Tropical Forest Community Ecology

Tropical Forest Community Ecology

Tropical Forest Community Ecology

537 Pages ·2008·5.51 MB ·English

Tropical Forest Community Ecology

TROPICAL FOREST COMMUNITY ECOLOGY


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page i — #1 EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page ii — #2 TROPICAL FOREST COMMUNITY


ECOLOGY


Editors


Walter P. Carson


Universityof Pittsburgh


Departmentof BiologicalSciences


Pittsburgh,PA


USA


Stefan A. Schnitzer


Universityof Wisconsin–Milwaukee


Departmentof BiologicalSciences


Milwaukee,WI


USA


and


SmithsonianTropicalResearchInstitute


Apartado0843-03092,Balboa


Republicof Panama


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page iii — #3 Thiseditionfirstpublished2008


©2008byBlackwellPublishingLtd


BlackwellPublishingwasacquiredbyJohnWiley&SonsinFebruary2007.Blackwell’spublishingprogramhasbeen


mergedwithWiley’sglobalScientific,TechnicalandMedicalbusinesstoformWiley-Blackwell.


Registeredoffice


JohnWiley&SonsLtd,TheAtrium,SouthernGate,Chichester,WestSussex,PO198SQ,UK.


Editorialoffices


9600GarsingtonRoad,Oxford,OX42DQ,UK


TheAtrium,SouthernGate,Chichester,WestSussex,PO198SQ,UK


111RiverStreet,Hoboken,NJ07030-5774,USA


Fordetailsofourglobaleditorialoffices,forcustomerservicesandforinformationabouthowtoapplyforpermission


toreusethecopyrightmaterialinthisbookpleaseseeourwebsiteatwww.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell.


TherightoftheWalterP.CarsonandStefanA.Schnitzertobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkhasbeenasserted


inaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct1988.


Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inany


formorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,exceptaspermittedbytheUK


Copyright,DesignsandPatentsAct1988,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisher.


Wileyalsopublishesitsbooksinavarietyofelectronicformats.Somecontentthatappearsinprintmaynotbe


availableinelectronicbooks.


Designationsusedbycompaniestodistinguishtheirproductsareoftenclaimedastrademarks.Allbrandnamesand


productnamesusedinthisbookaretradenames,servicemarks,trademarksorregisteredtrademarksoftheir


respectiveowners.Thepublisherisnotassociatedwithanyproductorvendormentionedinthisbook.This


publicationisdesignedtoprovideaccurateandauthoritativeinformationinregardtothesubjectmattercovered.Itis


soldontheunderstandingthatthepublisherisnotengagedinrenderingprofessionalservices.Ifprofessionaladvice


orotherexpertassistanceisrequired,theservicesofacompetentprofessionalshouldbesought.


LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData


Dataavailable


ISBN:978-1-4051-1897-2(paperback)


ISBN:978-1-4051-8952-1(hardback)


AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrary.


Setin9/11ptPhotinabyNewgenImagingSystemsPvt.Ltd,Chennai,India


PrintedinSingaporebyHoPrintingPteLtd


1 2008


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page iv — #4 TomyparentsWalterandAliceCarson:thankyouforyearsof unconditionalloveandsupport,andto


mysonChrisCarson:youhavechangedthewayIseetheforest.


WalterP.Carson


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page v — #5 EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page vi — #6 Contents


