2

The Concise History of the Crusades

265 Pages · 2013 · 3.9 MB · English

  • The Concise History of the Crusades

    The Concise History


    of the Crusades The Concise History


    of the Crusades


    Third Edition


    Thomas F. Madden


    ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD


    Lanham • Boulder • New York • Toronto • Plymouth, UK Published by Rowman & Littlefield


    4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706


    www.rowman.com


    10 Thornbury Road, Plymouth PL6 7PP, United Kingdom


    Distributed by National Book Network


    Copyright © 1999, 2006, 2013, 2014 by Rowman & Littlefield


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any


    electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems,


    without written permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote


    passages in a review.


    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    The concise history of the crusades / Thomas F. Madden. — Third Edition.


    pages cm. — (Critical issues in world and international history)


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    1. Crusades. I. Title.


    D157.M33 2013


    909.07—dc23


    2013008138


    ISBN: 978-1-4422-1574-0 (cloth : alk. paper)


    ISBN: 978-1-4422-3116-0 (electronic)



    The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of


    American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper


    for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992.


    Printed in the United States of America Contents


    List of Maps vi


    Preface vii


    1 The Call 1


    2 The First Crusade 15


    3 The Rise of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and the


    Second Crusade 35


    4 The Decline of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and the


    Third Crusade 61


    5 The Fourth Crusade 93


    6 Crusading at Home 115


    7 The Fifth Crusade and the Crusade of Frederick II 135


    8 The Crusades of St. Louis 155


    9 The Later Crusades 173


    10 The Legacy of the Crusades 197


    Conclusion 207


    Glossary 211


    Select Bibliography 215


    Sources in Translation 223


    Index 229


    About the Author 243


    v


    1133__115588__MMaaddddeenn..iinnddbb vv 88//1133//1133 55::4466 AAMM 1


    (cid:129) (cid:129)


    ChapMtearp sTitle


    The Mediterranean world about AD 1000 xii


    The First Crusade, 1095–1099 14


    The Near East after the First Crusade, 1099–1144 34


    The Second Crusade, 1146–1148 51


    The Near East after the Second Crusade, 1144–1174 60


    The Near East after the Conquests of Saladin, 1187–1190 73


    The Third Crusade, 1188–1192 78


    The Fourth Crusade, 1201–1204 92


    Constantinople at the time of the Fourth Crusade 103


    Languedoc at the time of the Albigensian Crusade 118


    The Fifth Crusade, 1218–1221 134


    The Crusades of St. Louis 154


    St. Louis in Egypt, 1249–1250 159


    Crusade Plan of Maximilian I, 1518 190


    vi


    1133__115588__MMaaddddeenn..iinnddbb vvii 88//1133//1133 55::4466 AAMM Preface


    W


    hen the first edition of this book appeared in 1999 the world was a


    different place. Then, the crusades were a faraway concept, an odd series of


    events in a distant and murky medieval past. Wars of religion seemed largely


    irrelevant to citizens of a modern secular civilization. That changed. Terror-


    ist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, and subsequently in


    Europe and the Middle East reminded us all that there remain people in the


    world willing to kill or to be killed for their religion. Since then radical Mus-


    lims, known as Islamists, have continued to call on their coreligionists to take


    part in a worldwide jihad against the people of the West, whom the Islamists


    often refer to as “crusaders.”


    For their part, many in the West worry that their actions actually do re-


    semble those of the medieval crusaders. Significant American and European


    military forces, for example, remain stationed in the Middle East. And Israel,


    which enjoys significant Western support, is planted on soil that was once the


    medieval crusaders’ kingdom. Western diplomats and politicians are careful to


    avoid any mention of the medieval crusades around Muslim leaders, lest they


    appear insensitive or conjure up memories of the harm done by the medieval


    holy wars against them. Unfortunately, these sentiments and approaches are fu-


    eled on both sides by an extremely weak understanding of the actual crusades or


    the medieval world in which they flourished. As a result, decisions—sometimes


    tragic decisions—are made based on deeply flawed concepts of history. By ex-


    plaining just what the crusades were and were not, this book is an attempt to


    illuminate the complex relationship of the past to the present.


    Despite a modern groundswell of interest, the crusades remain today one


    of the most commonly misunderstood events in Western history. That fact


    is all the more lamentable given the extraordinary amount of research that


    vii


    1133__115588__MMaaddddeenn..iinnddbb vviiii 88//1133//1133 55::4466 AAMM viii Preface


    has been conducted on the subject during the past sixty years. Scholars know


    much more about the crusades today than ever before. However, most of that


    research is highly technical in nature and presented, appropriately enough, in


    scholarly journals and monographs that can seem impenetrable to those with-


    out specialized training. When the first edition of this book was published


    it joined only two other single-volume histories of the crusades written by


    professional historians—and even those two assumed a fair level of knowl-


    edge regarding medieval history. Back then an interested person who simply


    strolled into a bookstore looking for a history of the crusades was more likely


    to walk out with a book by a novelist, journalist, or ex-nun than one written


    with care by a scholar and based on the best research available.


