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The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Modern Political Biography

1008 Pages · 2005 · 6.41 MB · English

  • The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Modern Political Biography

    The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Modern Political


    Biography


    Preface


    The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Modern Political Biography is a reference book, with


    entries arranged in A–Z format. To go directly to a particular entry, click on the link in


    the table of contents. There are also links between entries – click on any underlined


    word to jump to the related entry.



    © Copyright Research Machines plc 2005. All rights reserved. Helicon Publishing is a


    division of Research Machines plc.


    Helicon Publishing


    New Mill House


    183 Milton Park


    Abingdon


    Oxon OX14 4SE


    e-mail: [email protected]


    Web site: www.helicon.co.uk


    Cover illustration: John Taylor. Table of contents


    A


    Abacha, Sani


    Abbas, Ferhat


    Abbas II (of Egypt)


    Abbey, Joseph Leo Seko


    Abboud, Ibrahim


    Abd al-Hamid II


    Abdel Meguid, Ahmed Esmat


    Abdullah, ibn Abdul Aziz al-Saud


    Abdullah, Sheikh Muhammad


    Abdullah ibn Hussein


    Aberhart, William


    Abernathy, Ralph D


    Abiola, Moshood Kastumawo


    Abubakar, Siddiq


    Abu Nidal


    Abzug, Bella Savitsky


    Achad Haam


    Acheampong, Ignatius Kutu


    Achebe, Chinua


    Acheson, Dean (Gooderham)


    Achour, Habib


    Adamkus, Valdas


    Adams, Gerry


    Adams, Grantley Herbert


    Adams, Henry Brooks


    Adams, Tom (John Michael)


    Addams, Jane


    Adenauer, Konrad


    Adler, Cyrus


    Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund


    Aehrenthal, Count Aloys von


    'Aflaq, Michel


    Afrifa, Okatakyie Akwasi Amankwa


    Afwerki, Issaias


    Aga Khan III


    Aga Khan IV, (Karim)


    Agnew, Spiro (Theodore)


    Aguinaldo, Emilio


    Aguiyi-Ironsi, Johnson


    Ahern, Bertie


    Ahidjo, Ahmadou


    Ahtisaari, Maarti


    Aidid, Muhammad Farah


    Aidit, D N


    Ait Ahmed, Hocine


    Aitken, Jonathan (William Patrick)


    Akaka, Daniel Kahikina


    Akayev, Askar


    Akhmatova, Anna


    Akintola, Samuel Ladoke Alain


    Al-Bakr, Ahmed Hassan


    Albizu Campos, Pedro


    Albright, Madeleine


    Alcalá Zamora y Torres, Niceto


    Alebua, Ezekiel


    Alemán Lacayo, (José Arnoldo)


    Alemán Valdés, Miguel


    Alessandri Palma, Arturo


    Alexander I, Karageorgevich (of Yugoslavia)


    Alexander of Hillsborough, Albert Victor Alexander


    Alfaro, Eloy


    Alfonsín Foulkes, Raúl Ricardo


    Algren, Nelson Abraham


    Ali, (Chaudri) Muhammad


    Ali, Ibn Hussein


    Ali, Maulana Muhammad


    Ali, Maulana Shaukat


    Ali, Salim Rubayi


    Ali, Tariq


    Alia, Ramiz


    Ali Aref Bourhan


    Ali Mahdi, Muhammad


    Aliyev, Geidar Alirza


    Allende (Gossens), Salvador


    Alvear, Marcelo Torcuato de


    Amado, Jorge


    Amato, Giuliano


    Amery, Leo(pold Charles Maurice Stennett)


    Amin, Mustafa


    Amin (Dada), Idi


    Amos, Valerie


    Anami, Korechika


    Ancram, Michael Andrew Foster Jude Kerr


    Anderson, John


    Anderson, Marian


    Andrade, Mario Pinto de


    Andreotti, Giulio


    Andropov, Yuri


    Angelou, Maya


    Annan, Kofi


    Antall, József


    Anthony, Kenny


    Antonescu, Ion


    Anyaoku, Eleazar Chukwuemeka (Emeka)


