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Tropical Forest Community Ecology

537 Pages · 2008 · 5.51 MB · English

  • Tropical Forest Community Ecology

    TROPICAL FOREST COMMUNITY ECOLOGY


    EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page i — #1 EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page ii — #2 TROPICAL FOREST COMMUNITY


    ECOLOGY


    Editors


    Walter P. Carson


    Universityof Pittsburgh


    Departmentof BiologicalSciences


    Pittsburgh,PA


    USA


    Stefan A. Schnitzer


    Universityof Wisconsin–Milwaukee


    Departmentof BiologicalSciences


    Milwaukee,WI


    USA


    and


    SmithsonianTropicalResearchInstitute


    Apartado0843-03092,Balboa


    Republicof Panama


    EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page iii — #3 Thiseditionfirstpublished2008


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    ISBN:978-1-4051-1897-2(paperback)


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    1 2008


    EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page iv — #4 TomyparentsWalterandAliceCarson:thankyouforyearsof unconditionalloveandsupport,andto


    mysonChrisCarson:youhavechangedthewayIseetheforest.


    WalterP.Carson


    EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page v — #5 EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page vi — #6 Contents


    Preface x


    WalterP.CarsonandStefanA.Schnitzer


    Foreword xi


    S.JosephWright


    Listof Contributors xiii


    SECTION1 INTRODUCTION 1


    1 Scopeof theBookandKeyContributions 3


    StefanA.SchnitzerandWalterP.Carson


    SECTION2 LARGE-SCALEPATTERNSINTROPICALCOMMUNITIES 9


    2 SpatialVariationinTreeSpeciesCompositionAcrossTropicalForests:


    PatternandProcess 11


    JérômeChave


    3 TheDisparityinTreeSpeciesRichnessamongTropical,Temperate,and


    BorealBiomes:TheGeographicAreaandAgeHypothesis 31


    PaulV.A.Fine,RichardH.Ree,andRobynJ.Burnham


    4 ExplainingGeographicRangeSizebySpeciesAge:ATestUsingNeotropical


    PiperSpecies 46


    JohnR.PaulandStephenJ.Tonsor


    5 Patternsof HerbivoryandDefenseinTropicalDryandRainForests 63


    RodolfoDirzoandKarinaBoege


    6 EcologicalOrganization,Biogeography,andthePhylogeneticStructureof


    TropicalForestTreeCommunities 79


    CampbellO.Webb,CharlesH.Cannon,andStuartJ.Davies


    7 LargeTropicalForestDynamicsPlots:TestingExplanationsforthe


    Maintenanceof SpeciesDiversity 98


    JessK.Zimmerman,JillThompson,andNicholasBrokaw


    SECTION3 TESTINGTHEORIESOFFORESTREGENERATIONAND


    THEMAINTENANCEOFSPECIESDIVERSITY 119


    8 TropicalForestEcology:SterileorVirginforTheoreticians? 121


    EgbertG.Leigh,Jr


    9 ApproachingEcologicalComplexityfromthePerspectiveof Symmetric


    NeutralTheory 143


    StephenP.Hubbell


    EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page i — #7 viii Contents


    10 FunctionalBasisforResourceNichePartitioningbyTropicalTrees 160


    KaoruKitajimaandLourensPoorter


    11 Colonization-relatedTrade-offsinTropicalForestsandTheirRoleinthe


    Maintenanceof PlantSpeciesDiversity 182


    HeleneC.Muller-Landau


    12 TreefallGapsandtheMaintenanceof PlantSpeciesDiversityinTropical


    Forests 196


    StefanA.Schnitzer,JosephMascaro,andWalterP.Carson


    13 ChallengesAssociatedwithTestingandFalsifyingtheJanzen–Connell


    Hypothesis:AReviewandCritique 210


    WalterP.Carson,JillT.Anderson,EgbertG.Leigh,Jr,andStefanA.Schnitzer


    14 SeedLimitationandtheCoexistenceof PioneerTreeSpecies 242


    JamesW.DallingandRobertJohn


    15 EndophyticFungi:HiddenComponentsofTropicalCommunityEcology 254


    A.ElizabethArnold


    SECTION4 ANIMALCOMMUNITYECOLOGYANDTROPHIC


    INTERACTIONS 273


    16 TropicalTritrophicInteractions:NastyHostsandUbiquitousCascades 275


    LeeA.Dyer


    17 VariationinTreeSeedlingandArbuscularMycorrhizalFungalSpore


    ResponsestotheExclusionofTerrestrialVertebrates:Implicationsfor


    HowVertebratesStructureTropicalCommunities 294


    TadC.TheimerandCatherineA.Gehring


    18 EcosystemDecayinClosedForestFragments 308


    JohnTerborghandKennethFeeley


    19 ResourceLimitationof InsularAnimals:CausesandConsequences 322


    GregoryH.Adler


    20 TropicalArborealAnts:LinkingNutritiontoRolesinRainforest


    Ecosystems 334


    DianeW.DavidsonandStevenC.Cook


    21 SoilFertilityandArborealMammalBiomassinTropicalForests 349


    CarlosA.Peres


    SECTION5 SECONDARYFORESTSUCCESSION,DYNAMICS,AND


    INVASION 365


    22 ProcessesConstrainingWoodySpeciesSuccessiononAbandoned


    PasturesintheTropics:OntheRelevanceofTemperateModelsof


    Succession 367


    ChrisJ.PetersonandWalterP.Carson


    23 ChanceandDeterminisminTropicalForestSuccession 384


    RobinL.Chazdon


    24 ExoticPlantInvasionsinTropicalForests:PatternsandHypotheses 409


    JulieS.DenslowandSaaraJ.DeWalt


    EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page viii — #8 Contents ix


    SECTION6 TROPICALFORESTCONSERVATION 427


    25 LinkingInsightsfromEcologicalResearchwithBioprospectingto


    PromoteConservation,EnhanceResearchCapacity,andProvide


    EconomicUsesof Biodiversity 429


    ThomasA.Kursar,ToddL.Capson,LuisCubilla-Rios,DanielA.Emmen,


    WilliamGerwick,MahabirP.Gupta,MariaV.Heller,KerryMcPhail,


    EduardoOrtega-Barría,DoraI.Quiros,LuzI.Romero,PabloN.Solis,and


    PhyllisD.Coley


    26 TropicalRainforestConservation:AGlobalPerspective 442


    RichardT.CorlettandRichardB.Primack


    27 EnvironmentalPromiseandPerilintheAmazon 458


    WilliamF.Laurance


    28 Contributionsof EcologiststoTropicalForestConservation 474


    FrancisE.PutzandPieterA.Zuidema


    Index 491


    EricaSchwarz CARSON: “carson_c000” — 2008/5/23 — 10:16 — page ix — #9


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