The Mismeasure of Man by Stephen Jay Gould

The Mismeasure of Man by Stephen Jay Gould

The Mismeasure of Man by Stephen Jay Gould

417 Pages ·2008·7.56 MB ·English

The Mismeasure of Man by Stephen Jay Gould

BY STEPHEN JAY GOULD IN


NORTON PAPERBACK


EVER SINCE DARWIN


Reflections in Natural History


THE PANDA'S THUMB


More Reflections in Natural History


THE MISMEASURE OF MAN


Revised and Expanded


HEN'S TEETH AND HORSE'S TOES


Further Reflections in Natural History


THE FLAMINGO'S SMILE


Reflections in Natural History


AN URCHIN IN THE STORM


Essays about Books and Ideas


ILLUMINATIONS


A Bestiary (with R. W. Purcell)


WONDERFUL LIFE


The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History


BULLY FOR BRONTOSAURUS


Reflections in Natural History


FINDERS, KEEPERS


Treasures amd Oddities of Natural History


Collectors from Peter the Great to Louis Agassiz


(with R. W. Purcell) T HE M I S M E A S U RE OF M AN To the memory of Grammy and Papa Joe,


who came, struggled, and prospered,


Mr. Goddard notwithstanding. Contents


Acknowledgments 15


Introduction to the Revised and Expanded


Edition:


Thoughts at Age Fifteen 19


The frame of The Mismeasure of Man, 19


Why revise The Mismeasure of Man after fifteen years?, 26


Reasons, history and revision of The Mismeasure of Man, 36


2. American Polygeny and Craniometry before


Darwin:


Blacks andlndians as Separate,


Cfolj


Inferior Species 62


A shared context of culture, 63


Preevolutionary styles of scientific racism: monogenism and


polygenism, 71


Louis Agassiz—America's theorist of polygeny, 74


Samuel George Morton—empiricist of polygeny, 82


The case of Indian inferiority: Crania Americana


The case of the Egyptian catacombs: Crania Aegyptiaca


The case of the shifting black mean


The final tabulation of 1849 IO CONTENTS


Conclusions


The American school and slavery, 101


3. Measuring Heads:


Paul Br oca and the Heyday


-4f^"yi


ofCraniology /


The allure of numbers, 105


Introduction


Francis Galton—apostle of quantification


A curtain-raiser with a moral: numbers do not guarantee truth


Masters of craniometry: Paul Broca and his school, 114


The great circle route


Selecting characters


Averting anomalies


BIG-BRAINED GERMANS


SMALL-BRAINED MEN OF EMINENCE


LARGE-BRAINED CRIMINALS


FLAWS IN A PATTERN OF INCREASE THROUGH TIME


Front and back


THE CRANIAL INDEX


THE CASE OF THE FORAMEN MAGNUM


Women's brains


Postscript, 140


4. Measuring Bodies:


Two Case Studies on the


Apishness of Undesirables j^C^


The ape in all of us: recapitulation, 142


The ape in some of us: criminal anthropology, 15 1


Atavism and criminality


Animals and savages as born criminals


The stigmata: anatomical, physiological, and social


Lombroso's retreat


The influence of criminal anthropology


Coda


Epilogue, 173 CONTENTS II


5. The Hereditarian Theory of IQ:


An American


Invention ij6


Alfred Binet and the original purposes of the Binet


scale, 176


Binet flirts with craniometry


Binet's scale and the birth of IQ


The dismantling of Binet's intentions in America


H. H. Goddard and the menace of the feeble-minded, 18&


Intelligence as a Mendelian gene


GODDARD IDENTIFIES THE MORON


A UNILINEAR SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE


BREAKING THE SCALE INTO MENDELIAN COMPARTMENTS


THE PROPER CARE AND FEEDING (BUT NOT BREEDING) OF


MORONS


Preventing the immigration and propagation of morons


Goddard recants


Lewis M. Terman and the mass marketing of innate IQ, 204


Mass testing and the Stanford-Binet


Terman's technocracy of innateness


Fossil IQ's of past geniuses


Terman on group differences


Terman recants


R. M. Yerkes and the Army Mental Tests: IQ comes of


age, 222


Psychology's great leap forward


Results of the army tests


A critique of the Army Mental Tests


THE CONTENT OF THE TESTS


INADEQUATE CONDITIONS


DUBIOUS AND PERVERSE PROCEEDINGS: A PERSONAL TESTIMONY


FINAGLING THE SUMMARY STATISTICS: THE PROBLEM OF ZERO


VALUES


FINAGLING THE SUMMARY STATISTICS: GETTING AROUND


OBVIOUS CORRELATIONS WITH ENVIRONMENT


Political impact of the army data


CAN DEMOCRACY SURVIVE AN AVERAGE MENTAL AGE OF


THIRTEEN? CONTENTS


THE ARMY TESTS AND AGITATION TO RESTRICT IMMIGRATIONI


BRIGHAM'S MONOGRAPH ON AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE


THE TRIUMPH OF RESTRICTION ON IMMIGRATION


BRIGHAM RECANTS


The Real Error of Cyril Burt:


