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The Journal of San Diego History

89 Pages · 2007 · 3.5 MB · English

  • The Journal of San Diego History

    The Journal of


    San Diego


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    y Publication of The Journal of San Diego History has been partially funded


    by generous grants from the Joseph W. Sefton Foundation; Quest for Truth


    Foundation of Seattle, Washington, established by the late James G. Scripps; and an


    anonymous friend and supporter of the Journal.


    Publication of this issue of The Journal of San Diego History has also been


    supported by a grant from “The Journal of San Diego History Fund” of the San


    Diego Foundation.


    Preserve A sAn Diego TreAsure


    The San Diego Historical Society is able to share the resources of four museums


    Your $100 contribution will help to create an endowment for


    and its extensive collections with the community through the generous support of


    the following: City of San Diego Commission for Art and Culture; County of San


    The Journal of San Diego History


    Diego; foundation and government grants; individual and corporate memberships;


    corporate sponsorship and donation bequests; sales from museum stores and


    reproduction prints from the Booth Historical Photograph Archives; admissions; Please make your check payable to The San Diego Foundation. Indicate on the


    and proceeds from fund-raising events. bottom of your check that your donation is for The Journal of San Diego History


    Fund. The San Diego Foundation accepts contributions of $100 and up.


    Articles appearing in The Journal of San Diego History are abstracted and Your contribution is tax-deductible.


    indexed in Historical Abstracts and America: History and Life.


    The san Diego Foundation


    The paper in the publication meets the minimum requirements of American


    National Standard for Information Science-Permanence of Paper for Printed 2508 Historic Decatur Road, Suite 200


    Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984. San Diego, CA 92106


    (619) 235-2300 or (858) 385-1595


    info@sdfoundation.org


    Front Cover: ZLAC’s clubhouse around 1908. From left to right: Elsa Wentscher


    Marston, Juliet Newkirk, Grace Gould Klauber, Edith Cole McFarland, and Brooke


    Frevert Miller. ©SDHS #85:15353.


    Back Cover: Thursday Morning Rowers in the ZLAC barge, April 7, 1973. Bow


    to stern: Mary Jessop, Ellen Roche, Annette Frank, Margaret Redelings, Judy


    Browne, Betty Sullivan, Nancy Leydecker, Suzanne Leibmann, and Mary Maddox


    Grandell (coxswain). ©SDHS, UT #88:K7006-3, Union-Tribune Collection.


    Cover Design: Allen Wynar The Journal of


    San Diego


    History


    Volume 53 Summer 2007 number 3


    IrIs H. W. Engstrand


    Molly McClaIn


    Editors


    ColIn FIsHEr


    Associate Editor


    tHEodorE stratHMan


    davId MIllEr


    Review Editors


    Published since 1955 by the


    SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY


    1649 El Prado, Balboa Park, San Diego, California 92101


    ISSN 0022-4383 The Journal of


    San Diego


    History


    Volume 53 Summer 2007 number 3


    Editorial Consultants Published quarterly by the San Diego


    Historical Society at 1649 El Prado,


    MATTHEW BOKOVOY


    Balboa Park, San Diego, California


    University of Oklahoma


    92101.


    DONALD C. CUTTER


    A $60.00 annual membership in the


    Albuquerque, New Mexico


    San Diego Historical Society includes


    WILLIAM DEVERELL subscription to The Journal of San Diego


    University of Southern California; Director, History and the SDHS Times. Back issues


    Huntington-USC Institute of California and are available at www.sandiegohistory.org.


    the West


    Articles and book reviews for


    VICTOR GERACI publication consideration, as well as


    University of California, Berkeley editorial correspondence, should be


    addressed to the Editors, The Journal


    PHOEBE KROPP


    of San Diego History, Department of


    University of Pennsylvania


    History, University of San Diego, 5998


    ROGER W. LOTCHIN Alcalá Park, San Diego, CA 92110


    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


    All article submissons should be typed


    NEIL MORGAN and double-spaced, and follow the


    Journalist Chicago Manual of Style. Authors should


    submit three copies of their manuscript,


    DOYCE B. NUNIS, JR


    plus an electronic copy, in MS Word or


    University of Southern California


    in rich text format (RTF).


    JOHN PUTMAN


    The San Diego Historical Society


    San Diego State University


    assumes no responsibility for the


    ANDREW ROLLE statements or opinions of the authors or


    The Huntington Library reviewers.


    RAMON EDUARDO RUIZ ©2007 by the San Diego Historical


    University of California, San Diego Society


    ISSN 0022-4383


    ABE SHRAGGE Periodicals postage paid at San Diego, CA


    University of California, San Diego Publication No. 331-870


    (619) 232-6203


    RAYMOND STARR


    www.sandiegohistory.org


    San Diego State University, emeritus


    DAVID J. WEBER


    Southern Methodist University


    ii CONTENTS


    Volume 53 Summer 2007 number 3


    ARTICLES


    ZLAC Rowing Club, 1892-2007


    Molly McClain


    89


    Coming Out Gay, Coming Out Christian:


    The Beginnings of GLBT Christianity in San Diego, 1970-1979


    Joshua Grace, Christopher Rhamey, Megan Dukett,


    Kaylin Gill, Ricky Bell


    117


    “La Mojonera” and the Marking of California’s


    U.S. -Mexico Boundary Line, 1849-1851


    Charles W. Hughes


    126


    The Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation


    148


    Museum Review: San Diego Natural History Museum


    Dead Sea Scrolls


    151


    BOOK REVIEWS


    155


    iii iv ZLAC Rowing Club, 1892-2007


    Molly McClain


    In 1992, ZLAC Rowing Club celebrated its 100th anniversary with a gala at


    the U.S. Grant Hotel and the publication of a history written by Helen Wetzell


    Wallace. This year, the club will commemorate another special occasion—the 75th


    anniversary of its clubhouse on Mission Bay. Designed by architect Lilian J. Rice,


    the clubhouse provides a visual reminder that America’s oldest women’s rowing


    club works to preserve its past and to encourage future interest in the sport.


