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The Mismeasure of Man by Stephen Jay Gould

417 Pages · 2008 · 7.56 MB · English

  • The Mismeasure of Man by Stephen Jay Gould

    BY STEPHEN JAY GOULD IN


    NORTON PAPERBACK


    EVER SINCE DARWIN


    Reflections in Natural History


    THE PANDA'S THUMB


    More Reflections in Natural History


    THE MISMEASURE OF MAN


    Revised and Expanded


    HEN'S TEETH AND HORSE'S TOES


    Further Reflections in Natural History


    THE FLAMINGO'S SMILE


    Reflections in Natural History


    AN URCHIN IN THE STORM


    Essays about Books and Ideas


    ILLUMINATIONS


    A Bestiary (with R. W. Purcell)


    WONDERFUL LIFE


    The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History


    BULLY FOR BRONTOSAURUS


    Reflections in Natural History


    FINDERS, KEEPERS


    Treasures amd Oddities of Natural History


    Collectors from Peter the Great to Louis Agassiz


    (with R. W. Purcell) T HE M I S M E A S U RE OF M AN To the memory of Grammy and Papa Joe,


    who came, struggled, and prospered,


    Mr. Goddard notwithstanding. Contents


    Acknowledgments 15


    Introduction to the Revised and Expanded


    Edition:


    Thoughts at Age Fifteen 19


    The frame of The Mismeasure of Man, 19


    Why revise The Mismeasure of Man after fifteen years?, 26


    Reasons, history and revision of The Mismeasure of Man, 36


    2. American Polygeny and Craniometry before


    Darwin:


    Blacks andlndians as Separate,


    Cfolj


    Inferior Species 62


    A shared context of culture, 63


    Preevolutionary styles of scientific racism: monogenism and


    polygenism, 71


    Louis Agassiz—America's theorist of polygeny, 74


    Samuel George Morton—empiricist of polygeny, 82


    The case of Indian inferiority: Crania Americana


    The case of the Egyptian catacombs: Crania Aegyptiaca


    The case of the shifting black mean


    The final tabulation of 1849 IO CONTENTS


    Conclusions


    The American school and slavery, 101


    3. Measuring Heads:


    Paul Br oca and the Heyday


    -4f^"yi


    ofCraniology /


    The allure of numbers, 105


    Introduction


    Francis Galton—apostle of quantification


    A curtain-raiser with a moral: numbers do not guarantee truth


    Masters of craniometry: Paul Broca and his school, 114


    The great circle route


    Selecting characters


    Averting anomalies


    BIG-BRAINED GERMANS


    SMALL-BRAINED MEN OF EMINENCE


    LARGE-BRAINED CRIMINALS


    FLAWS IN A PATTERN OF INCREASE THROUGH TIME


    Front and back


    THE CRANIAL INDEX


    THE CASE OF THE FORAMEN MAGNUM


    Women's brains


    Postscript, 140


    4. Measuring Bodies:


    Two Case Studies on the


    Apishness of Undesirables j^C^


    The ape in all of us: recapitulation, 142


    The ape in some of us: criminal anthropology, 15 1


    Atavism and criminality


    Animals and savages as born criminals


    The stigmata: anatomical, physiological, and social


    Lombroso's retreat


    The influence of criminal anthropology


    Coda


    Epilogue, 173 CONTENTS II


    5. The Hereditarian Theory of IQ:


    An American


    Invention ij6


    Alfred Binet and the original purposes of the Binet


    scale, 176


    Binet flirts with craniometry


    Binet's scale and the birth of IQ


    The dismantling of Binet's intentions in America


    H. H. Goddard and the menace of the feeble-minded, 18&


    Intelligence as a Mendelian gene


    GODDARD IDENTIFIES THE MORON


    A UNILINEAR SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE


    BREAKING THE SCALE INTO MENDELIAN COMPARTMENTS


    THE PROPER CARE AND FEEDING (BUT NOT BREEDING) OF


    MORONS


    Preventing the immigration and propagation of morons


    Goddard recants


    Lewis M. Terman and the mass marketing of innate IQ, 204


    Mass testing and the Stanford-Binet


    Terman's technocracy of innateness


    Fossil IQ's of past geniuses


    Terman on group differences


    Terman recants


    R. M. Yerkes and the Army Mental Tests: IQ comes of


    age, 222


    Psychology's great leap forward


    Results of the army tests


    A critique of the Army Mental Tests


    THE CONTENT OF THE TESTS


    INADEQUATE CONDITIONS


    DUBIOUS AND PERVERSE PROCEEDINGS: A PERSONAL TESTIMONY


    FINAGLING THE SUMMARY STATISTICS: THE PROBLEM OF ZERO


    VALUES


    FINAGLING THE SUMMARY STATISTICS: GETTING AROUND


    OBVIOUS CORRELATIONS WITH ENVIRONMENT


    Political impact of the army data


    CAN DEMOCRACY SURVIVE AN AVERAGE MENTAL AGE OF


    THIRTEEN? CONTENTS


    THE ARMY TESTS AND AGITATION TO RESTRICT IMMIGRATIONI


    BRIGHAM'S MONOGRAPH ON AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE


    THE TRIUMPH OF RESTRICTION ON IMMIGRATION


    BRIGHAM RECANTS


    The Real Error of Cyril Burt:


    Factor Analysis


    and the Reification of Intelligence 2 64


    The case of Sir Cyril Burt, 264


    Correlation, cause, and factor analysis, 269


    Correlation and cause


    Correlation in more than two dimensions


    Factor analysis and its goals


    The error of reification


    Rotation and the nonnecessity of principal components


    Charles Spearman and general intelligence, 28 6


    The two-factor theory


    The method of tetrad differences


    Spearman's g and the great instauration of psychology


    Spearman's g and the theoretical justification of IQ


    Spearman's reification of g


    Spearman on the inheritance of g


    Cyril Burt and the hereditarian synthesis, 303


    The source of Burt's uncompromising hereditarianism


    BURT'S INITIAL "PROOF" OF INNATENESS


    LATER ARGUMENTS


    BURT'S BLINDNESS


    BURT'S POLITICAL USE OF INNATENESS


    Burt's extension of Spearman's theory


    Burt on the reification of factors


    Burt and the political uses of g


    L. L. Thurstone and the vectors of mind, 326


    Thurstone's critique and reconstruction


    The egalitarian interpretation of PMA's


    Spearman and Burt react CONTENTS 13


    Oblique axes and second-order g


    Thurstone on the uses of factor analysis


    Epilogue: Arthur Jensen and the resurrection of


    Spearman's g, 347


    A final thought, 350


    7. A Positive Conclusion 3 57


    Debunking as positive science, 351


    Learning by debunking, 352


    Biology and human nature, 354


    Epilogue 3 65


    Critique of The Bell Curve 367


    The Bell Curvv. 367


    Disingenuoumess of content


    Disingenuousness^of argument


    Disingenuousness ofprogram


    Ghosts of Bell Curves pasX 379


    Three Centuries' Perspectives on Race


    and Racism \. 39


    1


    Age-old fallacies of thinking and stinking^ 391


    Racial geometry, 401


    The moral state of Tahiti—and of Darwin,


    Bibliography


    425


    Index


    433


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