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Urban Regions : Ecology and Planning Beyond the City

478 Pages · 2008 · 12.85 MB · English

  • Urban Regions : Ecology and Planning Beyond the City

    This page intentionally left blank Urban Regions


    Ecology and Planning Beyond the City


    Natural systems and their human uses are of central importance in urban


    regions, where diverse greenspaces and built spaces of essentially equal value


    spatially intertwine. With land planning, socioeconomics, and natural systems


    as foundations, this book combines urban planning and ecological science in


    examining urban regions. Writing for graduate students, academic researchers,


    planners, conservationists, and policy makers, and with the use of informative


    urban-region color maps, Richard Forman compares 38 urban regions from


    32 nations, including London, Chicago, Ottawa, Brasilia, Cairo, Beijing,


    Bangkok, Canberra, and a major case study of the Greater Barcelona Region.


    Alternative patterns of urbanization spread (including sprawl) are evaluated


    from the perspective of nature and people, and land-use principles extracted


    from landscape ecology, transportation, and hydrology are stated. Good, bad,


    and interesting spatial patterns for creating sustainable land mosaics are


    pinpointed, and urban regions are considered in broader contexts, from


    climate change to biodiversity loss, disasters, and sense of place.


    Richard T. T. Forman is Harvard University’s Professor of Advanced


    Environmental Studies in Landscape Ecology. Previously at the University of


    Wisconsin and Rutgers University, he is an American Association for the


    Advancement of Science Fellow and recipient of the Lindback Award for


    Teaching Excellence as well as of honorary degrees and medals in the USA and


    internationally. Urban Regions


    Ecology and Planning


    Beyond the City


    Richard T. T. Forman


    HarvardUniversity CAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITY PRESS


    Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo


    Cambridge University Press


    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK


    Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


    www.cambridge.org


    Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521854467


    © Cambridge University Press 2008


    This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of


    relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place


    without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.


    First published in print format 2008


    ISBN-13 978-0-511-40977-6 eBook (NetLibrary)


    ISBN-13    978-0-521-85446-7 hardback


    ISBN-13    978-0-521-67076-0 paperback


    Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls


    for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not


    guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Dedicated to Sabrina Forman Heim


    and her family,


    Karl, Brianna, Matthew Contents


    Foreword xi


    Foreword xiii


    Preface xvii


    Acknowledgments xxi


    1 Regions and land mosaics 1


    Aframework 1


    Termsandconceptstorevealurbanregions 6


    Regions 11


    Land-mosaicperspectiveandlandscapeecology 16


    Spatialscalesandtheirattributes 18


    2 Planning land 27


    Planningandlandmanagement 27


    Conservationplanning 33


    Plannedcities 40


    Urban-regionplanning 45


    3 Economic dimensions and socio-cultural patterns 51


    Growth,regulatory,andecologicaleconomics 51


    Economicsintime,space,andfootprints 59


    Socialpatterns 66


    Culture 73


    4 Natural systems and greenspaces 80


    Ecosystem,community,andpopulationecology 82


    Freshwaterandmarinecoastecology 93


    vii viii Contents


    Earthandsoil 99


    Microclimateandairpollutants 102


    Greenspaces 105


    5 Thirty-eight urban regions 113


    Selectingcities,determiningboundaries,mappingregions 113


    Keyspatialattributes 119


    Thirty-eighturbanregionsmapped 125


    Place-namesynopsesoftheregions 125


    Broadpatternsoftheurban-regionset 134


    6 Nature, food, and water 138


    Spatialanalysisforpatterns 138


    Natureinurbanregions 142


    Foodinurbanregions 150


    Waterinurbanregions 155


    7 Built systems, built areas, and whole regions 164


    Naturalsystemswithinandnexttobuiltareas 165


    Builtsystems 168


    Builtareas 177


    Wholeregions 189


    8 Urbanization models and the regions 198


    Land-changepatternsandmodels 199


    Foururbanizationmodels 206


    Modelsappliedtocasestudies 211


    Urbanizationoptionsevaluatedwith18attributesand38regions 215


    9 Basic principles for molding land mosaics 223


    Patchsizes,edges,andhabitats 224


    Naturalprocesses,corridors,andnetworks 229


    Transportationmodes 232


    Communitiesanddevelopment 234


    Landmosaicsandlandscapechange 239


    10 The Barcelona Region’s land mosaic 243


    Perspectiveandapproach 244


    Nature,food,andwater 248


    Builtareasandsystems 260


    Threeplanoptionsfortheregion 268


    Reflectionstwoyearslater 274


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