2

The Geography of Beer

211 Pages · 2014 · 18.63 MB · English

  • The Geography of Beer

    The Geography of Beer Mark Pattersonxa0·xa0Nancy Hoalst-Pullen


    Editors


    The Geography of Beer


    Regions, Environment, and Societies


    2123 Editors


    Mark Patterson Nancy Hoalst-Pullen


    Geography and Anthropology Geography and Anthropology


    Kennesaw State University Kennesaw State University


    Kennesaw Kennesaw


    Georgia Georgia


    USA USA


    ISBN 978-94-007-7786-6 ISBN 978-94-007-7787-3 (eBook)


    DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-7787-3


    Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg New York London


    Library of Congress Control Number: 2014932211


    © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014


    This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is


    concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduc-


    tion on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic


    adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted


    from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied


    specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser


    of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright


    Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer.


    Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to


    prosecution under the respective Copyright Law.


    The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not


    imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and


    regulations and therefore free for general use.


    While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither


    the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be


    made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.


    Printed on acid-free paper


    Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com). Foreword


    The brewing industry has changed dramatically since I started working 39 years ago. The two


    primary changes, the globalization and rise of the huge multi-nationals and the growth of the


    very small specialty breweries may at first seem antithetical, but, I believe that the former defi-


    nitely precipitated the latter. After prohibition in the mid 1930s there were over 750 breweries


    in the United States, mostly smaller breweries run by the descendants of German immigrants


    from the mid to late 1800s, while most large cities had at least one 1 million barrel brewery,


    and a few very large breweries were starting to push their distribution boundaries beyond their


    regional locations.


    In 1975 I started at the lowest position, a union bottleshop employee at the Joseph Huber


    Brewing Company in Monroe, Wisconsin, a brewery founded by German immigrants in 1848.


    By this time the U.S. was down to only 45 brewing companies, with a few of the old smaller


    regionals barely hanging on in face of the advertising expenditures and economies of scale that


    the national brewers had at their disposal. It is amazing that of these multi-plant national brew-


    ers, Anheuser-Busch, Schlitz, Pabst, Miller, G. Heileman, Falstaff, and Carling-National, and


    the single brewery giants, Coors, Stroh, Hamm’s, Olympia, Ballantine, Rheingold, Schaeffer


    and Genesee, not a single one any longer exists as a separate entity with the exception of Pabst


    which has become a contract or virtual brewer. All the rest have been combined, closed or


    bought by foreign multi-nationals. I would never have believed in 1975 that I would live to


    see the day that the once largest brewer in the world, Anheuser-Busch, would be bought by a


    Belgian/Brazilian consortium which was even bigger than they were and now together pro-


    duces one quarter of all the beer in the world. They are being chased in their quest for global


    dominance by SAB-Miller, the conglomerate spawned by a brewing group that started with


    dominance in Africa and then went on to buy breweries in Eastern Europe as that area opened


    up following the collapse of the Soviet bloc, the merged U.S. operations of Miller and Coors


    and perhaps even more importantly, a 50 % ownership in CRB, the largest brewing company


    in China, the producers of Snow, the single largest selling brand in the world.


    China, which 7 years ago surpassed the U.S. as the largest brewing country in the world,


    has in the interim grown to the point where it is now producing twice as much beer and is still


    growing while the total volume in the mature North American market remains relatively stable.


    Following AB-I and SAB-Miller are Heineken and Carlsberg who have both followed suit


    by buying up and building breweries around the world and they, in turn are followed by the


    other brewing giants including the Chinese brewers Tsingdao and Yanjing and Japanese brew-


    ers, Kirin and Asahi. The Japanese brewers are looking to expand outside their shores as they


    are faced with a declining population and a shrinking market. Kirin is now the owner of San


    Miguel in the Philippines as well as Lion Nathan which holds a 45 % market share in Australia.


    The other major player in Australia is Fosters now owned by SAB-Miller. All of these compa-


    nies continue to look for acquisitions and there will, no doubt, be mergers among them as well.


    The rise of the large brewers in the United States created a void as they all produced similar


    styles of beer, 35 % adjunct light tasting lagers with low bitterness units as well as low calorie


    beers which were even lighter in flavor and which achieved their low calorie level by reducing


    both residual sugars and more importantly the alcohol which is the bulk of the calories in most


    v vi Foreword


    beers. There were a few specialty beers in 1975, Yuengling Porter from the oldest brewery


    in the U.S. (1829), Ballantine India Pale Ale (50 I.B.U., 6 % ABV and aged in wood for one


    year), Augsburger, a German style lager from Huber Brewing, but these were anomalies, not


    the norm.


