Urban Regions : Ecology and Planning Beyond the City

478 Pages · 2008 · 12.85 MB · English

  • Urban Regions : Ecology and Planning Beyond the City

    This page intentionally left blank Urban Regions

    Ecology and Planning Beyond the City

    Natural systems and their human uses are of central importance in urban

    regions, where diverse greenspaces and built spaces of essentially equal value

    spatially intertwine. With land planning, socioeconomics, and natural systems

    as foundations, this book combines urban planning and ecological science in

    examining urban regions. Writing for graduate students, academic researchers,

    planners, conservationists, and policy makers, and with the use of informative

    urban-region color maps, Richard Forman compares 38 urban regions from

    32 nations, including London, Chicago, Ottawa, Brasilia, Cairo, Beijing,

    Bangkok, Canberra, and a major case study of the Greater Barcelona Region.

    Alternative patterns of urbanization spread (including sprawl) are evaluated

    from the perspective of nature and people, and land-use principles extracted

    from landscape ecology, transportation, and hydrology are stated. Good, bad,

    and interesting spatial patterns for creating sustainable land mosaics are

    pinpointed, and urban regions are considered in broader contexts, from

    climate change to biodiversity loss, disasters, and sense of place.

    Richard T. T. Forman is Harvard University’s Professor of Advanced

    Environmental Studies in Landscape Ecology. Previously at the University of

    Wisconsin and Rutgers University, he is an American Association for the

    Advancement of Science Fellow and recipient of the Lindback Award for

    Teaching Excellence as well as of honorary degrees and medals in the USA and

    internationally. Urban Regions

    Ecology and Planning

    Beyond the City

    Richard T. T. Forman


    Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

    Cambridge University Press

    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

    Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


    Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521854467

    © Cambridge University Press 2008

    This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of

    relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place

    without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

    First published in print format 2008

    ISBN-13 978-0-511-40977-6 eBook (NetLibrary)

    ISBN-13    978-0-521-85446-7 hardback

    ISBN-13    978-0-521-67076-0 paperback

    Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls

    for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not

    guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Dedicated to Sabrina Forman Heim

    and her family,

    Karl, Brianna, Matthew Contents

    Foreword xi

    Foreword xiii

    Preface xvii

    Acknowledgments xxi

    1 Regions and land mosaics 1

    Aframework 1

    Termsandconceptstorevealurbanregions 6

    Regions 11

    Land-mosaicperspectiveandlandscapeecology 16

    Spatialscalesandtheirattributes 18

    2 Planning land 27

    Planningandlandmanagement 27

    Conservationplanning 33

    Plannedcities 40

    Urban-regionplanning 45

    3 Economic dimensions and socio-cultural patterns 51

    Growth,regulatory,andecologicaleconomics 51

    Economicsintime,space,andfootprints 59

    Socialpatterns 66

    Culture 73

    4 Natural systems and greenspaces 80

    Ecosystem,community,andpopulationecology 82

    Freshwaterandmarinecoastecology 93

    vii viii Contents

    Earthandsoil 99

    Microclimateandairpollutants 102

    Greenspaces 105

    5 Thirty-eight urban regions 113

    Selectingcities,determiningboundaries,mappingregions 113

    Keyspatialattributes 119

    Thirty-eighturbanregionsmapped 125

    Place-namesynopsesoftheregions 125

    Broadpatternsoftheurban-regionset 134

    6 Nature, food, and water 138

    Spatialanalysisforpatterns 138

    Natureinurbanregions 142

    Foodinurbanregions 150

    Waterinurbanregions 155

    7 Built systems, built areas, and whole regions 164

    Naturalsystemswithinandnexttobuiltareas 165

    Builtsystems 168

    Builtareas 177

    Wholeregions 189

    8 Urbanization models and the regions 198

    Land-changepatternsandmodels 199

    Foururbanizationmodels 206

    Modelsappliedtocasestudies 211

    Urbanizationoptionsevaluatedwith18attributesand38regions 215

    9 Basic principles for molding land mosaics 223

    Patchsizes,edges,andhabitats 224

    Naturalprocesses,corridors,andnetworks 229

    Transportationmodes 232

    Communitiesanddevelopment 234

    Landmosaicsandlandscapechange 239

    10 The Barcelona Region’s land mosaic 243

    Perspectiveandapproach 244

    Nature,food,andwater 248

    Builtareasandsystems 260

    Threeplanoptionsfortheregion 268

    Reflectionstwoyearslater 274

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