2

Tourism Geography

225 Pages · 2003 · 4.37 MB · English

  • Tourism Geography

    Tourism Geography


    Tourism has become one of the most significant forces for change in the


    world today. Regarded by many as the world’s largest industry, tourism


    prompts regular mass migrations of people, exploitation of resources,


    processes of development and inevitable repercussions on places,


    economies, societies and environments. It is a phenomenon that


    increasingly demands attention.


    Tourism Geography reveals how geographic perspectives can inform and


    illuminate the study of tourism. The book explores the factors that have


    encouraged the development of both domestic and international forms of


    tourism, highlighting ways in which patterns of tourism have evolved and


    continue to evolve. The differing economic, environmental and socio-


    cultural impacts that tourism may exert upon destinations are examined,


    together with a consideration of ways in which planning for tourism can


    assist in the regulation of development and produce sustainable forms of


    tourism.


    Drawing on case studies from across the world, Tourism Geography offers


    a concise review of established geographies of tourism and shows how


    new patterns in the production and consumption of tourist places are


    fashioning the new tourism geographies of the twenty-first century.


    Stephen Williams is Principal Lecturer in Geography at Staffordshire


    University, UK. Routledge Contemporary Human


    Geography Series


    Series Editors:


    David Bell and Stephen Wyn Williams, Staffordshire University


    This series of 12 texts offers stimulating introductions to the core


    subdisciplines of human geography. Building between ‘traditional’


    approaches to subdisciplinary studies and contemporary treatments of these


    same issues, these concise introductions respond particularly to the new


    demands of modular courses. Uniformly designed, with a focus on student-


    friendly features, these books will form a coherent series which is up to date


    and reliable.


    Forthcoming Titles:


    Urban Geography


    Rural Geography


    Political Geography


    Historical Geography


    Cultural Geography


    Theory and Philosophy


    Development Geography


    Transport, Communications & Technology Geography Routledge Contemporary Human


    Geography


    Tourism Geography


    Stephen Williams


    London and New York First published 1998


    by Routledge


    11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE


    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada


    by Routledge


    29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001



    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group



    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2003.



    © 1998 Stephen Williams


    The right of Stephen Williams to be identified as the Author of this Work


    has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and


    Patents Act 1988


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced


    or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means,


    now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording,


    or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in


    writing from the publishers.



    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library



    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


    Williams, Stephen, 1951–


    Tourism geography/Stephen Williams.


    p. cm.—(Routledge contemporary human geography series)


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    1. Tourist trade. I. Title. II. Series.


    G155.A1W49 1998


    338.4'791–dc21 98–6809


    CIP



    ISBN 0-203-19755-0 Master e-book ISBN





    ISBN 0-203-19758-5 (Adobe eReader Format)


    ISBN 0-415-14214-8 (hbk)