    To fill this vacuum came the first American micro-brewery, New Albion, in Sonoma,


    California in 1977. I was working at nearby Anchor Steam at the time and witnessed first hand


    their success and failure. New Albion produced an all malt hoppy and estery ale that was in


    contrast to the light lagers that constituted over 99 % of the beer then produced in the U.S.


    The inspiration for this style of brewing was undoubtedly Anchor Steam, which while having


    a long history, was a very small brewery (11,000 bbls., 12,900 hl, in those days) producing an


    iconoclastic all malt amber beer that was strongly hopped. Soon other micro breweries started


    popping up in California and later across the country. Initially, quality was all over the map.


    These breweries were mostly started by former home brewers who were happy to be producing


    beers with an abundance of flavor without realizing in some cases that many of those flavors


    were off flavors produced by poor fermentations, contamination and the rudimentary equip-


    ment available to these early craft breweries. Gradually the quality of many of these breweries


    grew to a professional level and with this so did the size of many craft plants. Their success


    gave rise to even more breweries to the point where we now have over 2000 micro breweries


    and brewpubs in the United States and two of the largest of these, Sierra Nevada and New


    Belgium, have now built breweries on the East Coast to compliment their original Western


    breweries. Sierra Nevada in particular is constantly doing very advanced research and R&D


    that rivals that of some of the now defunct national brewers. So, in a way, brewing has come


    full circle, from the multitude of small local breweries to the national breweries and back to the


    local brewer in town with the difference being that these breweries now produce every style


    in the world as well as new styles developed within the craft industry. At the Great American


    Beer Festival, beers are judged in over 80 categories when just 40 years ago 4 or 5 styles con-


    stituted almost all of the beer in the United States. In fact, as the craft movement continues to


    swell and slowly eats away at the barrelage of the mainstream brewers, these brewers have also


    started producing craft style beers or buying out craft breweries.


    The success of the craft movement has also not gone unnoticed around the world and has


    led the way to the development of small breweries producing specialty beers in Canada, Japan,


    Australia, and even in the countries from whence many of these styles first originated like the


    U.K., Ireland and Germany.


    I would never have predicted in 1975 what has happened today but it seems that the polar


    opposites of both the continued growth of the large global brewers and the rise of the local


    specialty brewer will continue for the foreseeable future.


    Alan Kornhauser


    Brewmaster Acknowledgments


    This edited volume is a culmination of exceptional work and determination from many indi-


    viduals throughout the world. As such, we would like to recognize and thank those who were


    most instrumental in helping us see this volume from its inception through its completion.


    We would first like to thank all of the authors for contributing their knowledge on various


    topics related to the geography of beer. Their expertise and professionalism were bar none, and


    we appreciate their ability to take what they know and to conform it into chapters that fit the


    overarching theme and writing style of this volume, especially given the short deadlines and


    sometimes extensive revisions. Additional thanks goes to all the anonymous reviewers whose


    comments improved the overall cohesion of the book, and allowed the authors to expand their


    writings and discover the “geographies” of their work.


    We believe that geography is distinctive from other disciplines because of its inherent spa-


    tial emphasis. As many of the authors are not trained geographers, we worked with a couple


    very important individuals who helped incorporate the “geography” into the chapters to show-


    case the spatial findings. Specifically, we wish to thank Michael D. Vest, our cartographer, who


    created many of the maps that are arguably works of art, and Rebecca Mattord, our student


    assistant, who helped us with many facets of this book, and who interpreted our underlying


    vision with the creation of the notable figure found in the introduction chapter of this volume.


    Without reserve, we wish to thank Dr. Robert K. Doe, our Publishing Editor, and his uni-


    versal support and excitement for this project. The idea of this book originated from a discus-


    sion during an annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers. While there is


    still debate regarding which editor came up with the original idea, Robert has never failed in


    championing this project and has provided patience, enthusiasm and advocacy to bring this


    volume from a concept to a reality.


    We wish to thank all the other members of the publishing team, including Naomi Portnoy,


    our project coordinator, who kept us on task and provided timely answers to our many ques-


    tions, as well as Ms. Neelu Sahu, our Project Manager at Crest Premedia Solutions, for proof-


    ing the texts and compiling the chapters into the final product.


