2

The English Language english language

480 Pages · 2010 · 2.12 MB · English

  • The English Language english language

    The


    English


    Language


    From Sound


    to Sense


    Gerald P. Delahunty


    James J. Garvey The English Language


    From Sound to Sense PERSPECTIVES ON WRITING


    Series Editor, Mike Palmquist


    The Perspectives on Writing series addresses writing studies in a broad sense.


    Consistent with the wide ranging approaches characteristic of teaching


    and scholarship in writing across the curriculum, the series presents works


    that take divergent perspectives on working as a writer, teaching writing,


    administering writing programs, and studying writing in its various forms.


    The WAC Clearinghouse and Parlor Press are collaborating so that these


    books will be widely available through free digital distribution and low-


    cost print editions. The publishers and the series editor are teachers and


    researchers of writing, committed to the principle that knowledge should


    freely circulate. We see the opportunities that new technologies have for


    further democratizing knowledge. And we see that to share the power of


    writing is to share the means for all to articulate their needs, interest, and


    learning into the great experiment of literacy.


    Existing Books in the Series


    Charles Bazerman and David R. Russell, Writing Selves/Writing Societies (2003)


    Charles Bazerman, Adair Bonini, and Débora Figueiredo (Eds.), Genre in a


    Changing World (2009)


    David Franke, Alex Reid and Anthony DiRenzo (Eds.), Design Discourse: Composing


    and Revising the Professional and Technical Writing Curriculum (2010)


    Gerald P. Delahunty and James Garvey, The English Language: from Sound to Sense


    (2010) The English Language


    From Sound to Sense


    Gerald P. Delahunty


    James J. Garvey


    The WAC Clearinghouse


    wac.colostate.edu


    Fort Collins, Colorado


    Parlor Press


    www.parlorpress.com


    West Lafayette, Indiana The WAC Clearinghouse, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523


    Parlor Press, 3015 Brackenberry Drive, Anderson, South Carolina 29621


    © 2010 Gerald P. Delahunty


    ISBN 978-0-97270-233-1 (pdf) | 978-1-60235-180-6 (pbk.)


    DOI 10.37514/PER-B.2010.2331


    Produced in the United States of America


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Delahunty, Gerald Patrick.


    The English language : from sound to sense / Gerald P. Delahunty, James J. Garvey.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 978-1-60235-180-6 (pbk. : alk. paper) -- ISBN 978-0-97270-233-1 (adobe ebook)


    1. Linguistics. 2. Language and languages. 3. English language--Study and teaching. I. Garvey, James


    J. II. Title.


    P121.D384 2010


    425--dc22


    2010011194


    Copyeditor, Designer: David Doran


    Series Editor: Mike Palmquist


    The WAC Clearinghouse supports teachers of writing across the disciplines. Hosted by Colorado State


    University, it brings together scholarly journals and book series as well as resources for teachers who use


    writing in their courses. This book is available in digital format for free download at wac.colostate.edu.


    Parlor Press, LLC is an independent publisher of scholarly and trade titles in print and multime-


    dia formats. This book is available in paperback and Adobe eBook formats from Parlor Press on the


    World Wide Web at www.parlorpress.com. For submission information or to find out about Parlor


    Press publications, write to Parlor Press, 816 Robinson St., West Lafayette, Indiana, 47906, or e-mail


    [email protected] For Marna and Cian


    To the memory of James J. Garvey Contents


    1 Introduction to the Linguistic Study of Languagex08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x083


    key concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3


    who these books are for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3


    how to use these books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3


    what these books are about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3


    communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4


    language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5


    discourse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5


    text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6


    genre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6


    ideology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7


    language in education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7


    thinking critically about language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10


    standard english . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11


    grammar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12


    other reasons for studying and teaching about language. . . . . . . . . . . . .14


    the organization of these books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15


    hints for success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16


    references and resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18


    glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19


    2 Conceptions of Language and Grammarx08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x0823


    the study of language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23


    the roles of the english teacher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25


    what is a language?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27


    competence and performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38


    approaches to the study of language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43


    references and resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49


    glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51


    3 A Skeletal Introduction to English Grammar x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x0857


    introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57


    clauses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58


    sentences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68


    phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72


    complementation and modification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74


    words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75


    morphemes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76


    parts of speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77


    vii regular and irregular forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79


    grammatical categories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79


    sounds and spelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81


    form, function, and meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82


    references and resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87


    glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87


    4 Phonetics and Phonology x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x0889


    introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89


    articulatory phonetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89


    consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91


    vowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98


    syllables and feet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105


    phonology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107


    phonemes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108


    allophones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108


    phonological rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113


    references and resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116


    glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117


    5 Morphology and Word Formationx08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08121


    introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121


    words and morphemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122


    morphemes, allomorphs, and morphs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124


    words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125


    registers and words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137


    the internal structure of complex words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138


    classifying words by their morphological properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140


    references and resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141


    glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141


    appendix a: some english derivational morphemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142


    6 The Major Parts of Speech x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08147


    introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147


    the major parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs . . . . . . . . . .148


    references and resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184


    glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185


    Appendix to major parts of speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187


    references and resources for appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192


    7 The Minor Parts of Speechx08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08 x08193


    introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193


    viii


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