    Aoun, Michel


    Aquino, (Maria) Corazon


    Arafat, Yassir


    Aragon, Louis Marie


    Araña Osorio, Carlos


    Arbenz Guzmán, Jácobo


    Archer, Jeffrey Howard


    Arendt, Hannah


    Arens, Moshe


    Arevalo Bermejo, Juan José Arias Madrid, Arnulfo


    Arias Navarro, Carlos


    Arias Sanchez, Oscar


    Aristide, Jean-Bertrand


    Armstrong, Robert Temple


    Arnold, Eve


    Arriaga, Manuel José de


    Arroyo, Gloria Macapagal


    Arthur, Owen (Seymour)


    Arzú, Irigoyen Alvaro


    Asanuma, Inejiro


    Ashcroft, John


    Ashdown, Paddy (Jeremy John Durham)


    Ashe, Arthur (Robert, Jr)


    Ashley, Jack


    Ashrawi, Hanan


    Askin, Robert (Robin William)


    Asquith, Herbert Henry


    Assad, Hafez al


    Astor, Nancy


    Asturias, Miguel Ángel


    Atassi, Hashem al-


    Atatürk, Kemal


    Attlee, Clement (Richard)


    Atwood, Margaret (Eleanor)


    Auden, W(ystan) H(ugh)


    Aung San


    Aurobindo Ghose


    Ávila Camacho, Manuel


    Avksent'yev,, Nikolai Dmitriyevich


    Awolowo, Obafemi


    Aylwin, (Azòcar) Patricio


    Ayub Khan, Muhammad


    Azad, Maulana Abul Kalam


    Azaña, Manuel


    Azcona del Hoyo, José Simon


    Azhari, Ismail


    Azikiwe, Nnamdi


    Aziz, Tariq


    Aznar, José Maria


    B


    Baader, Andreas


    Babangida, Ibrahim


    Badawi, Abdullah Ahmad


    Badinter, Robert


    Badoglio, Pietro


    Baez, Joan


    Bailey, Liberty Hyde (Jr)


    Baker, Howard Henry


    Baker, James Addison III


    Baker, Kenneth Wilfrid


    Baker, Newton Diehl Bakhtiar, Shahpur


    Balaguer Ricardo, Joaquín Videla


    Balbo, Count Italo


    Baldwin, James Arthur


    Baldwin, Stanley


    Balfour, Arthur James


    Balladur, Edouard


    Ballance, John


    Banda, Hastings Kamuzu


    Bandaranaike, Sirimavo


    Bandaranaike, Solomon West Ridgeway Dias


    Bandera, Stepan


    Bang, Nina Henriette Wendeline


    Bani-Sadr, Abu'l-Hassan


    Banks, Dennis


    Bánzer Suárez, Hugo


    Barak, Ehud


    Baraka, (Imamu) Amiri


    Barayi, Elijah


    Barber, Anthony Perrinott Lysberg


    Barbie, Klaus


    Barco Vargas, Virgilio


    Barnes, George Nicoll


    Barre, Raymond Octave Joseph


    Barrientos Ortuño, René


    Barrow, Errol Walton


    Barry, Marion, Jr


    Barton, Edmund


    Baruch, Bernard Mannes


    Barudi, Mahmud Sami al-


    Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmad al-


    Basu, Jyoti


    Batista (y Zaldívar), Fulgencio


    Batlle y Ordóñez, José


    Batt, Philip


    Bavadra, Timoci


    Bayer, Mahmud Jelâl


    Bazargan, Mehdi


    Beatrix, (Wilhelmina Armgard)


    Beauvoir, Simone de


    Beaverbrook, (William) Max(well) Aitken


    Bebel, (Ferdinand) August


    Beckett, Margaret


    Bedjaoui, Mohamed


    Begin, Menachem


    Belafonte, Harry


    Belafrej, Ahmed


    Belaid, Abdessalem


    Belaúnde Terry, Fernando


    Belkacem, Krim


    Bell, Francis Henry Dillon


    Belloc, (Joseph) Hilaire (René Pierre)