Preface x


WalterP.CarsonandStefanA.Schnitzer


Foreword xi


S.JosephWright


Listof Contributors xiii


SECTION1 INTRODUCTION 1


1 Scopeof theBookandKeyContributions 3


StefanA.SchnitzerandWalterP.Carson


SECTION2 LARGE-SCALEPATTERNSINTROPICALCOMMUNITIES 9


2 SpatialVariationinTreeSpeciesCompositionAcrossTropicalForests:


PatternandProcess 11


JérômeChave


3 TheDisparityinTreeSpeciesRichnessamongTropical,Temperate,and


BorealBiomes:TheGeographicAreaandAgeHypothesis 31


PaulV.A.Fine,RichardH.Ree,andRobynJ.Burnham


4 ExplainingGeographicRangeSizebySpeciesAge:ATestUsingNeotropical


PiperSpecies 46


JohnR.PaulandStephenJ.Tonsor


5 Patternsof HerbivoryandDefenseinTropicalDryandRainForests 63


RodolfoDirzoandKarinaBoege


6 EcologicalOrganization,Biogeography,andthePhylogeneticStructureof


TropicalForestTreeCommunities 79


CampbellO.Webb,CharlesH.Cannon,andStuartJ.Davies


7 LargeTropicalForestDynamicsPlots:TestingExplanationsforthe


Maintenanceof SpeciesDiversity 98


JessK.Zimmerman,JillThompson,andNicholasBrokaw


SECTION3 TESTINGTHEORIESOFFORESTREGENERATIONAND


THEMAINTENANCEOFSPECIESDIVERSITY 119


8 TropicalForestEcology:SterileorVirginforTheoreticians? 121


EgbertG.Leigh,Jr


9 ApproachingEcologicalComplexityfromthePerspectiveof Symmetric


NeutralTheory 143


StephenP.Hubbell


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page i — #7 viii Contents


10 FunctionalBasisforResourceNichePartitioningbyTropicalTrees 160


KaoruKitajimaandLourensPoorter


11 Colonization-relatedTrade-offsinTropicalForestsandTheirRoleinthe


Maintenanceof PlantSpeciesDiversity 182


HeleneC.Muller-Landau


12 TreefallGapsandtheMaintenanceof PlantSpeciesDiversityinTropical


Forests 196


StefanA.Schnitzer,JosephMascaro,andWalterP.Carson


13 ChallengesAssociatedwithTestingandFalsifyingtheJanzen–Connell


Hypothesis:AReviewandCritique 210


WalterP.Carson,JillT.Anderson,EgbertG.Leigh,Jr,andStefanA.Schnitzer


14 SeedLimitationandtheCoexistenceof PioneerTreeSpecies 242


JamesW.DallingandRobertJohn


15 EndophyticFungi:HiddenComponentsofTropicalCommunityEcology 254


A.ElizabethArnold


SECTION4 ANIMALCOMMUNITYECOLOGYANDTROPHIC


INTERACTIONS 273


16 TropicalTritrophicInteractions:NastyHostsandUbiquitousCascades 275


LeeA.Dyer


17 VariationinTreeSeedlingandArbuscularMycorrhizalFungalSpore


ResponsestotheExclusionofTerrestrialVertebrates:Implicationsfor


HowVertebratesStructureTropicalCommunities 294


TadC.TheimerandCatherineA.Gehring


18 EcosystemDecayinClosedForestFragments 308


JohnTerborghandKennethFeeley


19 ResourceLimitationof InsularAnimals:CausesandConsequences 322


GregoryH.Adler


20 TropicalArborealAnts:LinkingNutritiontoRolesinRainforest


Ecosystems 334


DianeW.DavidsonandStevenC.Cook


21 SoilFertilityandArborealMammalBiomassinTropicalForests 349


CarlosA.Peres


SECTION5 SECONDARYFORESTSUCCESSION,DYNAMICS,AND


INVASION 365


22 ProcessesConstrainingWoodySpeciesSuccessiononAbandoned


PasturesintheTropics:OntheRelevanceofTemperateModelsof


Succession 367


ChrisJ.PetersonandWalterP.Carson


23 ChanceandDeterminisminTropicalForestSuccession 384


RobinL.Chazdon


24 ExoticPlantInvasionsinTropicalForests:PatternsandHypotheses 409


JulieS.DenslowandSaaraJ.DeWalt


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page viii — #8 Contents ix


SECTION6 TROPICALFORESTCONSERVATION 427


25 LinkingInsightsfromEcologicalResearchwithBioprospectingto


PromoteConservation,EnhanceResearchCapacity,andProvide


EconomicUsesof Biodiversity 429


ThomasA.Kursar,ToddL.Capson,LuisCubilla-Rios,DanielA.Emmen,


WilliamGerwick,MahabirP.Gupta,MariaV.Heller,KerryMcPhail,


EduardoOrtega-Barría,DoraI.Quiros,LuzI.Romero,PabloN.Solis,and


PhyllisD.Coley


26 TropicalRainforestConservation:AGlobalPerspective 442


RichardT.CorlettandRichardB.Primack


27 EnvironmentalPromiseandPerilintheAmazon 458


WilliamF.Laurance


28 Contributionsof EcologiststoTropicalForestConservation 474


FrancisE.PutzandPieterA.Zuidema


Index 491


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page ix — #9


TROPICAL FOREST COMMUNITY ECOLOGY


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page i — #1 EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page ii — #2 TROPICAL FOREST COMMUNITY


