Tourism Geography

225 Pages · 2003 · 4.37 MB · English

  • Tourism Geography

    Tourism Geography

    Tourism has become one of the most significant forces for change in the

    world today. Regarded by many as the world’s largest industry, tourism

    prompts regular mass migrations of people, exploitation of resources,

    processes of development and inevitable repercussions on places,

    economies, societies and environments. It is a phenomenon that

    increasingly demands attention.

    Tourism Geography reveals how geographic perspectives can inform and

    illuminate the study of tourism. The book explores the factors that have

    encouraged the development of both domestic and international forms of

    tourism, highlighting ways in which patterns of tourism have evolved and

    continue to evolve. The differing economic, environmental and socio-

    cultural impacts that tourism may exert upon destinations are examined,

    together with a consideration of ways in which planning for tourism can

    assist in the regulation of development and produce sustainable forms of


    Drawing on case studies from across the world, Tourism Geography offers

    a concise review of established geographies of tourism and shows how

    new patterns in the production and consumption of tourist places are

    fashioning the new tourism geographies of the twenty-first century.

    Stephen Williams is Principal Lecturer in Geography at Staffordshire

    University, UK. Routledge Contemporary Human

    Geography Series

    Series Editors:

    David Bell and Stephen Wyn Williams, Staffordshire University

    This series of 12 texts offers stimulating introductions to the core

    subdisciplines of human geography. Building between ‘traditional’

    approaches to subdisciplinary studies and contemporary treatments of these

    same issues, these concise introductions respond particularly to the new

    demands of modular courses. Uniformly designed, with a focus on student-

    friendly features, these books will form a coherent series which is up to date

    and reliable.

    Forthcoming Titles:

    Urban Geography

    Rural Geography

    Political Geography

    Historical Geography

    Cultural Geography

    Theory and Philosophy

    Development Geography

    Transport, Communications & Technology Geography Routledge Contemporary Human


    Tourism Geography

    Stephen Williams

    London and New York First published 1998

    by Routledge

    11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE

    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada

    by Routledge

    29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001

    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group

    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2003.

    © 1998 Stephen Williams

    The right of Stephen Williams to be identified as the Author of this Work

    has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and

    Patents Act 1988

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced

    or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means,

    now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording,

    or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in

    writing from the publishers.

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

    Williams, Stephen, 1951–

    Tourism geography/Stephen Williams.

    p. cm.—(Routledge contemporary human geography series)

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    1. Tourist trade. I. Title. II. Series.

    G155.A1W49 1998

    338.4'791–dc21 98–6809


    ISBN 0-203-19755-0 Master e-book ISBN

    ISBN 0-203-19758-5 (Adobe eReader Format)

    ISBN 0-415-14214-8 (hbk)