    Ben Ali, Zine el Abidine


    Ben Barka, Mehdi


    Ben Bella, Muhammad Ahmed Beneš, Edvard


    Ben-Gurion, David


    Benn, Tony (Anthony Neil Wedgwood)


    Bennett, Richard Bedford


    Ben Salah, Ahmed


    Bentsen, Lloyd Millard


    Ben Youssef, Salah


    Ben Zvi, Izhak


    Bérégovoy, Pierre (Eugène)


    Berezovsky, Boris Abramovich


    Berisha, Sali


    Beriya, Lavrenti Pavlovich


    Berlin, Isaiah


    Berlinguer, Enrico


    Berlusconi, Silvio


    Bernadotte, Count Folke


    Bernstein, Carl


    Bernstein, Eduard


    Bernstein, Herman


    Berri, Nabih


    Berrios Martínez, Rubén


    Besant, Annie


    Bessmertnykh, Aleksandr


    Betancourt, Rómulo


    Betancur Cuartas, Belisario


    Bethe, Hans Albrecht


    Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald Theodor Friedrich Alfred von


    Bevan, Aneurin (Nye)


    Beveridge, William Henry


    Bevin, Ernest


    Bhattari, Krishna Prasad


    Bhindranwale, Sant Jarnail Singh


    Bhumibol Adulyadej


    Bhutto, Benazir


    Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali


    Bidault, Georges Augustin


    Biffen, (William) John


    Biko, Steve


    Bildt, Carl


    Bingham, Hiram


    bin Laden, Osama


    Bird, Lester B


    Bird, Vere Cornwall


    Birendra, Bir Bikram Shah Dev


    Birkenhead, F(rederick) E(dwin) Smith


    Bishop, Maurice


    Bitar, Salah Eddin


    Bitat, Rabah


    Biya, Paul


    Bjelke-Petersen, Joh(annes)


    Black, Hugo LaFayette


    Black Elk


    Blair, Tony


    Blaize, Herbert Augustus


    Blake, George (spy) Blanco, (Salvador) Jorge


    Blanco-Fombona, Rufino


    Bliss, Tasker Howard


    Blum, Léon


    Blunkett, David


    Blunt, Anthony Frederick


    Bly, Robert Elwood


    Boateng, Paul Yaw


    Boganda, Barthélemy


    Bogart, Humphrey (DeForest)


    Boggs, Thomas Hale, Sr


    Bohlen, Charles 'Chip'


    Bokassa, Jean-Bédel


    Bolger, Jim


    Bolkiah, Muda Hassanal


    Bondevik, Kjell Magne


    Bondfield, Margaret Grace


    Bongo, Omar


    Bonham-Carter, (Helen) Violet


    Bonner, Yelena


    Bonomi, Ivanoe


    Boothby, Robert John Graham


    Boothroyd, Betty


    Borah, William Edgar


    Borden, Robert Laird


    Boris III


    Borja Cevallos, Rodrigo


    Bormann, Martin


    Bornó, (Joseph) Louis


    Boross, Peter


    Bosch, (Gavino) Juan Domingo


    Bose, Subhas Chandra


    Bossi, Umberto


    Botha, Louis


    Botha, P(ieter) W(illem)


    Bottai, Giuseppe


    Bottomley, Virginia Hilda Brunette Maxwell


    Boucetta, M'Hamed


    Boudiaf, Mohamed


    Boumaza, Bachir


    Boumédienne, Houari


    Bourassa, Henri


    Bourgeois, Léon Victor Auguste


    Bourguiba, Habib ben Ali


    Bouteflika, Abdelaziz


    Bouterse, Désiré


    Boutros-Ghali, Boutros


    Braddock, Elizabeth Margaret (Bessie)


    Bradshaw, Robert Llewellyn


    Braine, John (Gerard)


