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The Politics of the Environment

434 Pages · 2007 · 3.02 MB · English

  • The Politics of the Environment

    This page intentionally left blank The Politics of the Environment


    Ideas,Activism,Policy


    2ndEdition


    Thecontinuousriseintheprofileoftheenvironmentinpoliticsreflectsgrowing


    concernthatwemaybefacingalarge-scaleecologicalcrisis.Theneweditionof


    thishighlyacclaimedtextbooksurveysthepoliticsoftheenvironment,providinga


    comprehensiveandcomparativeintroductiontoitsthreecomponents:ideas,


    activismandpolicy.PartIexploresenvironmentalphilosophyandgreenpolitical


    thought;PartIIconsiderspartiesandenvironmentalmovements;andPartIII


    analysespolicy-makingandenvironmentalissuesatinternational,nationalandlocal


    levels.Thissecondeditionhasbeenthoroughlyupdatedwithnewandrevised


    discussionsofmanytopicsincludingtheecologicalstate,ecologicalcitizenship,


    ecologicalmodernisationandtheGreensingovernmentandalsoincludesan


    additionalchapteron‘Globalisation,tradeandtheenvironment’.Aswellas


    consideringawidevarietyofexamplesfromaroundtheworld,thistextbookfeatures


    aglossary,guidestofurtherstudy,chaptersummariesandcriticalquestions


    throughout.


    NEILCARTER isSeniorLecturerintheDepartmentofPoliticsattheUniversityof


    York.Heisco-authorofHowOrganisationsMeasureSuccess:TheUseof


    PerformanceIndicatorsinGovernment(withRudolfKleinandPatriciaDay,1992)


    andjointeditorofthejournalEnvironmentalPolitics. The Politics of the


    Environment


    Ideas, Activism, Policy


    2nd Edition


    N E I L C A R T E R


    DepartmentofPolitics,UniversityofYork CAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITY PRESS


    Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo


    Cambridge University Press


    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK


    Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


    www.cambridge.org


    Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521868020


    © Neil Carter 2007


    This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of


    relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place


    without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.


    First published in print format 2007


    ISBN-13 978-0-511-27647-7 eBook (Adobe Reader)


    ISBN-10 0-511-27647-8 eBook (Adobe Reader)


    ISBN-13 978-0-521-86802-0 hardback


    ISBN-10 0-521-86802-5 hardback


    ISBN-13 978-0-521-68745-4 paperback


    ISBN-10 0-521-68745-4 paperback


    Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls


    for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not


    guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. To Tom and Rosa Contents


    List of figures pagex


    List of tables xi


    List of boxes xii


    Preface to the second edition xiv


    Acknowledgements xv


    Abbreviations xvi


    Glossary xviii


    1 Introduction 1


    PART1Theory:thinkingabouttheenvironment


    2 Environmentalphilosophy 13


    Staking out the territory 14


    Holistic perspectives 19


    Moral extensionism 26


    Conclusion: Breaking down the anthropocentric–ecocentric


    divide 35


    3 Greenpoliticalthought 41


    The central ideas of ecologism 42


    Traditional political ideologies and the green challenge 66


    Neither left nor right but in front? 76


    PART2Partiesandmovements:gettingfromheretothere


    4 Greenparties:theriseofanewpolitics? 87


    vii Contents


    Green party electoral performance: an overview 88


    Is there a new politics? 91


    The political opportunity structure and green party success 99


    Whatever happened to the environment? 109


    New challenges 110


    Conclusion 112


    5Partypoliticsandtheenvironment 115


    Green parties in parliament 116


    The ‘greening’of established parties 127


    Explaining party politicisation 138


    Conclusion 140


    6Environmentalgroups 143


    The environmental movement: an audit 144


    A typology of environmental groups 146


    The institutionalisation of the environmental movement 148


    The resurgence of grassroots environmentalism? 155


    A new civic politics? 160


    The impact of the environmental movement 164


    Conclusion 168


    PART3Environmentalpolicy:achievingasustainablesociety


    7Theenvironmentasapolicyproblem 173


    Core characteristics of the environment as a policy problem 174


    The traditional policy paradigm 181


    Political obstacles to change 182


    Achieving policy change 190


    Conclusion 204


    8Sustainabledevelopmentandecologicalmodernisation 207


    Sustainable development 208


    Ecological modernisation: the practical solution? 227


    Conclusion 237


    9Globalenvironmentalpolitics 241


    The paradox of international co-operation 243


    Environmental regimes: the ozone and climate


    change treaties 245


    Accounting for regimes 256


    Regime implementation 261


    Global environmental politics and sustainable development 265


    Conclusion 268


    10 Globalisation,tradeandtheenvironment 271


    Globalisation and the environment 272


    viii


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