The Politics of the Environment

The Politics of the Environment

The Politics of the Environment

434 Pages ·2007·3.02 MB ·English

The Politics of the Environment

This page intentionally left blank The Politics of the Environment


Ideas,Activism,Policy


2ndEdition


Thecontinuousriseintheprofileoftheenvironmentinpoliticsreflectsgrowing


concernthatwemaybefacingalarge-scaleecologicalcrisis.Theneweditionof


thishighlyacclaimedtextbooksurveysthepoliticsoftheenvironment,providinga


comprehensiveandcomparativeintroductiontoitsthreecomponents:ideas,


activismandpolicy.PartIexploresenvironmentalphilosophyandgreenpolitical


thought;PartIIconsiderspartiesandenvironmentalmovements;andPartIII


analysespolicy-makingandenvironmentalissuesatinternational,nationalandlocal


levels.Thissecondeditionhasbeenthoroughlyupdatedwithnewandrevised


discussionsofmanytopicsincludingtheecologicalstate,ecologicalcitizenship,


ecologicalmodernisationandtheGreensingovernmentandalsoincludesan


additionalchapteron‘Globalisation,tradeandtheenvironment’.Aswellas


consideringawidevarietyofexamplesfromaroundtheworld,thistextbookfeatures


aglossary,guidestofurtherstudy,chaptersummariesandcriticalquestions


throughout.


NEILCARTER isSeniorLecturerintheDepartmentofPoliticsattheUniversityof


York.Heisco-authorofHowOrganisationsMeasureSuccess:TheUseof


PerformanceIndicatorsinGovernment(withRudolfKleinandPatriciaDay,1992)


andjointeditorofthejournalEnvironmentalPolitics. The Politics of the


Environment


Ideas, Activism, Policy


2nd Edition


N E I L C A R T E R


DepartmentofPolitics,UniversityofYork CAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITY PRESS


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo


Cambridge University Press


The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK


Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


www.cambridge.org


Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521868020


© Neil Carter 2007


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of


relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place


without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.


First published in print format 2007


ISBN-13 978-0-511-27647-7 eBook (Adobe Reader)


ISBN-10 0-511-27647-8 eBook (Adobe Reader)


ISBN-13 978-0-521-86802-0 hardback


ISBN-10 0-521-86802-5 hardback


ISBN-13 978-0-521-68745-4 paperback


ISBN-10 0-521-68745-4 paperback


Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls


for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not


guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. To Tom and Rosa Contents


