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The Textbook of Digital Photography - PhotoCourse

111 Pages · 2007 · 4.48 MB · English

  • The Textbook of Digital Photography - PhotoCourse

    AA30470C


    Cover A S h o r t C o u r S e S B o o k


    The Textbook of


    Digital Photography


    AA30470C



    SeCond edition


    d P . C


    e n n i S u r t i n


    h t t P : / / w w w . ShortCourSeS. C o m


    httP://www.PhotoCourSe.Com Copyright


    ShortCourSeS And PhotoCourSe PuBliShing ProgrAmS


    Short Courses and its sister site PhotoCourse.com, are the leading


    publishers of digital photography books, textbooks, and easy to follow


    guides to specific cameras. PhotoCourse and Short Courses books are


    used by hundreds of schools, adult and community education pro-


    grams, and in major camera company, police and military training programs.


    If you are an instructor, you should know that special pricing is available for


    classroom use.


    • For camera guides and other digital photography books, visit the Short


    Courses bookstore at http://www.shortcourses.com/bookstore/book.htm.


    • For details on using this and other texts in the classroom, visit


    our textbook Web site at www.photocourse.com or call us at 781-631-8520,


    Boston Massachusetts USA time.


    If you find any errors in this book, would like to make suggestions for im-


    provements, or just want to let me know what you think—I welcome your


    feedback, even though I can’t always respond personally.


    http://www.photocourse.com/itext/copyright/circ01.pdf


    ContACt/FeedBACk inFormAtion


    Click to view a PDF


    document on how ShortCourses.com


    copyright law protects 16 Preston Beach Road


    photographers and


    Marblehead, Massachusetts 01945


    other artists.


    E-mail: [email protected]



    CoPyright notiCe


    © Copyright 2007 by Dennis P. Curtin. All rights reserved. Printed in the


    United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States


    Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication, or the resources to which


    it links, may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or


    stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission


    of the publisher.


    If you are using the


    print edition of this book


    you should know that


    there is a PDF eText


    edition with clickable


    links available.


    ISBN: 1-928873-75-8


    For inFormAtion on ClAssroom use, visit http://www.photoCourse.Com using this text in the ClAssroom


    uSing thiS text in the ClASSroom


    PhotoCourse.com was established by ShortCourses.com to develop


    and publish high-quality, extremely affordable materials in digital


    http://www.photocourse.com/itexpth/toetxotgdriaspch/tye xfotdr ibsoc.thht mclalssroom and independent study. With pho-


    tography texts from traditional publishers exceeding $80, it is time


    to try a new approach more attuned to the digital era—full-color, animated,


    fully searchable PDF eTexts™ that can be displayed on any computer using


    Adobe’s free Acrobat reader. eTexts and PDF files are slowly but surely revo-


    lutionizing the publishing and printing businesses in many ways including


    the following:


    If you are using this


    text in a class, you • Timeliness. Since large quantities of inventory aren’t required, materials


    must have a personal can be revised and updated as needed instead of on a fixed schedule every 2


    copy of this CD—click


    or 3 years. In a rapidly evolving field such as digital photography these fre-


    to see enlargement. It


    not only contains the quent revisions are often required to keep materials up to date.


    eText in PDF format,


    it also acts as your • Distribute and print. Textbook publishers work on a print and distribute


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    tal, and bear marketing, sales, warehouse, shipping, and billing costs. All of


    of this CD, you may be


    using an illegal copy. these costs are passed on to students or their parents. The emerging model,


    To see how to qualify used by this eText, is called distribute and print. Using this model, materi-


    for classroom copies or


    als are distributed around the world electronically and then printed where


    to determine if you are


    using a legal copy, visit needed.


    our site at


    www.photocourse.com. • Print on demand. Instead of printing large quantities, the print on


    demand model is to print materials only when needed—in this case students


    http://www.photocoursea.cnodm i/nitsetrxut/cptdofr/sp odnf.lpyd pfrint the pages or chapters that are being studied at the


    moment. No one has to carry a backpack full of books, and if materials get


    lost or damaged, you just print another copy.