    Braithwaite, Nicholas


    Brandeis, Louis Dembitz


    Brandt, Willy


    Bratianu, Ion


    Bremer, (Lewis) Paul Brennan, William J(oseph), Jr


    Brenton, Howard


    Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich


    Briand, Aristide


    Bridges, Harry (Alfred Renton)


    Brink, André P(hilippus)


    Brittain, Vera (Mary)


    Brittan, Leon


    Brooke, Peter Leonard


    Brookeborough, Basil Stanlake Brooke


    Browder, Earl Russell


    Brown, (James) Gordon


    Brown, George Alfred


    Brown, Jim


    Brown, Ron(ald Harmon)


    Bruce, David K E (Kirkpatrick Este)


    Bruce, Lenny


    Bruce, Stanley Melbourne


    Brundtland, Gro Harlem


    Brüning, Heinrich


    Bruton, John Gerard


    Bryan, William Jennings


    Brzezinski, Zbigniew


    Bucaram, Ortiz Abdalá


    Buchan, John


    Buchanan, Pat(rick Joseph)


    Buckley, William F(rank)


    Buhari, Muhammadu


    Bukharin, Nikolai Ivanovich


    Bulatovic, Momir


    Bulganin, Nikolai Aleksandrovich


    Bülow, Bernhard Heinrich Martin Karl, Prince von Bülow


    Bunche, Ralph Johnson


    Bundy, McGeorge


    Bunker, Ellsworth


    Burger, Warren Earl


    Burgess, Guy Francis de Moncy


    Burnham, (Linden) Forbes (Sampson)


    Burnham, Harry Lawson-Webster Levy-Lawson


    Burns, John Elliot


    Burroughs, William S(eward)


    Bush, George Herbert Walker


    Bush, George W(alker), Jr


    Busia, Kofi


    Bustamante, (William) Alexander


    Buthelezi, Chief Mangosuthu Gatsha


    Butler, Richard Austen


    Buyoya, Pierre


    Buzek, Jerzy Karol


    C


    Cabral, Amilcar


    Cabral, Luiz de Almeida Caetano, Marcello José des Neves Alves


    Cairns, James Ford


    Cai Yuanpei


    Caldera Rodriguez, Rafael


    Calderón Guardia, Rafael Ángel


    Calderón Sol, Armando


    Callaghan, (Leonard) James


    Callaghan, Daniel J


    Callejas Romero, Rafael Leonardo


    Calles, Plutarco Elías


    Calvo, Carlos


    Calwell, Arthur Augustus


    Campbell, Kim


    Campbell, Menzies


    Campbell-Bannerman, Henry


    Campíns, Luis Herrera


    Cámpora, Héctor


    Canaris, Wilhelm Franz


    Carabillo, Toni


    Cárdenas, Lázaro


    Cardoso, Fernando Henrique


    Cardozo, Benjamin Nathan


    Carey, James (Barron)


    Carías Andino, Tiburcio


    Carlot Korman, Maxime


    Carlsson, Ingvar (Gösta)


    Carlucci, Frank Charles


    Carmichael, Stokely


    Carmona, Antonio


    Carpenter, Edward


    Carranza, Venustiano


    Carrera Andrade, Jorge


    Carrington, Peter Alexander Rupert


    Carroll, James (politician)


    Carson, Edward Henry


    Carter, Jimmy


    Casement, Roger David


    Casey, Richard Gardiner


    Castelo Branco, Humberto de Alencar


    Castillo Armas, Carlos


    Castle, Barbara Anne


    Castro, Cipriano


    Castro (Ruz), Fidel Alejandro


    Cato, (Robert) Milton


    Catt, Carrie Chapman


    Cavaco Silva, Anibal


    Ceausescu, Nicolae


    Cerezo Arévalo, Mario Vinicio


    Césaire, Aimé Fernand


    Céspedes, Carlos Manuel de


    Chadli, Benjedid


    Chamberlain, (Arthur) Neville


    Chamberlain, (Joseph) Austen


    Chamberlain, Joseph


    Chambers, George Michael


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