ECOLOGY


Editors


Walter P. Carson


Universityof Pittsburgh


Departmentof BiologicalSciences


Pittsburgh,PA


USA


Stefan A. Schnitzer


Universityof Wisconsin–Milwaukee


Departmentof BiologicalSciences


Milwaukee,WI


USA


and


SmithsonianTropicalResearchInstitute


Apartado0843-03092,Balboa


Republicof Panama


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page iii — #3 Thiseditionfirstpublished2008


©2008byBlackwellPublishingLtd


BlackwellPublishingwasacquiredbyJohnWiley&SonsinFebruary2007.Blackwell’spublishingprogramhasbeen


mergedwithWiley’sglobalScientific,TechnicalandMedicalbusinesstoformWiley-Blackwell.


Registeredoffice


JohnWiley&SonsLtd,TheAtrium,SouthernGate,Chichester,WestSussex,PO198SQ,UK.


Editorialoffices


9600GarsingtonRoad,Oxford,OX42DQ,UK


TheAtrium,SouthernGate,Chichester,WestSussex,PO198SQ,UK


111RiverStreet,Hoboken,NJ07030-5774,USA


Fordetailsofourglobaleditorialoffices,forcustomerservicesandforinformationabouthowtoapplyforpermission


toreusethecopyrightmaterialinthisbookpleaseseeourwebsiteatwww.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell.


TherightoftheWalterP.CarsonandStefanA.Schnitzertobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkhasbeenasserted


inaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct1988.


Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inany


formorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,exceptaspermittedbytheUK


Copyright,DesignsandPatentsAct1988,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisher.


Wileyalsopublishesitsbooksinavarietyofelectronicformats.Somecontentthatappearsinprintmaynotbe


availableinelectronicbooks.


Designationsusedbycompaniestodistinguishtheirproductsareoftenclaimedastrademarks.Allbrandnamesand


productnamesusedinthisbookaretradenames,servicemarks,trademarksorregisteredtrademarksoftheir


respectiveowners.Thepublisherisnotassociatedwithanyproductorvendormentionedinthisbook.This


publicationisdesignedtoprovideaccurateandauthoritativeinformationinregardtothesubjectmattercovered.Itis


soldontheunderstandingthatthepublisherisnotengagedinrenderingprofessionalservices.Ifprofessionaladvice


orotherexpertassistanceisrequired,theservicesofacompetentprofessionalshouldbesought.


LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData


Dataavailable


ISBN:978-1-4051-1897-2(paperback)


ISBN:978-1-4051-8952-1(hardback)


AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrary.


Setin9/11ptPhotinabyNewgenImagingSystemsPvt.Ltd,Chennai,India


PrintedinSingaporebyHoPrintingPteLtd


1 2008


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page iv — #4 TomyparentsWalterandAliceCarson:thankyouforyearsof unconditionalloveandsupport,andto


mysonChrisCarson:youhavechangedthewayIseetheforest.


WalterP.Carson


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page v — #5 EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page vi — #6 Contents