    Click to view a PDF


    document describing


    • Linked learning resources. The eText edition of this text acts as a cen-


    how to use this eText


    and its animations. tral hub connecting you to other learning resources on the Internet. Through-


    Included is a section on out the eText™ you can click buttons to access resources stored on the


    displaying animations


    PhotoCourse.com Web site. To access these resources you need an Internet


    in a classroom without


    an Internet connection connection.


    and a complete list


    of animations with • Animation buttons link to over 80 animations. If you are using the


    clickable links to them. print edition of this text you can access the animations at www.photo-


    course.com/itext/pdf/pdf.pdf.


    Important


    • Extension buttons link you to PDF files or Excel spread sheets that


    • to stay up-to-date expand on the topic in which you find them.


    on revisions and ad-


    ditions, go to www. This text introduces the entire panorama of digital photography and includes


    photocourse and sign the following topics:


    up at the bottom of


    the page. We don’t • Digital cameras and digital images (Chapter 1)


    share nor spam the


    • Digital workflow (Chapter 2)


    list.


    • Camera controls and creative photography (Chapters 3–6)


    • Special discounts


    • Flash and studio lighting (Chapter 7-8)


    are offered on print-


    ed or eBook copies • Sharing and displaying digital images (Chapter 9–10)


    on CDs shipped to • Exploring beyond the standard still image (Chapter 11)


    school addresses. For


    information e-mail Be sure to frequently visit the PhotoCourse Web site (www.photocourse.com)


    [email protected]


    for an up-to-date listing of what’s available. For additional information on


    com.


    digital photography, visit the publisher’s Web site at www.shortcourses.com.


    For inFormAtion on digitAl photogrAphy, visit http://www.shortCourses.Com iii preFACe


    PreFACe


    Not long ago the course title “Digital Photography” implied a course


    Try This WiTh on Photoshop. As digital cameras have become increasingly


    Film! popular, the introductory course has also gone digital so you are


    now introduced to photography using a digital camera. As this new


    • In the summer of


    2003, the associated era of digital photography matures, it won’t be long before the “digital” in


    press reported that a “digital photography” becomes redundant. It will be assumed, because that


    15-year-old boy had


    is the way almost all photography will be done. One of the primary reasons


    foiled an abduction


    by using his camera for this rapid movement from film to digital imaging is that photography


    phone to take photos is embedded in a world that has gone digital. To take full advantage of the


    of the man and his


    digital world in which we live, photographs also need to be digital. For awhile,


    car’s license number.


    the man was ar- capturing images on film and then scanning them into a digital format was


    rested the next day. a solution. However, this process is expensive and time consuming. Digital


    • a man stranded cameras remove those impediments and capture images that are already in a


    on an ice floe during universally recognizable digital format that makes them easy to display and


    a solo trek to the


    share. You can insert digital photographs into word processing documents or


    north pole took a


    digital photo of the PowerPoint presentations, print them on almost any material, send them by


    1,000 foot runway e-mail, integrate them into slide shows to be played on the TV, post them on


    he’d dug by hand


    a Web site where anyone in the world can see them—even have them laser-


    and e-mailed it to air


    rescue showing them etched into glass or granite. A digital camera, a computer, and a high-speed


    that a landing was Internet connection make each of us a member of an ever-expanding network


    possible.


    or community of photographers and viewers.


    Just as digital images make it easy to integrate photos into many of the


    other things we do, digital technology makes it easy to add cameras to other


    devices. One of the current trends is to embed cameras into cell phones


    and other mobile devices. With just a push of a few buttons, you can snap


    a picture and immediately e-mail it or post it on a Web site. It won’t be


    long before there are digital cameras everywhere, all the time. What impact


    this will have on our photography remains to be seen, but if history is any


    indicator, people will soon be discovering practical, creative, and even artistic


    ways to use these new tools.


    Changes in technology always open new opportunities and present


    approaches that change the way images look and are used. For example, the


    introduction of the 35mm Leica in the 1930s was a revolutionary change


    that made it easier to capture fast-moving action. Images became more


    spontaneous and fluid, a far cry from the more formally posed images


    required by much larger and more awkward cameras. Smaller cameras


    allowed photographers to discretely capture life on the street and people in


    motion, without modifying the flow of action by his or her simple presence.


