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The History of Christian Theology

227 Pages · 2012 · 4.46 MB · English

  • The History of Christian Theology

    Topic


    Religion Subtopic


    “Pure intellectual stimulation that can be popped into


    & Theology Christianity


    the [audio or video player] anytime.”


    —Harvard Magazine


    T The History of


    “Passionate, erudite, living legend lecturers. Academia’s


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    best lecturers are being captured on tape.” e H


    —The Los Angeles Times is Christian Theology


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    “A serious force in American education.” o


    —The Wall Street Journal f C Course Guidebook


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    T Professor Phillip Cary


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    eo Eastern University


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    Professor Phillip Cary is Professor of Philosophy at Eastern


    University and Scholar-in-Residence at the Templeton Honors


    College. He holds a Ph.D. in Philosophy and Religious Studies


    from Yale University. A former teacher at Yale, the University


    of Connecticut, and other prestigious universities, Professor


    Cary won Eastern University’s prestigious Lindback Award for


    his excellence in undergraduate teaching.


    THE GREAT COURSES®


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    Cover Image: © Norberto Mario Lauria/Shutterstock. o


    Course No. 6450 © 2008 The Teaching Company. PB6450A k PUBLISHED BY:


    THE GREAT COURSES


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    4840 Westfi elds Boulevard, Suite 500


    Chantilly, Virginia 20151-2299


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    Copyright © The Teaching Company, 2008


    Printed in the United States of America


    This book is in copyright. All rights reserved.


    Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above,


    no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in


    or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted,


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    without the prior written permission of


    The Teaching Company. Phillip Cary, Ph.D.


    Professor of Philosophy


    Eastern University


    P


    rofessor Phillip Cary is Director of the


    Philosophy Program at Eastern University


    in St. Davids, Pennsylvania, where he


    is also Scholar-in-Residence at the Templeton


    Honors College. He earned his B.A. in both


    English Literature and Philosophy at Washington


    University in St. Louis, then earned an M.A. in Philosophy and a Ph.D. in


    both Philosophy and Religious Studies at Yale University. Professor Cary


    has taught at Yale University, the University of Hartford, the University


    of Connecticut, and Villanova University. He was an Arthur J. Ennis Post-


    Doctoral Fellow at Villanova University, where he taught in Villanova’s


    nationally acclaimed Core Humanities program.


    At Eastern University, he is a recent winner of the Lindback Award for


    excellence in undergraduate teaching. His specialty is the thought of


    Augustine, on whom he has written three scholarly books for Oxford


    University Press: Augustine’s Invention of the Inner Self (2000), Inner Grace


    (2008) and Outward Signs (2008). He has also written Jonah for the Brazos


    Press series, Theological Commentary on the Bible, as well as numerous


    articles for philosophical and theological publications. Professor Cary has


    published scholarly articles on Augustine, Luther, the doctrine of the Trinity,


    and interpersonal knowledge. Professor Cary produced the following popular


    courses for The Teaching Company: Augustine: Philosopher and Saint and


    Philosophy and Religion in the West. He also contributed to The Teaching


    Company’s third edition of the course titled Great Minds of the Western


    Intellectual Tradition. (cid:374)


    i Table of Contents


    INTRODUCTION


    Professor Biography ............................................................................i


    Course Scope .....................................................................................1


    LECTURE GUIDES


    LECTURE 1


    What Is Theology? ..............................................................................3


    LECTURE 2


    Early Christian Proclamation ..............................................................6


    LECTURE 3


    Pauline Eschatology ...........................................................................9


    LECTURE 4


    The Synoptic Gospels ......................................................................12


    LECTURE 5


    The Gospel of John ..........................................................................15


    LECTURE 6


    Varieties of Early Christianity ............................................................18


    LECTURE 7


    The Emergence of Christian Doctrine ..............................................21


    LECTURE 8


    Christian Reading .............................................................................25


    LECTURE 9


    The Uses of Philosophy....................................................................28


    LECTURE 10


    The Doctrine of the Trinity ................................................................31


    ii Table of Contents


    LECTURE 11


    The Doctrine of the Incarnation ........................................................35


    LECTURE 12


    The Doctrine of Grace ......................................................................39


    LECTURE 13


    The Incomprehensible and the Supernatural ...................................43


    LECTURE 14


    Eastern Orthodox Theology ..............................................................47


    LECTURE 15


    Atonement and the Procession of the Spirit .....................................50


    LECTURE 16


    Scholastic Theology .........................................................................53


    LECTURE 17


    The Sacraments ...............................................................................57


    LECTURE 18


    Souls after Death ..............................................................................61


    LECTURE 19


    Luther and Protestant Theology .......................................................64


    LECTURE 20


    Calvin and Reformed Theology ........................................................68


    LECTURE 21


    Protestants on Predestination ..........................................................72