Preface x


WalterP.CarsonandStefanA.Schnitzer


Foreword xi


S.JosephWright


Listof Contributors xiii


SECTION1 INTRODUCTION 1


1 Scopeof theBookandKeyContributions 3


StefanA.SchnitzerandWalterP.Carson


SECTION2 LARGE-SCALEPATTERNSINTROPICALCOMMUNITIES 9


2 SpatialVariationinTreeSpeciesCompositionAcrossTropicalForests:


PatternandProcess 11


JérômeChave


3 TheDisparityinTreeSpeciesRichnessamongTropical,Temperate,and


BorealBiomes:TheGeographicAreaandAgeHypothesis 31


PaulV.A.Fine,RichardH.Ree,andRobynJ.Burnham


4 ExplainingGeographicRangeSizebySpeciesAge:ATestUsingNeotropical


PiperSpecies 46


JohnR.PaulandStephenJ.Tonsor


5 Patternsof HerbivoryandDefenseinTropicalDryandRainForests 63


RodolfoDirzoandKarinaBoege


6 EcologicalOrganization,Biogeography,andthePhylogeneticStructureof


TropicalForestTreeCommunities 79


CampbellO.Webb,CharlesH.Cannon,andStuartJ.Davies


7 LargeTropicalForestDynamicsPlots:TestingExplanationsforthe


Maintenanceof SpeciesDiversity 98


JessK.Zimmerman,JillThompson,andNicholasBrokaw


SECTION3 TESTINGTHEORIESOFFORESTREGENERATIONAND


THEMAINTENANCEOFSPECIESDIVERSITY 119


8 TropicalForestEcology:SterileorVirginforTheoreticians? 121


EgbertG.Leigh,Jr


9 ApproachingEcologicalComplexityfromthePerspectiveof Symmetric


NeutralTheory 143


StephenP.Hubbell


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page i — #7 viii Contents


10 FunctionalBasisforResourceNichePartitioningbyTropicalTrees 160


KaoruKitajimaandLourensPoorter


11 Colonization-relatedTrade-offsinTropicalForestsandTheirRoleinthe


Maintenanceof PlantSpeciesDiversity 182


HeleneC.Muller-Landau


12 TreefallGapsandtheMaintenanceof PlantSpeciesDiversityinTropical


Forests 196


StefanA.Schnitzer,JosephMascaro,andWalterP.Carson


13 ChallengesAssociatedwithTestingandFalsifyingtheJanzen–Connell


Hypothesis:AReviewandCritique 210


WalterP.Carson,JillT.Anderson,EgbertG.Leigh,Jr,andStefanA.Schnitzer


14 SeedLimitationandtheCoexistenceof PioneerTreeSpecies 242


JamesW.DallingandRobertJohn


15 EndophyticFungi:HiddenComponentsofTropicalCommunityEcology 254


A.ElizabethArnold


SECTION4 ANIMALCOMMUNITYECOLOGYANDTROPHIC


INTERACTIONS 273


16 TropicalTritrophicInteractions:NastyHostsandUbiquitousCascades 275


LeeA.Dyer


17 VariationinTreeSeedlingandArbuscularMycorrhizalFungalSpore


ResponsestotheExclusionofTerrestrialVertebrates:Implicationsfor


HowVertebratesStructureTropicalCommunities 294


TadC.TheimerandCatherineA.Gehring


18 EcosystemDecayinClosedForestFragments 308


JohnTerborghandKennethFeeley


19 ResourceLimitationof InsularAnimals:CausesandConsequences 322


GregoryH.Adler


20 TropicalArborealAnts:LinkingNutritiontoRolesinRainforest


Ecosystems 334


DianeW.DavidsonandStevenC.Cook


21 SoilFertilityandArborealMammalBiomassinTropicalForests 349


CarlosA.Peres


SECTION5 SECONDARYFORESTSUCCESSION,DYNAMICS,AND


INVASION 365


22 ProcessesConstrainingWoodySpeciesSuccessiononAbandoned


PasturesintheTropics:OntheRelevanceofTemperateModelsof


Succession 367


ChrisJ.PetersonandWalterP.Carson


23 ChanceandDeterminisminTropicalForestSuccession 384


RobinL.Chazdon


24 ExoticPlantInvasionsinTropicalForests:PatternsandHypotheses 409


JulieS.DenslowandSaaraJ.DeWalt


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page viii — #8 Contents ix


SECTION6 TROPICALFORESTCONSERVATION 427


25 LinkingInsightsfromEcologicalResearchwithBioprospectingto


PromoteConservation,EnhanceResearchCapacity,andProvide


EconomicUsesof Biodiversity 429


ThomasA.Kursar,ToddL.Capson,LuisCubilla-Rios,DanielA.Emmen,


WilliamGerwick,MahabirP.Gupta,MariaV.Heller,KerryMcPhail,


EduardoOrtega-Barría,DoraI.Quiros,LuzI.Romero,PabloN.Solis,and


PhyllisD.Coley


26 TropicalRainforestConservation:AGlobalPerspective 442


RichardT.CorlettandRichardB.Primack


27 EnvironmentalPromiseandPerilintheAmazon 458


WilliamF.Laurance


28 Contributionsof EcologiststoTropicalForestConservation 474


FrancisE.PutzandPieterA.Zuidema


Index 491


EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page ix — #9


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