    Reality could be captured unchanged and unposed. With cameras built into


    almost all cell phones in the near future, an even larger impact is possible.


    Signs offering film Although it’s both the immediacy and flexibility of digital photography that


    developing are rapidly


    has made it so popular, there is one aspect that is rarely mentioned. This is


    changing to signs


    offering to make prints the new freedom it gives you to explore creative photography. In the 1870s


    from your digital files. when William Henry Jackson carried 20 x 24 glass plate negatives around


    “From today, painting


    the West on a mule, you can bet he hesitated before he took a photograph.


    is dead!” exclaimed


    painter Paul Delaroche He had to set up a darkroom, coat a glass plate, expose the image, develop


    when he saw the first the negative and then take down and repack all of the gear. We may not


    daguerreotype in 1839.


    be carrying window-sized glass plates, but you and I also hesitate before


    He was wrong, but can


    we revise the sentence taking a picture. We’re always doing a mental calculation “is it worth it?”


    to “From today, film is Subconsciously we’re running down a checklist of costs, times, effort, and so


    dead!”


    on. During that “decisive moment,” the image is often lost or we fail to try


    iv For inFormAtion on ClAssroom use, visit http://www.photoCourse.Com preFACe


    new things. We lose the opportunity for creative growth and choose to stay


    with the familiar that has delivered for us in the past. Surprisingly, Jackson


    had one big advantage we’ve lost over the last century. If an image didn’t


    turn out, or if he was out of glass plates, he could just scrape the emulsion


    off a previously exposed negative, recoat the plate, and try again. Digital


    photography not only eliminates that nagging “is it worth it?” question, it also


    The original Leica returns us to that era of endlessly reusable film (and we don’t need a mule


    changed the way to carry it). Hand the camera to the kids, take weird and unusual angles,


    photographs were


    shoot without looking through the viewfinder, and ignore all previously held


    captured and now, with


    the M8, it too has gone conceptions about how to take photographs. You may be surprised at the


    digital. photos you get if you exploit this new era of uninhibited shooting.


    Digital cameras are only a few years old, and we are only at the dawn of this


    new era. Where it will lead no one really knows, but it’s exciting to play a part


    The virtue of the in this dramatically changing world. As you begin to explore the field, you will


    camera is not be awash in technical jargon. Most of it can be safely ignored. To show how


    the power it has


    some things never change, here is what Jacob Deschin, the photographic edi-


    to transform the


    photographer into tor of the New York Times, wrote in 1952 about the earlier era when the Leica


    an artist, but the im- revolutionized photography:


    pulse it gives him to


    keep on looking—and “When 35mm was in full flower in this country–in the miniature’s golden


    looking.


    Thirties–photographers in the new medium became “experts” overnight,


    Brooks atkinson full of tall talk about small grain and big enlargements. They had to, in self


    Once Around the Sun


    defence, for in those early days of the miniature it seemed important to be


    technically hep, at least in conversation. Never mind the pictures! In spite


    of much hokum, much good came to the surface, survived the babel and


    exerted an influence that has since benefitted all photography.”


    A mule carries William


    Henry Jackson’s


    photographic outfit.


    Courtesy of the Library


    of Congress.


    http://www.photocourse.com/itext/glossary/glossary.pdf


    Click to view a PDF


    glossary of terms you


    may encounter in digital


    photography.


    For inFormAtion on digitAl photogrAphy, visit http://www.shortCourses.Com v Contents


    ContentS


    Chapter 4


    Cover...i


    Controlling sharpness...112


    shortCourses and PhotoCourse Publishing Programs...ii


    Eliminating Blur From Camera movement...113


    Using this Text in the Classroom...iii


    image stabilization...115


    Preface...iv


    increasing sensitivity (isO)...116


    Contents...vi


    sharpness isn’t Everything...117


    list of Animations & Extensions...viii


    How to Photograph Motion Sharply...118


    Focusing—The Plane of Critical Focus...120


    Chapter 1


    Focusing—Focus Areas...121


    Digital Cameras & images...9 Focus—Techniques...122


    in the Beginning...10 Depth of Field...125


    What is a Digital Photograph?...11 Circles of Confusion...126


    Digital Photography—The Past and the Future...12 Controlling Depth of Field...127