    LECTURE 22


    Protestant Disagreements ...............................................................76


    LECTURE 23


    Anabaptists and the Radical Reformation .......................................80


    iii Table of Contents


    LECTURE 24


    Anglicans and Puritans .....................................................................84


    LECTURE 25


    Baptists and Quakers .......................................................................88


    LECTURE 26


    Pietists and the Turn to Experience ..................................................91


    LECTURE 27


    From Puritans to Revivalists .............................................................95


    LECTURE 28


    Perfection, Holiness, and Pentecostalism .....................................100


    LECTURE 29


    Deism and Liberal Protestantism....................................................103


    LECTURE 30


    Neo-Orthodoxy—From Kierkegaard to Barth .................................107


    LECTURE 31


    Evangelicalism and Fundamentalism .............................................111


    LECTURE 32


    Protestantism after Modernity.........................................................115


    LECTURE 33


    Catholic Theologies of Grace .........................................................119


    LECTURE 34


    Catholic Mystical Theology .............................................................123


    LECTURE 35


    From Vatican I to Vatican II .............................................................127


    LECTURE 36


    Vatican II and Ecumenical Prospects .............................................131


    iv Table of Contents


    SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL


    Timeline ..........................................................................................135


    Glossary .........................................................................................148


    Biographical Notes .........................................................................191


    Bibliography ....................................................................................203


    v vi The History of Christian Theology


    Scope:


    T


    his course surveys major developments in the history of Christian


    theology, which is the tradition of critical reasoning about how


    to teach the faith of Christ. Taking the centrality of Jesus Christ as


    the distinctive feature of Christianity, it focuses on theological concepts by


    relating them to Christian life and experience, including especially practices


    of worship.


    The course begins with the (cid:191) rst Christian theological writings, the books


    of the New Testament, the earliest of which, the letters of Paul, re(cid:192) ect a


    worship of the exalted Christ at the right hand of God, in light of which later


    documents, such as the Four Gospels, tell the story of the historical Jesus,


    his earthly life, death, and resurrection. The course proceeds to examine the


    theology of the early church, how it read the Jewish scriptures and how it


    used Greek philosophy, as well as how the very idea of of(cid:191) cial Christian


    doctrine and its opposite, heresy, arose in response to the large variety of


    early Christianities. The survey of ancient Christian theology concludes in


    Part I by presenting three key doctrines: Trinity, Incarnation, and grace.


    Part II covers medieval and Reformation theology. The distinctive features


    of Eastern Orthodox theology are discussed, including the use of icons, the


    theology of the Trans(cid:191) guration, the distinction between divine essence and


    energies, and the disagreement with the Western churches about whether the


    Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father “and the Son.” Key developments in


    medieval Catholicism are examined, including scholastic theology, the use of


    logic and analogy, the seven sacraments, and the soul’s existence in heaven,


    hell, or purgatory in the time between death and resurrection. Reformation


    theology begins with the doctrine of justi(cid:191) cation by faith alone and the


    Lutheran distinction between Law and Gospel, followed by the Reformed


    tradition and the development of Calvinism, with its distinctive commitment


    to the knowledge of eternal salvation, from which (cid:192) ows its embrace of the


    doctrine of predestination. The Anabaptists, such as the Mennonites, form a


    third and radical wing of the Reformation, while the Anglican tradition of


    1 the English Reformation aims for a middle way between Reformed theology


    and Catholicism.


    Part III begins by tracing the course of Protestant theology through the


    modern period. Modernity means a gradual secularization of Western


    Christendom, as can be seen in the theology of Baptists and Quakers,


    both of which offer an alternative to state churches and advocate religious


    liberty for all. True religion comes to be seen increasingly as a private inner


    experience rather than outward conformity to an institutional church, as can


    be seen in the Puritan emphasis on conversion, which leads to the Pietist


    emphasis on true Christianity as well as to the tradition of revivalism that is


    so strong in America, including the Methodist emphasis on holiness and its


    offshoot, Pentecostalism. On the other hand, the increasing secularization of


    modern culture and especially of historical scholarship on the Bible poses


    new problems for Christian theology, to which deism, liberal theology, neo-


    Orthodoxy, evangelicalism, and Fundamentalism are responses.


    The course concludes by treating the history of Roman Catholic theology


    in modernity, beginning with the doctrine of grace formulated by the 16th-


    century Council of Trent in response to Protestant challenges, proceeding


    to the high point of mystical and devotional theology in early modern Spain


    and France, and concluding with the (cid:191) rst and second Vatican councils, the


    doctrine of papal infallibility, and questions about how the church’s teaching


    may legitimately change. A (cid:191) nal lecture examines the ecumenical theology


    that opens up after Vatican II, drawing Catholics, Orthodox, and Protestants


    into ongoing conversation about the boundaries of the tradition of Christian


    theology and its center in Jesus Christ. (cid:374)


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