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The Ottoman Empire and the World Around It

305 Pages · 2011 · 9.8 MB · English

  • The Ottoman Empire and the World Around It

    Ottoman-pre.fm Page i Tuesday, September 7, 2004 8:46 AM


    ~ T O E ~


    HE TTOMAN MPIRE


    W A I


    AND THE ORLD ROUND T Ottoman-pre.fm Page ii Tuesday, September 7, 2004 8:46 AM


    ~ For Virginia Aksan


    in friendship ~ Ottoman-pre.fm Page iii Tuesday, September 7, 2004 8:46 AM


    ~ The Ottoman Empire


    and the World Around It


    ~ S F ~


    URAIYA AROQHI Ottoman-pre.fm Page iv Tuesday, September 7, 2004 8:46 AM


    Published in 2004 by I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd


    6 Salem Road, London W2 4BU


    175 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10010


    www.ibtauris.com


    In the United States of America and Canada


    distributed by Palgrave Macmillan a division of St Martin’s Press


    175 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10010


    Copyright © Suraiya Faroqhi 2004


    The right of Suraiya Faroqhi to be identified as the author of this work has been


    asserted by the author in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patent Act


    1988.


    All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in a review, this book, or any part


    thereof, may not be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or


    transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,


    recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.


    The Library of Ottoman Studies 7


    ISBN 1 85043 715 7


    EAN 978 1 85043 715 4


    A full CIP record for this book is available from the British Library


    A full CIP record is available from the Library of Congress


    Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: available


    Typeset in Times by JCS Publishing Services


    Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin Ottoman-pre.fm Page v Tuesday, September 7, 2004 8:46 AM


    ~ Table of contents


    List of illustrations ix


    A note on transliteration and dates x


    Acknowledgements xi


    Map of the Ottoman Empire in Asia and Africa xiii


    Map of the Ottoman Empire in Europe xiv


    1 ~ Introduction 1


    Islamic law and sultanic pragmatism: 2 ~ Determining the parameters of


    Ottoman ‘foreign policy’: some general considerations: 4 ~ A few ground


    rules of Ottoman ‘foreign politics’: 6 ~ Validity and limits of the ‘warfare


    state’ model: 8 ~ Accommodation, both open and unacknowledged, and the


    problem of structural similarities in the early modern world: 10 ~ An


    impossible balance between ‘east’ and ‘west’?: 11 ~ Who, in which period,


    formed part of the Ottoman elite?: 13 ~ The Ottoman Empire as a world


    economy: 14 ~ The abiding centrality of Istanbul: 16 ~ Confronting our


    limits: problems of documentation: 18 ~ ‘Placing’ our topic in geographical


    terms: 20 ~ ‘Placing’ our topic in time: 21 ~ Confronting different


    perspectives, or how to justify comparisons: 23 ~ A common world: 25 ~


    2 ~ On sovereignty and subjects: expanding and safeguarding


    the Empire 27


    ‘Foreign interference’ and its limits: 28 ~ A sequence of ‘mental images’: 30


    ~ The 1560s/967–77: 32 ~ Introducing the major ‘players’ of the 1560s/


    967–77: the Habsburg possessions, France, Venice and Iran: 32 ~ Religious


    rivalries of the 1560s/967–77: 34 ~ The mid-sixteenth century: foreign


    subjects present on Ottoman territory – and those who were conspicuously


    absent: 37 ~ Religious-cum-political rivalries between the sultans and


    ‘western’ rulers in the 1560s/967–77: 41 ~ How the Ottoman elite did not


    organize its relations with the outside world in the 1560s/967–77: 43 ~ Limits


    of imperial reach in the 1560s/967–77: Anatolian loyalties to non-Ottoman


    princes: 44 ~ Limits of imperial reach: some Rumelian examples: 46 ~ Limits


    of imperial reach in the 1560s/967–77, a further example: Yemen as a


    frontier province: 47 ~ The Empire in 1639/1048–9: 49 ~ Protecting Ottoman Ottoman-pre.fm Page vi Tuesday, September 7, 2004 8:46 AM