    Why Go Digital? ...14 Using maximum Depth of Field...128


    Types of Digital Cameras...15 Using Shallow Depth of Field...130


    Jump Start—Taking Photos with Full Auto Mode...19 Conveying the Feeling of motion...131


    Camera Controls...21


    Composing images...22 Chapter 5


    Capturing images...25


    Capturing light & Color...132


    Continuous Photography...26


    Where Does Color Come From?...133


    Playback mode...27


    White Balance...134


    When Things Go Wrong...28


    Color Balance and Time of Day...138


    image sensors—introduction...29


    sunsets and sunrises...139


    image sensors—Types...30


    Weather...141


    image sensors—image size...31


    Photographing at Night...143


    image sensors—sizes and Aspect ratios...35


    The Direction of light...145


    image sensors—sensitivity and Noise...37


    The Quality of light...147


    image sensors—it’s All Black and White After All...38


    image sensors—Cleaning...41 Chapter 6


    Chapter 2 unDerstanDing lenses...149


    introduction to lenses...150


    Digital WorkfloW...42 Understanding Focal lengths...151


    Digital Workflow...43


    Zoom lenses...154


    image Formats...44


    Normal Focal lengths...155


    in-Camera image storage Devices...48


    short Focal lengths...156


    How Photos Are Stored in your Camera and


    long Focal lengths...158


    Computer...50


    Portraits and Focal length...160


    Transferring images...53


    macro mode and macro lenses...161


    storing images—On your system...56


    Perspective in a Photograph...163


    storing images—On the road...59


    lens Accessories...164


    Organizing your Photo Files...60


    image managers...61 Chapter 7


    Evaluating your images—Basics...66


    on-Camera flash photography...165


    Evaluating your images—histograms...69


    Flash Power and Range...166


    Photo-editing—Global Editing...73


    Flash sync and shutter speeds...167


    Photo-editing—local Editing...78


    Autoflash...168


    Color management–Color models and Color spaces...80


    redeye reduction...169


    Color Management—The Workflow...82


    Using Fill Flash...170


    Chapter 3 Flash Off...171


    Using Slow Sync Flash...172


    Controlling exposure...85 Controlling Flash Exposures...173


    The importance of Exposure...86


    Using External Flash...175


    How Exposure Affects Your Images...87


    External Flash Accessories...177


    Exposure Controls—The shutter and Aperture...88


    Exposure Controls—Why so many Choices?...89


    Exposure modes...90


    Using Scene Specific Exposure Modes...91


    The shutter Controls light and motion...92


    The Aperture Controls light and Depth of Field...95


    Using shutter speed and Aperture Together...97


    How Your Exposure System Works...99


    When Automatic Exposure Works Well...103


    When to Override Automatic Exposure...104


    How Overriding Autoexposure Works...108


    How to Override Automatic Exposure...109


    vi For inFormAtion on ClAssroom use, visit http://www.photoCourse.Com Contents


    Chapter 8 Chapter 10


    stuDio photography...178 Displaying & sharing printeD photos...241


    Using Continuous lights...179 How Color Photographs are Printed...242


    Using strobes...181 making Prints—On-line...244


    Connecting the Camera and studio lights...182 Making Prints—for Profit...246


    Understanding hard and soft light...183 making Prints—locally...247


    Using Fill Cards and Reflectors...185 making Prints—Do-it-yourself...248


    Using Diffusers...187 Inkjets—Printing Paper...252


    Other lighting Controls...189 Inkjets—Inks...257


    Putting it All Together—Exposure and White Inkjets—Archival Issues...258


    Balance...190 mating & mounting Prints...259


    Choosing a Background...192 Framing, hanging & storing Prints...261


    Positioning the Camera...194 Photo Books—Do it yourself...263


    Portrait and Product Photography—introduction...197 Photo Books—having Them Done...265