    Additionally, we wish to thank the 2013 Beeronomics Conference and its associated mem-


    bers (including the world’s second most interesting man) for educating us on the science,


    economics, geography and taste of the many types, styles and varieties of beer.


    Finally, thanks to all the brewmasters with whom we talked while conducting research.


    Thank you for sharing your knowledge, passion, experience and of course, your beer. This


    book is dedicated to the geographers of beer.


    Water, barley, yeast


    Add some hops to make bitter


    Brewing is spatial


    vii Contents


    1 Geographies of Beer ............................................................................................... 1


    Mark W. Patterson and Nancy Hoalst-Pullen


    Part I Regions


    2 The Geography of Beer in Europe from 1000 BC to AD 1000 ........................... 9


    Max Nelson


    3 The Spatial Diffusion of Beer from its Sumerian Origins to Today ................... 23


    Steven L. Sewell


    4 Mapping United States Breweries 1612 to 2011 ................................................... 31


    Samuel A. Batzli


    5 Local to National and Back Again: Beer, Wisconsin & Scale ............................. 45


    Andrew Shears


    6 The World’s Beer: The Historical Geography of Brewing in Mexico ............... 57


    Susan M. Gauss and Edward Beatty


    7 Geographic Appellations of Beer ........................................................................... 67


    Roger Mittag


    Part II Environment


    8 The Global Hop: An Agricultural Overview of the Brewer’s Gold ................... 77


    Peter A. Kopp


    9 Sweetwater, Mountain Springs, and Great Lakes:


    A Hydro-Geography of Beer Brands .................................................................... 89


    Jay D. Gatrell, David J. Nemeth and Charles D. Yeager


    10 A Taste of Place: Environmental Geographies of the Classic Beer Styles ......... 99


    Stephen Yool and Andrew Comrie


    11 Sustainability Trends in the Regional Craft Beer Industry ................................ 109


    Nancy Hoalst-Pullen, Mark W. Patterson, Rebecca Anna Mattord and


    Michael D. Vest


    ix x Contents


    Part III Societies


    12 The Origins and Diaspora of the India Pale Ale .................................................. 119


    Jake E. Haugland


    13 The Ubiquity of Good Taste: A Spatial Analysis of the


    Craft Brewing Industry in the United States ........................................................ 131


    Ralph B. McLaughlin, Neil Reid and Michael S. Moore


    14 Too Big to Ale? Globalization and Consolidation in the Beer Industry ............. 155


    Philip H. Howard


    15 Microbreweries, Place, and Identity in the United States ................................... 167


    Steven M. Schnell and Joseph F. Reese


    16 Neolocalism and the Branding and Marketing of Place by


    Canadian Microbreweries ..................................................................................... 189


    Derrek Eberts


    17 Offline Brews and Online Views: Exploring the Geography of Beer Tweets .... 201


    Matthew Zook and Ate Poorthuis


    Index ................................................................................................................................. 211 Contributors


    Samuel A. Batzli Space Science & Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison,


    Madison, WI, USA


    Edward Beatty Department of History, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA


    Andrew Comrie School of Geography and Development, University of Arizona, Tucson,


    AZ, USA


    Derrek Eberts Department of Geography, Brandon University, Brandon, MB, Canada


    Jay D. Gatrell Bellarmine University, Louisville, KY, USA


    Susan M. Gauss Department of History, University at Albany, State University of New York,


    Albany, NY, USA


    Jake E. Haugland Division of Continuing Education and Professional Studies, University of


    Colorado-Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA


    Philip H. Howard Department of Community Sustainability, Michigan State University,


    East Lansing, MI, USA


    Peter A. Kopp Department of History, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA


    Rebecca Anna Mattord Department of Geography and Anthropology, Kennesaw State Uni-


    versity, Kennesaw, GA, USA


    Ralph B. McLaughlin Department of Urban and Regional Planning, San José State Univer-


    sity, San Jose, CA, USA


    Roger Mittag School of Hospitality, Recreation & Tourism, Humber College Institute of


    Technology and Advanced Learning, Toronto, ON, Canada


    Michael S. Moore Urban Affairs Center and Department of Geography and Planning,


    University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA


    Max Nelson Languages, Literatures, and Cultures Department, University of Windsor,


    Windsor, ON, Canada


    David J. Nemeth Department of Geography and Planning, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH,


    USA


    Mark W. Patterson Department of Geography and Anthropology, Kennesaw State University,


    Kennesaw, GA, USA


    Ate Poorthuis Department of Geography, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA


    xi


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.