    The heightened public interest in the crusades after 9/11 created a strong


    market for new general histories, and popular authors did not disappoint. Yet


    many of those new works simply retold myths long ago dispelled by profes-


    sional historians. It took several years before additional crusade specialists re-


    sponded to the public demand. But that trickle soon became a torrent. Today


    there are so many histories of the crusades by scholars that they are in danger


    of depleting the supply of innovative names to place on their covers. Each has


    its own strengths and weaknesses. Yet despite the avalanche of new studies,


    the fundamental purpose of this book has not changed since 1999. It aims to


    tell the story of the crusades in a concise, understandable, and engaging man-


    ner based on the extraordinary fruits of more than half a century of modern


    scholarship.


    Any historian who seeks to explain the crusades must first make peace


    with the length, breadth, and complexity of the subject. What were the cru-


    sades? When did they begin, and when did they end? What were the impor-


    tant milestones of the movement? Who was a crusader, and who was not?


    Traditionally, authors have defined the scope of the crusades in terms


    of the expeditions to the Holy Land. In this, they followed the structure of


    medieval sources like the Gesta Dei per Francos. The crusades, therefore, be-


    gin with Pope Urban II’s call to arms at the Council of Clermont in 1095.


    The twin poles of such studies are the major expeditions to the East (i.e., the


    “numbered” crusades) and the history of the crusader states in Syria and Pales-


    tine. The narrative thread then weaves itself between conditions in the Levant


    and conditions in Europe, bringing the two together in the events of the


    greater crusades. From this perspective, the crusades come to a close with the


    extinction of the mainland crusader states in 1291. The movement, therefore,


    is nicely packaged in an organized fashion and in the space of two centuries.


    In the past few decades, this construction of the crusades has been largely


    abandoned by scholars. Although traditional histories included events like the


    Albigensian Crusade or Baltic Crusades, neither of which was bound for the


    1133__115588__MMaaddddeenn..iinnddbb vviiiiii 88//1133//1133 55::4466 AAMM Preface ix


    East, they did so only peripherally. Modern scholarship has rehabilitated this


    periphery. Most historians now accept that crusading took on many different


    forms; the general passage to the Holy Land was but one of them. Crusades


    against pagans, heretics, and enemies of the church were just as common by


    the thirteenth century as wars against the lands of Islam. Much of Europe’s


    crusading energy was also devoted to removing Muslims from Spain.


    Beyond broadening the definition of the crusades, scholars have also re-


    assessed the neat organization of the major expeditions. The simplicity of the


    numbered crusades gives the impression that Europe periodically exploded


    with crusading zeal, sending large armies east to fight the Muslims of Palestine.


    Yet the crusades were not discrete campaigns but continuous streams of armies


    on the march. Between the major crusades were countless smaller expeditions


    heading to a variety of targets.


    If one accepts that the crusading movement transcends the conquest


    of the Holy Land, then there is no reason its history should abruptly end in


    1291. During the past century, much research has been done on these “later


    crusades.” There is no doubt that crusading remained an important part of Eu-


    ropean thought well into the Renaissance and even beyond into the Protestant


    Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. At some point, though, the


    historian must accept that the trail has grown cold and that crusade rhetoric has


    become merely that. If one insisted that the history of the crusades continued


    until the last crusader institution crumbled, then it would have to continue


    until the present so as to include the modern history of the Knights of Malta.


    Without a clear stopping point, it is up to the student to judge when the cru-


    sades ceased to be religious wars and transformed themselves into secular wars


    with religious trappings.


    Despite the explosion in crusade studies over the past sixty years, the


    traditional construction of the crusades as a set of expeditions launched be-


    tween 1095 and 1291 remains popular. There are good reasons for this. The


    traditional view introduces the student to the crusades in a way that is easier to


    grasp but does not distort the fundamental character of the movement. When


    one has a firm understanding of the crusades’ peaks, one can then better de-


    scend into the foggy crevices of their valleys. For the interested student, that


    will require reading many more books than just one general survey.


    For this concise history of the crusades, I follow in many respects the


    construction, if not the scope, of the traditional histories. The crusades are first


    and foremost an aspect of European history. At the time few Muslims in the


    Middle East understood the crusades at all. For western Europeans the crusades


    were epic struggles that helped to fashion their image of themselves and their


    place in the larger world. For Muslims the crusades were hardly worthy of


    attention. As late as the seventeenth century the crusades remained virtually


    1133__115588__MMaaddddeenn..iinnddbb iixx 88//1133//1133 55::4466 AAMM


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.