Urban Regions : Ecology and Planning Beyond the City

Urban Regions : Ecology and Planning Beyond the City

Urban Regions : Ecology and Planning Beyond the City

478 Pages ·2008·12.85 MB ·English

Urban Regions : Ecology and Planning Beyond the City

This page intentionally left blank Urban Regions


Ecology and Planning Beyond the City


Natural systems and their human uses are of central importance in urban


regions, where diverse greenspaces and built spaces of essentially equal value


spatially intertwine. With land planning, socioeconomics, and natural systems


as foundations, this book combines urban planning and ecological science in


examining urban regions. Writing for graduate students, academic researchers,


planners, conservationists, and policy makers, and with the use of informative


urban-region color maps, Richard Forman compares 38 urban regions from


32 nations, including London, Chicago, Ottawa, Brasilia, Cairo, Beijing,


Bangkok, Canberra, and a major case study of the Greater Barcelona Region.


Alternative patterns of urbanization spread (including sprawl) are evaluated


from the perspective of nature and people, and land-use principles extracted


from landscape ecology, transportation, and hydrology are stated. Good, bad,


and interesting spatial patterns for creating sustainable land mosaics are


pinpointed, and urban regions are considered in broader contexts, from


climate change to biodiversity loss, disasters, and sense of place.


Richard T. T. Forman is Harvard University’s Professor of Advanced


Environmental Studies in Landscape Ecology. Previously at the University of


Wisconsin and Rutgers University, he is an American Association for the


Advancement of Science Fellow and recipient of the Lindback Award for


Teaching Excellence as well as of honorary degrees and medals in the USA and


internationally. Urban Regions


Ecology and Planning


Beyond the City


Richard T. T. Forman


HarvardUniversity CAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITY PRESS


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo


Cambridge University Press


The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK


Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


www.cambridge.org


Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521854467


© Cambridge University Press 2008


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of


relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place


without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.


First published in print format 2008


ISBN-13 978-0-511-40977-6 eBook (NetLibrary)


ISBN-13    978-0-521-85446-7 hardback


ISBN-13    978-0-521-67076-0 paperback


Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls


for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not


guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Dedicated to Sabrina Forman Heim