    VI ~ THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE WORLD AROUND IT ~


    territories in 1639/1048–9: the eastern frontier: 49 ~ The northern regions as


    a trouble spot in 1639/1048–9: 50 ~ Expanding Ottoman territory in 1639/


    1048–9: relations with Venice and the imminent conquest of Crete: 51 ~


    Potential threats to Ottoman control over the western part of the Balkan


    peninsula in 1639/1048–9: 52 ~ Early links to the seventeenth-century


    European world economy?: 53 ~ Before 1718/1130–1: 55 ~ Wars on all


    fronts: 55 ~ ‘The Empire strikes back’: toward a reprise en main before


    1718/1130–1: 58 ~ Extraterritorialities before 1718/1130–1: 60 ~ Conquest


    and trade as sources of regional instabilities before 1718/1130–1: 62 ~


    War-induced regional instabilities before 1718/1130–1: Serbs on both sides


    of the frontier: 64 ~ 1774/1187–8: 67 ~ The Russo-Ottoman war of 1768–74/


    1181–8: 67 ~ Provincial power magnates and international relations in


    1774/1187–8: 69 ~ Eighteenth-century prosperity and crisis in the


    ‘economic’ field: 70 ~ The desert borders in 1774/1187–8: 72 ~ In


    conclusion: the Ottoman rulers within a set of alliances: 73


    3 ~ On the margins of empire: clients and dependants 75


    The royal road to empire-building: from ‘dependent principality’ to ‘centrally


    governed province’: 75 ~ ‘Dependent principalities’ with long life-spans: 77


    ~ Ottoman methods of conquest and local realities: 78 ~ Old and new local


    powers in ‘centrally governed provinces’: 80 ~ Semi-autonomous provinces


    controlled by military corps and ‘political households’: 82 ~ The case of the


    Hijaz: 84 ~ Subsidising a reticent dependant: the sherifs as autonomous


    princes on the desert frontier: 84 ~ The sherifs, the Bedouins and the security


    of the pilgrimage caravan: 87 ~ The sherifs in the international arena: 88 ~


    The case of Dubrovnik: linking Ottoman sultans to the Catholic


    Mediterranean: 89 ~ ‘Cruel times in Moldavia’: 91 ~ In conclusion: 95 ~


    4 ~ The strengths and weaknesses of Ottoman warfare 98


    Ottoman military preparedness and booty-making: assessing their


    significance and limits: 98 ~ Ottoman political advantages in early modern


    wars: 102 ~ Financing wars and procuring supplies: the changing weight of


    tax assignments and cash disbursals: 104 ~ How to make war without footing


    the bill – at least in the short run: 108 ~ Logistics: cases of gunpowder: 110 ~


    Societies of frontiersmen: 112 ~ Legitimacy through victory, de-


    legitimization through wars on the sultan’s territories: 114 ~ In conclusion:


    Ottoman society organized to keep up with the military reformation: 116 ~


    5 ~ Of prisoners, slaves and the charity of strangers 119


    Prisoners in the shadows: 119 ~ Captured: how ordinary people paid the price


    of inter-empire conflict and attempts at state formation: 121 ~ From captive Ottoman-pre.fm Page vii Tuesday, September 7, 2004 8:46 AM


    ~ CONTENTS ~ VII


    to slave: 124 ~ The miseries of transportation: 126 ~ On galleys and in


    arsenals: 127 ~ Charity and the tribulations of prisoners: 129 ~ The ‘extra-


    curricular’ labours of galley – and other – slaves: 131 ~ Domestic service:


    132 ~ The role of local mediation in ransoming a Christian prisoner: 134 ~ In


    conclusion: 135 ~


    6 ~ Trade and foreigners 137


    Merchants from remote countries: the Asian world: 138 ~ Merchants from a


    (not so) remote Christian country: the Venetians: 140 ~ Polish traders and


    gentlemanly visitors: 142 ~ Merchants from the lands of a (doubtful) ally:


    France: 144 ~ Subjects of His/Her Majesty, the king/queen of England: 148 ~


    Links to the capital of the seventeenth-century world economy: the Dutch


    case: 150 ~ How Ottoman merchants coped with foreigners and foreign trade:


    151 ~ Revisiting an old debate: ‘established’ and ‘new’ commercial actors:


    154 ~ The Ottoman ruling group and its attitudes to foreign trade: 155 ~


    7 ~ Relating to pilgrims and offering mediation 161


    The problems of Iranian pilgrims in Iraq and the Hijaz: 162 ~ Jewish visitors


    to Jerusalem: 164 ~ Christian visitors writing about Palestine and the Sinai


    peninsula: 165 ~ Ottoman people and places in western accounts of


    Jerusalem: 167 ~ The Christian pilgrimage to Jerusalem in Muslim eyes: 169


    ~ Catholic missionaries in Ottoman lands: 171 ~ Mediations, ambiguities and


    shifts of identity: 174 ~ An eighteenth-century Istanbul xenophobe: 176 ~


    Was friendship between an Ottoman Muslim and a non-Muslim foreigner an


    impossible proposition?: 177 ~


    8 ~ Sources of information on the outside world 179


    The knowledge of the ambassadors: some general considerations: 181 ~


    Fleeting encounters: a sea captain and diplomat in sixteenth-century


    India: 183 ~ The knowledge of the envoys: representing Ottoman dignity


    in Iran: 185 ~ Lying abroad for the good of one’s sovereign: obscuring


    Ottoman intentions in early eighteenth-century Iran: 186 ~ Reporting on


    European embassies: 187 ~ Old opponents, new allies: 191 ~ In the empire of


    the tsars: 192 ~ Difficult beginnings: a new type of information-gathering:


    193 ~ Framing the world according to Ottoman geographers: 194 ~ Taking


    notice of the Americas: 197 ~ Kâtib Çelebi and his circle: 199 ~ Non-Muslim


    Ottoman subjects and their travel writing: 200 ~ Tracking down the


    knowledge of the educated Muslim townsman: 203 : Evliya Çelebi’s stories


    about Europe: 204 ~ Holland and the way thither: 204 ~ European frontiers:


    a quantité négligeable?: 206 ~ And what about Evliya’s intentions in


    writing?: 207 ~ In conclusion: 208 ~ Ottoman-pre.fm Page viii Tuesday, September 7, 2004 8:46 AM


    VIII ~ THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE WORLD AROUND IT ~


    9 ~ Conclusion 211


    A common world: 211 ~ The integration of foreigners: 212 ~ Imperial


    cohesion, ‘corruption’ and the liberties of foreigners: 213 ~ Coping with the


    European world economy: 214 ~ Ottoman rule: between the centre and the


    margins: 215 ~ Providing information: what ‘respectable people’ might or


    might not write about: 216 ~ Embassy reports: much maligned but a sign of


    changing mentalities: 217 ~


    Bibliography 220


    Notes 263


    Index 283 Ottoman-pre.fm Page ix Tuesday, September 7, 2004 8:46 AM


    ~ List of illustrations


    1. Helmet and armour intended as a diplomatic present from the Habsburg


    Emperor Rudolf II to the Grand Vizier Sinan Paşa. 39


    2. View from Semlin towards Belgrade, with the Ottoman fortress beyond the


    Danube, early nineteenth century 66


    3. A janissary and his European captive, 1669 124


    4. The naval arsenal at Kasımpaşa, Istanbul, after 1784 and before 1800 128


    5. The Damascus gate in the walls of Jerusalem 169


    6. The parade by which Ahmed Resmi entered Berlin in 1763 189


    7. Secretary of the Ottoman embassy to Berlin, carrying the sultan’s letter


    (after 1763) 190


    8. A visit of the Ottoman ambassador Mehmed efendi, accompanied by his


    son Hüseyin, at the court of King Augustus of Poland in 1731 218


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