5 Adaptive management 264


    15.6 Summary 267


    16 Experimental management 268


    16.1 Introduction 268


    16.2 Differentiating success from failure 268


    16.3 Technical judgments can be tested 269


    16.4 The nature of the evidence 272


    16.5 Experimental and survey design 274


    16.6 Some standard analyses 279


    16.7 Summary 287 WECA01 08/17/2005 04:34PM Page ix


    CONTENTS ix


    17 Conservation in theory 289


    17.1 Introduction 289


    17.2 Demographic problems contributing to risk of extinction 289


    17.3 Genetic problems contributing to risk of extinction 291


    17.4 Effective population size (genetic) 297


    17.5 Effective population size (demographic) 298


    17.6 How small is too small? 299


    17.7 Population viability analysis 300


    17.8 Extinction caused by environmental change 305


    17.9 Summary 310


    18 Conservation in practice 312


    18.1 Introduction 312


    18.2 How populations go extinct 312


    18.3 How to prevent extinction 321


    18.4 Rescue and recovery of near extinctions 323


    18.5 Conservation in national parks and reserves 324


    18.6 Community conservation outside national parks and reserves 332


    18.7 International conservation 332


    18.8 Summary 334


    19 Wildlife harvesting 335


    19.1 Introduction 335


    19.2 Fixed quota harvesting strategy 335


    19.3 Fixed proportion harvesting strategy 341


    19.4 Fixed escapement harvesting strategy 344


    19.5 Harvesting in practice: recreational 346


    19.6 Harvesting in practice: commercial 346


    19.7 Age- or sex-biased harvesting 347


    19.8 Bioeconomics 347


    19.9 Game cropping and the discount rate 352


    19.10 Summary 353


    20 Wildlife control 355


    20.1 Introduction 355


    20.2 Definitions 355


    20.3 Effects of control 356


    20.4 Objectives of control 356


    20.5 Determining whether control is appropriate 357


    20.6 Methods of control 358


    20.7 Summary 364


    21 Ecosystem management and conservation 365


    21.1 Introduction 365


    21.2 Definitions 365


    21.3 Gradients of communities 366


    21.4 Niches 366


    21.5 Food webs and intertrophic interactions 366


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