List of figures pagex


List of tables xi


List of boxes xii


Preface to the second edition xiv


Acknowledgements xv


Abbreviations xvi


Glossary xviii


1 Introduction 1


PART1Theory:thinkingabouttheenvironment


2 Environmentalphilosophy 13


Staking out the territory 14


Holistic perspectives 19


Moral extensionism 26


Conclusion: Breaking down the anthropocentric–ecocentric


divide 35


3 Greenpoliticalthought 41


The central ideas of ecologism 42


Traditional political ideologies and the green challenge 66


Neither left nor right but in front? 76


PART2Partiesandmovements:gettingfromheretothere


4 Greenparties:theriseofanewpolitics? 87


vii Contents


Green party electoral performance: an overview 88


Is there a new politics? 91


The political opportunity structure and green party success 99


Whatever happened to the environment? 109


New challenges 110


Conclusion 112


5Partypoliticsandtheenvironment 115


Green parties in parliament 116


The ‘greening’of established parties 127


Explaining party politicisation 138


Conclusion 140


6Environmentalgroups 143


The environmental movement: an audit 144


A typology of environmental groups 146


The institutionalisation of the environmental movement 148


The resurgence of grassroots environmentalism? 155


A new civic politics? 160


The impact of the environmental movement 164


Conclusion 168


PART3Environmentalpolicy:achievingasustainablesociety


7Theenvironmentasapolicyproblem 173


Core characteristics of the environment as a policy problem 174


The traditional policy paradigm 181


Political obstacles to change 182


Achieving policy change 190


Conclusion 204


8Sustainabledevelopmentandecologicalmodernisation 207


Sustainable development 208


Ecological modernisation: the practical solution? 227


Conclusion 237


9Globalenvironmentalpolitics 241


The paradox of international co-operation 243


Environmental regimes: the ozone and climate


change treaties 245


Accounting for regimes 256


Regime implementation 261


Global environmental politics and sustainable development 265


Conclusion 268


10 Globalisation,tradeandtheenvironment 271


Globalisation and the environment 272


viii


This page intentionally left blank The Politics of the Environment


Ideas,Activism,Policy


2ndEdition


Thecontinuousriseintheprofileoftheenvironmentinpoliticsreflectsgrowing


concernthatwemaybefacingalarge-scaleecologicalcrisis.Theneweditionof


thishighlyacclaimedtextbooksurveysthepoliticsoftheenvironment,providinga


comprehensiveandcomparativeintroductiontoitsthreecomponents:ideas,


activismandpolicy.PartIexploresenvironmentalphilosophyandgreenpolitical


thought;PartIIconsiderspartiesandenvironmentalmovements;andPartIII


analysespolicy-makingandenvironmentalissuesatinternational,nationalandlocal


levels.Thissecondeditionhasbeenthoroughlyupdatedwithnewandrevised


discussionsofmanytopicsincludingtheecologicalstate,ecologicalcitizenship,


ecologicalmodernisationandtheGreensingovernmentandalsoincludesan


additionalchapteron‘Globalisation,tradeandtheenvironment’.Aswellas


consideringawidevarietyofexamplesfromaroundtheworld,thistextbookfeatures


aglossary,guidestofurtherstudy,chaptersummariesandcriticalquestions


throughout.


NEILCARTER isSeniorLecturerintheDepartmentofPoliticsattheUniversityof


York.Heisco-authorofHowOrganisationsMeasureSuccess:TheUseof


PerformanceIndicatorsinGovernment(withRudolfKleinandPatriciaDay,1992)


andjointeditorofthejournalEnvironmentalPolitics. The Politics of the


Environment


Ideas, Activism, Policy


2nd Edition


N E I L C A R T E R


DepartmentofPolitics,UniversityofYork CAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITY PRESS


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo


Cambridge University Press


The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK


Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


www.cambridge.org


Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521868020


© Neil Carter 2007


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of


relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place


without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.


First published in print format 2007


ISBN-13 978-0-511-27647-7 eBook (Adobe Reader)


ISBN-10 0-511-27647-8 eBook (Adobe Reader)


ISBN-13 978-0-521-86802-0 hardback


ISBN-10 0-521-86802-5 hardback


ISBN-13 978-0-521-68745-4 paperback


ISBN-10 0-521-68745-4 paperback


Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls


for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not


guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. To Tom and Rosa Contents


List of figures pagex


List of tables xi


List of boxes xii


Preface to the second edition xiv


Acknowledgements xv


Abbreviations xvi


Glossary xviii


1 Introduction 1


PART1Theory:thinkingabouttheenvironment


2 Environmentalphilosophy 13


Staking out the territory 14


Holistic perspectives 19


Moral extensionism 26


Conclusion: Breaking down the anthropocentric–ecocentric


divide 35


3 Greenpoliticalthought 41


The central ideas of ecologism 42


Traditional political ideologies and the green challenge 66


Neither left nor right but in front? 76


PART2Partiesandmovements:gettingfromheretothere


4 Greenparties:theriseofanewpolitics? 87


vii Contents


Green party electoral performance: an overview 88


Is there a new politics? 91


The political opportunity structure and green party success 99


Whatever happened to the environment? 109


New challenges 110


Conclusion 112


5Partypoliticsandtheenvironment 115


Green parties in parliament 116


The ‘greening’of established parties 127


Explaining party politicisation 138


Conclusion 140


6Environmentalgroups 143


The environmental movement: an audit 144


A typology of environmental groups 146


The institutionalisation of the environmental movement 148


The resurgence of grassroots environmentalism? 155


A new civic politics? 160


The impact of the environmental movement 164


Conclusion 168


PART3Environmentalpolicy:achievingasustainablesociety


7Theenvironmentasapolicyproblem 173


Core characteristics of the environment as a policy problem 174


The traditional policy paradigm 181


Political obstacles to change 182


Achieving policy change 190


Conclusion 204


8Sustainabledevelopmentandecologicalmodernisation 207


Sustainable development 208


Ecological modernisation: the practical solution? 227


Conclusion 237


9Globalenvironmentalpolitics 241


The paradox of international co-operation 243


Environmental regimes: the ozone and climate


change treaties 245


Accounting for regimes 256


Regime implementation 261


Global environmental politics and sustainable development 265


Conclusion 268


10 Globalisation,tradeandtheenvironment 271


Globalisation and the environment 272


viii


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