    ZLAC was founded in 1892 by Lena Polhamus Crouse, the daughter of Captain


    ZLAC’s first barge was launched on August 3, 1895, from the landing float adjacent to the Point Loma Ferry


    landing. Courtesy of ZLAC Rowing Club, Ltd.


    Albert A. Polhamus, a pilot on the California coast and captain of the tug Santa


    Fe. She persuaded her sisters, Caroline and Agnes, and their friend Zulette Lamb


    to form a rowing club. Rowing was more than a popular sport; it was also a way


    to get around San Diego Bay, albeit in a butcher boat. Inspired by their male


    counterparts, the girls chose ranks—“Captain,” “First Officer,” etc.—and used


    the first letters of their names to form the acronym ZLAC. In 1894, the San Diego


    Rowing Club (SDRC) loaned them a six-oared barge that had been dug up from the


    bottom of the bay. Shortly thereafter, ZLAC commissioned an eight-oared barge


    from Fred Carter, the architect and designer of the famous Herreschoff yachts,


    raising money from families and friends.


    Dr. Molly McClain is Associate Professor and Chair, History Department, University of San Diego. A


    ninth-generation San Diegan, she edits The Journal of San Diego History with Dr. Iris Engstrand.


    89 The Journal of San Diego History


    On August 7, 1895, members of Crew I raced on Salt Water Day. Courtesy of ZLAC Rowing Club, Ltd.


    The new barge and its female rowers caught the eye of officers and men on


    Navy ships anchored in the harbor. Lena Crouse recalled, “As we rowed back and


    forth past these Navy boats, the order was ‘eyes in the boat.’…The girls didn’t need


    to rubber around at the men—the men did all the rubbering.”1 In 1896, officers of


    the USS Monterey presented them with a pennant, a black Navy tie embroidered


    ZLAC, that now hangs in the clubhouse.


    The San Diego Historical Society’s new exhibit, “Places of Promise,” will


    include ZLAC’s first barge along with photographs and memorabilia donated by


    club members. ZLAC I was built in Charlie Langell’s workshop at the foot of G


    Street and launched


    on August 3, 1894,


    from the landing float


    at the foot of H Street,


    now Market Street. It


    is 38 feet long and 52


    inches wide amidship,


    planked with Port


    Orford cedar and


    covered with cotton


    canvas. Originally


    painted white, it now


    has fiberglass siding.


    It retains its original


    sliding leather seats,


    an innovation that


    became popular with


    Members of Crew I, 1900. Standing, left to right: Zulette Lamb, Agnes East Coast colleges


    Polhamus, Florence Roper, Carolyn Polhamus. Seated: Jean Grow, Grace


    and universities in


    Slocum, Lena Polhamus, Ethel Dyer. The ZLAC uniform consisted of a black


    ankle-length woolen skirt with rows of yellow braid sewn around the hemline, the 1870s. Sliding


    collars, and cuffs of the middy blouse. Courtesy of ZLAC Rowing Club, Ltd. seats allowed rowers


    90 ZLAC Rowing Club


    to increase the length of their


    stroke and to use the power of


    the legs, arms, and back. ZLAC


    I was donated to the Society


    and moved into the Casa de


    Balboa in August 1989.2


    At the turn of the century,


    many women’s rowing clubs


    and collegiate teams were


    established in an effort to


    improve physical fitness and


    to compete in a sport made


    popular by men. Wellesley


    College in Massachusetts


    In 1902, ZLAC relocated its clubhouse from the foot of Fifth


    founded the oldest surviving Street to the Paulson’s wharf at the foot of H St. (now Market


    women’s rowing program in Street). Commercial wharves can be seen in the background, 1915.


    ©SDHS #89:17617-2.


    1875. Cambridge University’s


    Newnham College founded a women’s collegiate “boating society” in 1893 while


    Cornell University started a competitive women’s crew program in 1896.3


    In San Diego, ZLAC inspired the creation of many rowing clubs for high school-


    aged girls. Russ High School, later San Diego High School, sponsored teams such


    as the Nereids (1895), the Mariners (1898), and the White Caps (1900). In 1895, ZLAC


    competed in rowing and swimming events with the Waterbabies, L’Esperance, the


    Columbias (1894), the Gondoliers, and La Feluca (1894), and the Nereids crew. Other


    teams included the La Sienas (1899), the Oceanids (1901), the Las Corarias (1901),


    ZLAC’s clubhouse was decorated with paper lanterns, bamboo stems, and nautical memorabilia. Over one door


    hung a banner with the words, “Should auld acquaintance be forgot and days of auld Lang Syne.” Over another


    hung a banner for the White Caps, a high school crew that joined ZLAC in 1901 to become Crew II. ©SDHS


    89:17552-3


    91


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