    The main light...198 scrapbooks...268


    The Fill light...199 Photos on Fabrics...269


    The Background light...200 Photos on smooth surfaces...271


    The rim light...201 Photo Gifts and Novelties...272


    Thinking About your Photograph...202 laser-Etching and Fired Ceramics...274


    Chapter 9 Chapter 11


    Displaying & sharing photos on-sCreen ...204 BeyonD the still image...275


    sending Photos to Others—E-mail...205 Panoramic Photography...276


    sending Photos to Others—instant messenger...207 stereo Photography...279


    sending Photos to Others—Peer-to-peer Photo Animations...282


    sharing...208 shooting movies...284


    Slide Shows—On the TV...209 Panning & Zooming still Photographs...285


    Slide Shows—On the Computer Screen...212 morphing...286


    Slide Shows—Editing & Polishing...213 lenticular Photography—Prints that move...287


    File Formats—The Final Payoff...217 Flipbooks—handheld Animations...289


    Slide Shows—Digital Projectors...218 Photographing in Black & White and infrared...290


    Slide Shows—Digital Picture Frames...220 Night Vision...292


    Publishing your Photos—eBooks...224 Pin hole Photography...294


    Publishing your Photos—Photo sharing sites...227


    Publishing Your Photos—Your Own Web Site...231


    Publishing your Photos—Photo Blogs...233


    Publishing your Photos—rss...235


    Entertaining yourself—Wallpaper or Desktop


    Background managers...236


    Entertaining yourself—screen savers...237


    mapping your Photos...238


    For inFormAtion on digitAl photogrAphy, visit http://www.shortCourses.Com vii list oF AnimAtions & extensions


    liSt oF AnimAtionS & extenSionS


    front matter Chapter 4 Controlling sharpness


    Copyright Booklet ii Tripods 113


    Using this eText™ and Animations iii image stabilization 115


    Glossary v isO and Noise 116


    Distance and sharpness 119


    Chapter 1. Digital Cameras & images shutter speed Effect on motion 119


    Cameras are Dark Boxes 11 The Plane of Critical Focus 120


    Dots on an Inkjet Print 11 Focus Areas 121


    manual for DC 40 13 servo AF Focus 122


    Buying a Digital Camera 15 Focus lock 123


    Canon lenses 16 Aperture and Depth of Field 127


    Camera straps and Bags 17 selective Focus 130


    Caring for your Camera 18


    Camera icons 21 Chapter 5 Capturing light & Color


    The light Path Through an slr 23 The Color of light 133


    Parallax in an Optical Viewfinder 23 Adjusting White Balance 134


    Continuous mode 26 hard and soft light 147


    Understanding Exposure 29


    Where “Charge-Coupled” Comes From 30 Chapter 6 using lenses


    Canon lenses 150


    Calculating image sizes 31


    Focal Length and Angle of View 151


    Pixels and Curves 31


    Focal length Factors 152


    Pixelization 32


    image stabilization 153


    Calculating Print sizes 32


    Optical and Digital Zoom 157


    Output Devices Determine image sizes 33


    360-Degree VR Panorama 156


    The Big lie 34


    Wide-angle lens Distortion 160


    resolution—The Original meaning 34


    Macro Magnifications 161


    image sensor sizes 35


    Parallax in an Optical Viewfinder 162


    Calculating Aspect ratios 35


    Perspective in a Photograph 163


    isO and Noise 37


    Noise, Example from Cadillac ranch 37


    Chapter 7 on-Camera flash photography


    rGB Color 38


    The Inverse Square Law 166


    Dust on your image sensor 41


    Calculating Guide Numbers 166


    Flash sync 167


    Chapter 2. Digital WorkfloW


    red-eye 169


    scanning 43


    Fill Flash 170


    rAW vs JPEG image Quality 44


    First and second Curtain sync 172


    The Effects of Compression 45


    Flash Exposure Compensation 173


    Color Depth 46


    high speed sync 174


    Exploring Folders 51


    high speed stroboscopic Photography 174


    Dragging and Dropping Files and Folders 53


    External Flash 176


    you have Asset management 62


    Adjusting an Image’s Tonal Range 66 Chapter 8 stuDio photography


    Print sizes 66


    hard and soft light 183


    Adjust Hue, Saturation and Lightness 67


    The main light 198


    sharpening an image 68


    The Fill light 199


    Understanding histograms 70


    The Background light 200


    highlight Warnings 70


    The rim light 201


    Editing can be used to improve images 73


    Editing Can be Used to Change Pictures 73 Chapter 9 Displaying & sharing photos on-