and her family,


Karl, Brianna, Matthew Contents


Foreword xi


Foreword xiii


Preface xvii


Acknowledgments xxi


1 Regions and land mosaics 1


Aframework 1


Termsandconceptstorevealurbanregions 6


Regions 11


Land-mosaicperspectiveandlandscapeecology 16


Spatialscalesandtheirattributes 18


2 Planning land 27


Planningandlandmanagement 27


Conservationplanning 33


Plannedcities 40


Urban-regionplanning 45


3 Economic dimensions and socio-cultural patterns 51


Growth,regulatory,andecologicaleconomics 51


Economicsintime,space,andfootprints 59


Socialpatterns 66


Culture 73


4 Natural systems and greenspaces 80


Ecosystem,community,andpopulationecology 82


Freshwaterandmarinecoastecology 93


vii viii Contents


Earthandsoil 99


Microclimateandairpollutants 102


Greenspaces 105


5 Thirty-eight urban regions 113


Selectingcities,determiningboundaries,mappingregions 113


Keyspatialattributes 119


Thirty-eighturbanregionsmapped 125


Place-namesynopsesoftheregions 125


Broadpatternsoftheurban-regionset 134


6 Nature, food, and water 138


Spatialanalysisforpatterns 138


Natureinurbanregions 142


Foodinurbanregions 150


Waterinurbanregions 155


7 Built systems, built areas, and whole regions 164


Naturalsystemswithinandnexttobuiltareas 165


Builtsystems 168


Builtareas 177


Wholeregions 189


8 Urbanization models and the regions 198


Land-changepatternsandmodels 199


Foururbanizationmodels 206


Modelsappliedtocasestudies 211


Urbanizationoptionsevaluatedwith18attributesand38regions 215


9 Basic principles for molding land mosaics 223


Patchsizes,edges,andhabitats 224


Naturalprocesses,corridors,andnetworks 229


Transportationmodes 232


Communitiesanddevelopment 234


Landmosaicsandlandscapechange 239


10 The Barcelona Region’s land mosaic 243


Perspectiveandapproach 244


Nature,food,andwater 248


Builtareasandsystems 260


Threeplanoptionsfortheregion 268


Reflectionstwoyearslater 274


This page intentionally left blank Urban Regions


Ecology and Planning Beyond the City


Natural systems and their human uses are of central importance in urban


regions, where diverse greenspaces and built spaces of essentially equal value


spatially intertwine. With land planning, socioeconomics, and natural systems


as foundations, this book combines urban planning and ecological science in


examining urban regions. Writing for graduate students, academic researchers,


planners, conservationists, and policy makers, and with the use of informative


urban-region color maps, Richard Forman compares 38 urban regions from


32 nations, including London, Chicago, Ottawa, Brasilia, Cairo, Beijing,


Bangkok, Canberra, and a major case study of the Greater Barcelona Region.


Alternative patterns of urbanization spread (including sprawl) are evaluated


from the perspective of nature and people, and land-use principles extracted


from landscape ecology, transportation, and hydrology are stated. Good, bad,


and interesting spatial patterns for creating sustainable land mosaics are


pinpointed, and urban regions are considered in broader contexts, from


climate change to biodiversity loss, disasters, and sense of place.


Richard T. T. Forman is Harvard University’s Professor of Advanced


Environmental Studies in Landscape Ecology. Previously at the University of


Wisconsin and Rutgers University, he is an American Association for the


Advancement of Science Fellow and recipient of the Lindback Award for


Teaching Excellence as well as of honorary degrees and medals in the USA and


internationally. Urban Regions


Ecology and Planning


Beyond the City


Richard T. T. Forman


HarvardUniversity CAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITY PRESS


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo


Cambridge University Press


The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK


Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


www.cambridge.org


Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521854467


© Cambridge University Press 2008


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of


relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place


without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.


First published in print format 2008


ISBN-13 978-0-511-40977-6 eBook (NetLibrary)


ISBN-13    978-0-521-85446-7 hardback


ISBN-13    978-0-521-67076-0 paperback


Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls


for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not


guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Dedicated to Sabrina Forman Heim


and her family,


Karl, Brianna, Matthew Contents


Foreword xi


Foreword xiii


Preface xvii


Acknowledgments xxi


1 Regions and land mosaics 1


Aframework 1


Termsandconceptstorevealurbanregions 6


Regions 11


Land-mosaicperspectiveandlandscapeecology 16


Spatialscalesandtheirattributes 18


2 Planning land 27


Planningandlandmanagement 27


Conservationplanning 33


Plannedcities 40


Urban-regionplanning 45


3 Economic dimensions and socio-cultural patterns 51


Growth,regulatory,andecologicaleconomics 51


Economicsintime,space,andfootprints 59


Socialpatterns 66


Culture 73


4 Natural systems and greenspaces 80


Ecosystem,community,andpopulationecology 82


Freshwaterandmarinecoastecology 93


vii viii Contents


Earthandsoil 99


Microclimateandairpollutants 102


Greenspaces 105


5 Thirty-eight urban regions 113


Selectingcities,determiningboundaries,mappingregions 113


Keyspatialattributes 119


Thirty-eighturbanregionsmapped 125


Place-namesynopsesoftheregions 125


Broadpatternsoftheurban-regionset 134


6 Nature, food, and water 138


Spatialanalysisforpatterns 138


Natureinurbanregions 142


Foodinurbanregions 150


Waterinurbanregions 155


7 Built systems, built areas, and whole regions 164


Naturalsystemswithinandnexttobuiltareas 165


Builtsystems 168


Builtareas 177


Wholeregions 189


8 Urbanization models and the regions 198


Land-changepatternsandmodels 199


Foururbanizationmodels 206


Modelsappliedtocasestudies 211


Urbanizationoptionsevaluatedwith18attributesand38regions 215


9 Basic principles for molding land mosaics 223


Patchsizes,edges,andhabitats 224


Naturalprocesses,corridors,andnetworks 229


Transportationmodes 232


Communitiesanddevelopment 234


Landmosaicsandlandscapechange 239


10 The Barcelona Region’s land mosaic 243


Perspectiveandapproach 244


Nature,food,andwater 248


Builtareasandsystems 260


Threeplanoptionsfortheregion 268


Reflectionstwoyearslater 274


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