    ISBN 0-415-14215-6 (pbk) Contents


    List of figures vii


    List of tables ix


    List of boxed case studies xi


    Acknowledgements xii


    Chapter 1 Issues and approaches in the contemporary


    geography of tourism 1


    Chapter 2 From stagecoach to charter plane: the popularisation


    of tourism 21


    Chapter 3 Shrinking world—expanding horizons: the changing


    spatial patterns of international tourism 42


    Chapter 4 Costs or benefits? The physical and economic


    development of tourism 69


    Chapter 5 Sustainable tourism? The environmental


    consequences of tourism development 100


    Chapter 6 Strategies for development: the role of planning in


    tourism 125


    Chapter 7 Cultures and communities: the socio-cultural


    relationships between hosts and visitors 150


    Chapter 8 Inventing places: cultural constructions and


    alternative tourism geographies 172


    Bibliography 198


    Index 207


    v Figures


    1:1 Relationship between leisure, recreation and tourism 5


    1:2 Iso-Ahola’s model of the social psychology of tourism 10


    1:3 Plog’s psychographic tourist profile 11


    1:4 Tourism and tourists: a typological framework 14


    1:5 Structure of the tourist experience 16


    2:1 Expansion of sea bathing resorts in England and Wales,


    1750–1900 25


    2:2 Pattern of British domestic and foreign holidays, 1951–70 31


    2:3 Pattern of British domestic and foreign holidays, 1970–93 32


    2:4 The Butler model of resort development 37


    3:1 Increase in international tourist arrivals, 1950–94 46


    3:2 Spatial inequalities in tourism in Europe, c. 1990 49


    3:3 Changing patterns of air charter tourism from the Republic


    of Ireland to continental Europe, 1972 and 1991 50


    3:4 Proportion of international tourists arriving by air by


    region, 1990 55


    3:5 Distribution of foreign tourists in Spanish hotels, 1988 59


    3:6 Distribution of tourist accommodation in Turkey 63


    3:7 Growth of international tourism to Thailand, 1969–94 64


    4:1 Factors affecting patterns of tourism development 73


    4:2 Tourism development areas in the Dominican Republic 77


    4:3 Model of a conventional seaside resort 80


    4:4 Smith’s model of beach resort formation 81


    4:5 Pattaya, Thailand: resort location and structure 82


    4:6 Tourism development on the Spanish Costa del Sol 85


    4:7 Tourism development and the formation of economic


    linkages 91


    4:8 Structure of the tourism labour market 92


    4:9 Seasonal patterns of international tourist arrivals in


    selected countries 94


    vii viii • Figures


    5:1 Effects of trampling at tourism sites 103


    5:2 Spatial zoning strategies in the Peak District National


    Park, England 112


    5:3 Traffic management strategies in Dartmoor National Park,


    England 114


    6:1 General sequence for the production and implementation


    of a plan 127


    6:2 Principal components in a tourism plan 130


    6:3 A model planning hierarchy 134


    6:4 Tourism development in Tunisia 139


    6:5 Tourism development in the South West of England 142


    6:6 The Mauna Lani resort, Hawaii 146


    7:1 Cultural distance and the socio-cultural impact of tourism 157


    7:2 Doxey’s ‘Irridex’ 158


    8:1 Imagined tourism ‘countries’ in England 176


    8:2 Market trends in British heritage tourism, 1984–96 184


    8:3 Bradford: location and major tourism attractions 186


    8:4 Growth of visitor attendance at Bradford tourist attractions,


    1986–94 188


    8:5 Development of theme parks in Japan 191


    8:6 Growth of theme park attendance in Canada and the USA,


    1980–94 193


    8:7 Distribution of major theme parks in the USA 194 Tables


    1:1 Examples of ‘inversions’ in tourism 9


    2:1 Level and frequency of holidaymaking (four or more


    nights away), 1971–93 32


    2:2 Extension of the main holiday season, 1951–91 33


    2:3 Changes in the regional share of domestic tourism


    markets, 1958–93 33


    2:4 Changes in the share of holiday transport markets amongst


    primary modes: British domestic market, 1951–91 33


    2:5 Visitor levels to urban heritage attractions, 1993


    (excl. London) 36


    3:1 International tourism: the major receiving and generating


    countries, 1991 48


    3:2 Changing regional distribution of international tourism,


    1960–93 52


    3:3 Trends in international air transport, 1986–90 54


    3:4 Expansion of international tourism to Spain, 1950–90 58


    3:5 Expansion of international tourism to Turkey, 1982–92 61


    3:6 International tourist arrivals in Thailand, 1994 65


    4:1 International balance of tourism trade: OECD members,


    1994 87


    4:2 Tourism contributions to gross domestic product:


    selected countries, 1988 89


    5:1 ‘Balance sheet’ of environmental impacts of tourism 105


    5:2 Key stages in the limits of acceptable change (LAC) process 117


    5:3 Key principles of environmental impact assessment 118


    6:1 Diversity of tourism planning 132


    6:2 Main determinants of national tourism plans and policies in


    forty-nine countries 136


    7:1 Primary positive and negative impacts of tourism upon host


    society and culture 160


    ix


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.