    ISBN 0-415-14215-6 (pbk) Contents

    List of figures vii

    List of tables ix

    List of boxed case studies xi

    Acknowledgements xii

    Chapter 1 Issues and approaches in the contemporary

    geography of tourism 1

    Chapter 2 From stagecoach to charter plane: the popularisation

    of tourism 21

    Chapter 3 Shrinking world—expanding horizons: the changing

    spatial patterns of international tourism 42

    Chapter 4 Costs or benefits? The physical and economic

    development of tourism 69

    Chapter 5 Sustainable tourism? The environmental

    consequences of tourism development 100

    Chapter 6 Strategies for development: the role of planning in

    tourism 125

    Chapter 7 Cultures and communities: the socio-cultural

    relationships between hosts and visitors 150

    Chapter 8 Inventing places: cultural constructions and

    alternative tourism geographies 172

    Bibliography 198

    Index 207

    v Figures

    1:1 Relationship between leisure, recreation and tourism 5

    1:2 Iso-Ahola’s model of the social psychology of tourism 10

    1:3 Plog’s psychographic tourist profile 11

    1:4 Tourism and tourists: a typological framework 14

    1:5 Structure of the tourist experience 16

    2:1 Expansion of sea bathing resorts in England and Wales,

    1750–1900 25

    2:2 Pattern of British domestic and foreign holidays, 1951–70 31

    2:3 Pattern of British domestic and foreign holidays, 1970–93 32

    2:4 The Butler model of resort development 37

    3:1 Increase in international tourist arrivals, 1950–94 46

    3:2 Spatial inequalities in tourism in Europe, c. 1990 49

    3:3 Changing patterns of air charter tourism from the Republic

    of Ireland to continental Europe, 1972 and 1991 50

    3:4 Proportion of international tourists arriving by air by

    region, 1990 55

    3:5 Distribution of foreign tourists in Spanish hotels, 1988 59

    3:6 Distribution of tourist accommodation in Turkey 63

    3:7 Growth of international tourism to Thailand, 1969–94 64

    4:1 Factors affecting patterns of tourism development 73

    4:2 Tourism development areas in the Dominican Republic 77

    4:3 Model of a conventional seaside resort 80

    4:4 Smith’s model of beach resort formation 81

    4:5 Pattaya, Thailand: resort location and structure 82

    4:6 Tourism development on the Spanish Costa del Sol 85

    4:7 Tourism development and the formation of economic

    linkages 91

    4:8 Structure of the tourism labour market 92

    4:9 Seasonal patterns of international tourist arrivals in

    selected countries 94

    vii viii • Figures

    5:1 Effects of trampling at tourism sites 103

    5:2 Spatial zoning strategies in the Peak District National

    Park, England 112

    5:3 Traffic management strategies in Dartmoor National Park,

    England 114

    6:1 General sequence for the production and implementation

    of a plan 127

    6:2 Principal components in a tourism plan 130

    6:3 A model planning hierarchy 134

    6:4 Tourism development in Tunisia 139

    6:5 Tourism development in the South West of England 142

    6:6 The Mauna Lani resort, Hawaii 146

    7:1 Cultural distance and the socio-cultural impact of tourism 157

    7:2 Doxey’s ‘Irridex’ 158

    8:1 Imagined tourism ‘countries’ in England 176

    8:2 Market trends in British heritage tourism, 1984–96 184

    8:3 Bradford: location and major tourism attractions 186

    8:4 Growth of visitor attendance at Bradford tourist attractions,

    1986–94 188

    8:5 Development of theme parks in Japan 191

    8:6 Growth of theme park attendance in Canada and the USA,

    1980–94 193

    8:7 Distribution of major theme parks in the USA 194 Tables

    1:1 Examples of ‘inversions’ in tourism 9

    2:1 Level and frequency of holidaymaking (four or more

    nights away), 1971–93 32

    2:2 Extension of the main holiday season, 1951–91 33

    2:3 Changes in the regional share of domestic tourism

    markets, 1958–93 33

    2:4 Changes in the share of holiday transport markets amongst

    primary modes: British domestic market, 1951–91 33

    2:5 Visitor levels to urban heritage attractions, 1993

    (excl. London) 36

    3:1 International tourism: the major receiving and generating

    countries, 1991 48

    3:2 Changing regional distribution of international tourism,

    1960–93 52

    3:3 Trends in international air transport, 1986–90 54

    3:4 Expansion of international tourism to Spain, 1950–90 58

    3:5 Expansion of international tourism to Turkey, 1982–92 61

    3:6 International tourist arrivals in Thailand, 1994 65

    4:1 International balance of tourism trade: OECD members,

    1994 87

    4:2 Tourism contributions to gross domestic product:

    selected countries, 1988 89

    5:1 ‘Balance sheet’ of environmental impacts of tourism 105

    5:2 Key stages in the limits of acceptable change (LAC) process 117

    5:3 Key principles of environmental impact assessment 118

    6:1 Diversity of tourism planning 132

    6:2 Main determinants of national tourism plans and policies in

    forty-nine countries 136

    7:1 Primary positive and negative impacts of tourism upon host

    society and culture 160


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