Factor Analysis


and the Reification of Intelligence 2 64


The case of Sir Cyril Burt, 264


Correlation, cause, and factor analysis, 269


Correlation and cause


Correlation in more than two dimensions


Factor analysis and its goals


The error of reification


Rotation and the nonnecessity of principal components


Charles Spearman and general intelligence, 28 6


The two-factor theory


The method of tetrad differences


Spearman's g and the great instauration of psychology


Spearman's g and the theoretical justification of IQ


Spearman's reification of g


Spearman on the inheritance of g


Cyril Burt and the hereditarian synthesis, 303


The source of Burt's uncompromising hereditarianism


BURT'S INITIAL "PROOF" OF INNATENESS


LATER ARGUMENTS


BURT'S BLINDNESS


BURT'S POLITICAL USE OF INNATENESS


Burt's extension of Spearman's theory


Burt on the reification of factors


Burt and the political uses of g


L. L. Thurstone and the vectors of mind, 326


Thurstone's critique and reconstruction


The egalitarian interpretation of PMA's


Spearman and Burt react CONTENTS 13


Oblique axes and second-order g


Thurstone on the uses of factor analysis


Epilogue: Arthur Jensen and the resurrection of


Spearman's g, 347


A final thought, 350


7. A Positive Conclusion 3 57


Debunking as positive science, 351


Learning by debunking, 352


Biology and human nature, 354


Epilogue 3 65


Critique of The Bell Curve 367


The Bell Curvv. 367


Disingenuoumess of content


Disingenuousness^of argument


Disingenuousness ofprogram


Ghosts of Bell Curves pasX 379


Three Centuries' Perspectives on Race


and Racism \. 39


1


Age-old fallacies of thinking and stinking^ 391


Racial geometry, 401


The moral state of Tahiti—and of Darwin,


Bibliography


425


Index


433


BY STEPHEN JAY GOULD IN


NORTON PAPERBACK


EVER SINCE DARWIN


Reflections in Natural History


THE PANDA'S THUMB


More Reflections in Natural History


THE MISMEASURE OF MAN


Revised and Expanded


HEN'S TEETH AND HORSE'S TOES


Further Reflections in Natural History


THE FLAMINGO'S SMILE


Reflections in Natural History


AN URCHIN IN THE STORM


Essays about Books and Ideas


ILLUMINATIONS


A Bestiary (with R. W. Purcell)


WONDERFUL LIFE


The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History


BULLY FOR BRONTOSAURUS


Reflections in Natural History


FINDERS, KEEPERS


Treasures amd Oddities of Natural History


Collectors from Peter the Great to Louis Agassiz


(with R. W. Purcell) T HE M I S M E A S U RE OF M AN To the memory of Grammy and Papa Joe,


who came, struggled, and prospered,


Mr. Goddard notwithstanding. Contents


Acknowledgments 15


Introduction to the Revised and Expanded


Edition:


Thoughts at Age Fifteen 19


The frame of The Mismeasure of Man, 19


Why revise The Mismeasure of Man after fifteen years?, 26


Reasons, history and revision of The Mismeasure of Man, 36


2. American Polygeny and Craniometry before


Darwin:


Blacks andlndians as Separate,


Cfolj


Inferior Species 62


A shared context of culture, 63


Preevolutionary styles of scientific racism: monogenism and


polygenism, 71


Louis Agassiz—America's theorist of polygeny, 74


Samuel George Morton—empiricist of polygeny, 82


The case of Indian inferiority: Crania Americana


The case of the Egyptian catacombs: Crania Aegyptiaca


The case of the shifting black mean


The final tabulation of 1849 IO CONTENTS


Conclusions


The American school and slavery, 101


3. Measuring Heads:


Paul Br oca and the Heyday


-4f^"yi


ofCraniology /


The allure of numbers, 105


Introduction


Francis Galton—apostle of quantification


A curtain-raiser with a moral: numbers do not guarantee truth


Masters of craniometry: Paul Broca and his school, 114


The great circle route


Selecting characters


Averting anomalies


BIG-BRAINED GERMANS


SMALL-BRAINED MEN OF EMINENCE


LARGE-BRAINED CRIMINALS


FLAWS IN A PATTERN OF INCREASE THROUGH TIME


Front and back


THE CRANIAL INDEX


THE CASE OF THE FORAMEN MAGNUM


Women's brains


Postscript, 140


4. Measuring Bodies:


Two Case Studies on the


Apishness of Undesirables j^C^


The ape in all of us: recapitulation, 142


The ape in some of us: criminal anthropology, 15 1


Atavism and criminality


Animals and savages as born criminals


The stigmata: anatomical, physiological, and social


Lombroso's retreat


The influence of criminal anthropology


Coda


Epilogue, 173 CONTENTS II


5. The Hereditarian Theory of IQ:


An American


Invention ij6


Alfred Binet and the original purposes of the Binet


scale, 176


Binet flirts with craniometry


Binet's scale and the birth of IQ


The dismantling of Binet's intentions in America


H. H. Goddard and the menace of the feeble-minded, 18&


Intelligence as a Mendelian gene


GODDARD IDENTIFIES THE MORON


A UNILINEAR SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE


BREAKING THE SCALE INTO MENDELIAN COMPARTMENTS


THE PROPER CARE AND FEEDING (BUT NOT BREEDING) OF


MORONS


Preventing the immigration and propagation of morons


Goddard recants


Lewis M. Terman and the mass marketing of innate IQ, 204


Mass testing and the Stanford-Binet


Terman's technocracy of innateness


Fossil IQ's of past geniuses


Terman on group differences


Terman recants


R. M. Yerkes and the Army Mental Tests: IQ comes of


age, 222


Psychology's great leap forward


Results of the army tests


A critique of the Army Mental Tests


THE CONTENT OF THE TESTS


INADEQUATE CONDITIONS


DUBIOUS AND PERVERSE PROCEEDINGS: A PERSONAL TESTIMONY


FINAGLING THE SUMMARY STATISTICS: THE PROBLEM OF ZERO


VALUES


FINAGLING THE SUMMARY STATISTICS: GETTING AROUND


OBVIOUS CORRELATIONS WITH ENVIRONMENT


Political impact of the army data


CAN DEMOCRACY SURVIVE AN AVERAGE MENTAL AGE OF


THIRTEEN? CONTENTS


THE ARMY TESTS AND AGITATION TO RESTRICT IMMIGRATIONI


BRIGHAM'S MONOGRAPH ON AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE


THE TRIUMPH OF RESTRICTION ON IMMIGRATION


BRIGHAM RECANTS


The Real Error of Cyril Burt:


Factor Analysis


and the Reification of Intelligence 2 64


The case of Sir Cyril Burt, 264


Correlation, cause, and factor analysis, 269


Correlation and cause


Correlation in more than two dimensions


Factor analysis and its goals


The error of reification


Rotation and the nonnecessity of principal components


Charles Spearman and general intelligence, 28 6


The two-factor theory


The method of tetrad differences


Spearman's g and the great instauration of psychology


Spearman's g and the theoretical justification of IQ


Spearman's reification of g


Spearman on the inheritance of g


Cyril Burt and the hereditarian synthesis, 303


The source of Burt's uncompromising hereditarianism


BURT'S INITIAL "PROOF" OF INNATENESS


LATER ARGUMENTS


BURT'S BLINDNESS


BURT'S POLITICAL USE OF INNATENESS


Burt's extension of Spearman's theory


Burt on the reification of factors


Burt and the political uses of g


L. L. Thurstone and the vectors of mind, 326


Thurstone's critique and reconstruction


The egalitarian interpretation of PMA's


Spearman and Burt react CONTENTS 13


Oblique axes and second-order g


Thurstone on the uses of factor analysis


Epilogue: Arthur Jensen and the resurrection of


Spearman's g, 347


A final thought, 350


7. A Positive Conclusion 3 57


Debunking as positive science, 351


Learning by debunking, 352


Biology and human nature, 354


Epilogue 3 65


Critique of The Bell Curve 367


The Bell Curvv. 367


Disingenuoumess of content


Disingenuousness^of argument


Disingenuousness ofprogram


Ghosts of Bell Curves pasX 379


Three Centuries' Perspectives on Race


and Racism \. 39


1


Age-old fallacies of thinking and stinking^ 391


Racial geometry, 401


The moral state of Tahiti—and of Darwin,


Bibliography


425


Index


433


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