    Adjusting Perspective 78


    sCreen


    Changing Color spaces 80


    Animated Gif 212


    rGB Color 80


    Flash Slide Show 215


    CmyK Colors 80


    PDF Slideshow 215


    A PDF Coffee Table eBook 226


    Chapter 3 Controlling exposure


    A PDF eBook on Monarch Butterflies 226


    Understanding Exposure 86


    Visit a Photo Blog 233


    Changing Exposure modes 90


    mapping Photos 240


    shutter speed Effect on Exposure 92


    shutter speed Effect on motion 93 Chapter 10 Displaying & sharing printeD photos


    Type of shutters 94 CmyK Colors 242


    Aperture settings and Exposure 95


    Aperture and Depth of Field 96 Chapter 11 BeyonD the still image


    Aperture-shutter speed Equivalents 98 360-Degree VR Panorama 276


    How Your Meter Sees 99 Object Photography 282


    Exposure Compensation 109 Continuous mode 283


    Exposure lock 110 Time-lapse Photography 283


    Autoexposure Bracketing 111 movie mode 284


    viii For inFormAtion on ClAssroom use, visit http://www.photoCourse.Com ChApter 1. digitAl CAmerAs & imAges


    Chapter 1


    Digital Cameras & Images


    A snow fence in the Digital images are formed from tiny dots of color. The dots, usu-


    middle distance almost ally many millions per image, are so small and close together they


    perfectly aligns with


    blend into the smooth continuous tones we’re so familiar with


    the horizon at the


    Washington Monument, from film. These images are captured directly with digital cameras,


    Washington, D.C. or by scanning a transparency, negative, or print. The end result is an image


    in a universally recognized format that can be easily manipulated, distrib-


    uted, and used. This digital format for images, and the development of the In-


    ternet in particular, have opened exciting new vistas for photography which


    we’ll explore in this text. To begin, we first look at digital cameras and digital


    images. This chapter lays the foundation for your understanding of digital


    photography.


    For more on digitAl photogrAphy, visit http://www.shortCourses.Com x18 ChApter 1. digitAl CAmerAs & imAges


    in the Beginning


    Long before photography was discovered, artists used camera obscuras—


    http://www.photocourse.com/itext/boxcamera/


    “dark chambers” in Italian. Light entering the chamber through a small open-


    ing, called a pinhole, projected an image of the scene onto the opposite wall.


    Click to see how all


    cameras are just dark At first special rooms were designed to display this “magical” phenomenon


    boxes. but in the sixteenth century, Italian artists shrunk the large chamber to a por-


    table box, replaced the pinhole opening with a lens, added a mirror to invert


    the image and a translucent ground glass screen to display it. They traced


    the projected image by hand, and it was the desire of Henry Fox Talbot and


    others to capture the image directly that led to the invention of photography.


    Despite the dramatic changes in technology over the years, the dark box and


    the lens still form the foundation of modern photography.


    Interestingly, cameras


    were discovered


    before photography.


    People were seeing


    the projected image


    hundreds of years


    before they could


    capture it.


    Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-


    Haitham, also known as


    Alhazen, is shown here


    on a new Iraqi 10,000


    Dinar note. He gave the


    first correct explanation


    of vision, showing that


    light is reflected from


    an object into the eye.


    He is said to have


    ‘invented’ the camera


    obscura.


    Here is a modern Wista


    view camera. With


    its flexible bellows


    removed, you can


    see the ground glass


    focusing screen that


    is replaced by film or


    a digital back when a


    photo is taken. A lens


    projects a scene onto


    this screen upside


    down. Courtesy of HP


    Marketing Corp at www.


    hpmarketingcorp.com.


    10 For more on textbooks in digitAl photogrAphy, visit http://www.photoCourse.Com


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