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The Ecology of Trees in the Tropical Rain Forest

314 Pages · 2004 · 3.01 MB · English

  • The Ecology of Trees in the Tropical Rain Forest

    This page intentionally left blank TheEcologyofTreesintheTropicalRainForest


    Currentknowledgeoftheecologyoftropicalrain-foresttreesislimited,with


    detailedinformationavailablefor perhapsonly a few hundredof the many


    thousands of species that occur. Yet a good understanding of the trees is


    essential to unravelling the workings of the forest itself. This book aims to


    summarisecontemporaryunderstandingoftheecologyoftropicalrain-forest


    trees.Theemphasisisoncomparativeecology,anapproachthatcanhelpto


    identifypossibleadaptivetrendsandevolutionaryconstraintsandwhichmay


    alsoleadtoaworkableecologicalclassiWcationfortreespecies,conceptually


    simplifying the rain-forest community and making it more amenable to


    analysis.


    Theorganisationofthebookfollowsthelifecycleofatree,startingwith


    thematuretree,movingontoreproductionandthenconsideringseedgermi-


    nation and growth to maturity. Topics covered therefore include structure


    andphysiology,populationbiology,reproductivebiologyandregeneration.


    ThebookconcludeswithacriticalanalysisofecologicalclassiWcationsystems


    fortreespeciesinthetropicalrainforest.


    IANTURNERhasconsiderableWrst-handexperienceofthetropicalrainforests


    of South-EastAsia,havinglived and worked in the region for morethan a


    decade.AftergraduatingfromOxfordUniversity,hetookupalecturingpost


    attheNationalUniversityofSingaporeandiscurrentlyAssistantDirectorof


    theSingaporeBotanicGardens.HehasalsospenttimeatHarvardUniversity


    asBullardFellow,andatKyotoUniversityasGuestProfessorintheCenter


    forEcologicalResearch. MMMM CAMBRIDGE TROPICAL BIOLOGY SERIES


    EDITORS:


    PeterS.AshtonArnoldArboretum,HarvardUniversity


    StephenP.HubbellPrincetonUniversity


    DanielH.JanzenUniversityofPennsylvania


    PeterH.RavenMissouriBotanicalGarden


    P.B.TomlinsonHarvardForest,HarvardUniversity


    Alsointheseries


    Tomlinson,P.B.Thebotanyofmangroves


    Lowe-McConnell,R.H.EcologicalstudiesintropicalWshcommunities


    Roubik,D.W.Ecologyandnaturalhistoryoftropicalbees


    Benzing,D.H.Vascularepiphytes


    Endress,P.K.DiversityandevolutionarybiologyoftropicalXowers MMMM The Ecology of Trees in


    the Tropical Rain Forest


    I.M. TURNER


    SingaporeBotanicGardens uf770uf775uf762uf76cuf769uf773uf768uf765uf764 uf762uf779 uf774uf768uf765 uf770uf772uf765uf773uf773 uf773uf779uf76euf764uf769uf763uf761uf774uf765 uf76fuf766 uf774uf768uf765 uf775uf76euf769uf776uf765uf772uf773uf769uf774uf779 uf76fuf766 uf763uf761uf76duf762uf772uf769uf764uf767uf765


    The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom


    uf763uf761uf76duf762uf772uf769uf764uf767uf765 uf775uf76euf769uf776uf765uf772uf773uf769uf774uf779 uf770uf772uf765uf773uf773


    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK


    40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA


    477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia


    Ruiz de Alarcón 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain


    Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa


    http://www.cambridge.org


    ©I. M. Turner 2004


    First published in printed format 2001


    ISBN 0-511-04148-9 eBook (netLibrary)


    ISBN 0-521-80183-4 hardback CONTENTS


    Preface pagexi


    Acknowledgements xiii


    1 Introduction 1


    Thetropicalrainforest 1


    Tropicaltrees 2


    Species 2


    Tropicalrain-forestdiversity 6


    Adaptation 9


    Theimportanceofphylogeny 10


    TheecologicalclassiWcationoftropicalrain-foresttrees 13


    2 Thegrowingtree 15


    Trees:form,mechanicsandhydraulics 15


    Treestature 15


    Wood 18


    Tropicaltimber 21


    Themechanicaldesignoftrees 24


    Buttresses 28


    Leaningtrees 34


    Treefall 35


    Sapascent 35


    Treehydraulics 37


    Treearchitecture 40


    Allometry 41


    Bark 46


    Roots 46


    Roothemi-parasites 48


    vii Contents


    viii


    Mineralnutrition 50


    Mycorrhizas 52


    NitrogenWxation 56


    Othermethodsofobtainingextranutrients 57


    Comparativeuseofnutrients 58


    Elementaccumulation 60


    Leafformandphysiology 60


    Size,shapeandotherstructuralcharacteristics 62


    Leafprotection 67


    Thedefencesoftropicalforesttrees 69


    ClassiWcationofplantdefences 81


    Foliarbacterialnodules 82


    Leafdevelopment:colouredyoungleaves 83


    Leaflongevity 86


    TheinXuenceofshade 90


    Highlightconditions 94


    OtherfactorsinXuencingleafperformance 95


    Speciesgroupsbasedonleafcharacteristics 96


    3 Treeperformance 103


    Age,sizeandgrowthintropicalrain-foresttrees 103


    Thedynamicsoftreepopulationsintherainforest 105


    Mortalityintrees 105


    Treegrowthintheforest 108


    Treeperformanceinrelationtolightclimate 111


    Mortality,growthandadultsize 114


    Theuseofgrowthandmortalitydatatorecognisespecies


    groups 116


    Relativeperformanceofspeciesofsimilarlifehistory 118


    Whatlimitstreegrowth? 119


    Herbivory 121


    4 Reproductivebiology 122


    Reproduction 122


    Vegetativereproduction 122


    Sexualsystems 123


    Geneticdiversity 125


    WhentoXower? 127


    Pollination 130


    Pollinationsyndromes 131


    TropicalXowers 144


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