The Politics of the Environment

434 Pages · 2007 · 3.02 MB · English

  • The Politics of the Environment

    This page intentionally left blank The Politics of the Environment

















    NEILCARTER isSeniorLecturerintheDepartmentofPoliticsattheUniversityof



    andjointeditorofthejournalEnvironmentalPolitics. The Politics of the


    Ideas, Activism, Policy

    2nd Edition

    N E I L C A R T E R

    DepartmentofPolitics,UniversityofYork CAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITY PRESS

    Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

    Cambridge University Press

    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

    Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


    Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521868020

    © Neil Carter 2007

    This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of

    relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place

    without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

    First published in print format 2007

    ISBN-13 978-0-511-27647-7 eBook (Adobe Reader)

    ISBN-10 0-511-27647-8 eBook (Adobe Reader)

    ISBN-13 978-0-521-86802-0 hardback

    ISBN-10 0-521-86802-5 hardback

    ISBN-13 978-0-521-68745-4 paperback

    ISBN-10 0-521-68745-4 paperback

    Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls

    for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not

    guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. To Tom and Rosa Contents

    List of figures pagex

    List of tables xi

    List of boxes xii

    Preface to the second edition xiv

    Acknowledgements xv

    Abbreviations xvi

    Glossary xviii

    1 Introduction 1


    2 Environmentalphilosophy 13

    Staking out the territory 14

    Holistic perspectives 19

    Moral extensionism 26

    Conclusion: Breaking down the anthropocentric–ecocentric

    divide 35

    3 Greenpoliticalthought 41

    The central ideas of ecologism 42

    Traditional political ideologies and the green challenge 66

    Neither left nor right but in front? 76


    4 Greenparties:theriseofanewpolitics? 87

    vii Contents

    Green party electoral performance: an overview 88

    Is there a new politics? 91

    The political opportunity structure and green party success 99

    Whatever happened to the environment? 109

    New challenges 110

    Conclusion 112

    5Partypoliticsandtheenvironment 115

    Green parties in parliament 116

    The ‘greening’of established parties 127

    Explaining party politicisation 138

    Conclusion 140

    6Environmentalgroups 143

    The environmental movement: an audit 144

    A typology of environmental groups 146

    The institutionalisation of the environmental movement 148

    The resurgence of grassroots environmentalism? 155

    A new civic politics? 160

    The impact of the environmental movement 164

    Conclusion 168


    7Theenvironmentasapolicyproblem 173

    Core characteristics of the environment as a policy problem 174

    The traditional policy paradigm 181

    Political obstacles to change 182

    Achieving policy change 190

    Conclusion 204

    8Sustainabledevelopmentandecologicalmodernisation 207

    Sustainable development 208

    Ecological modernisation: the practical solution? 227

    Conclusion 237

    9Globalenvironmentalpolitics 241

    The paradox of international co-operation 243

    Environmental regimes: the ozone and climate

    change treaties 245

    Accounting for regimes 256

    Regime implementation 261

    Global environmental politics and sustainable development 265

    Conclusion 268

    10 Globalisation,tradeandtheenvironment 271

    Globalisation and the environment 272


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