The Cambridge History of Islam

The Cambridge History of Islam

The Cambridge History of Islam

581 Pages ·2008·33.38 MB ·English

The Cambridge History of Islam

THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF ISLAM


VOLUME 2B


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 THE CAMBRIDGE


HISTORY OF


ISLAM


VOLUME 2B


ISLAMIC SOCIETY AND


CIVILIZATION


EDITED BY


P. M. HOLT


Professor of Arab History in the University of London


ANN K. S. LAMBTON


Emeritus Professor of Persian in the University of London


BERNARD LEWIS


Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton


CAMBRIDGE


UNIVERSITY PRESS


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo


Cambridge University Press


The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK


Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


ww w.cambridge. org


Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521219495


© Cambridge University Press 1970


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception


and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,


no reproduction of any part may take place without the written


permission of Cambridge University Press.


First published in two volumes 1970


First paperback edition (four volumes) 1977


First four-volume hardcover edition 1978


Volume 2B reprinted 1980, 1981, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1995, 2000


A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library


Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 73-77291


ISBN 978-0-521-21949-5 hardback


ISBN 978-0-521-29138-5 paperback


Transferred to digital printing 2007


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS


List of Plates page vii


Acknowledgements x


Preface xi


Introduction xiii


PART VIII. ISLAMIC SOCIETY AND CIVILIZATION 441


1 THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING 443


by x. DE PLANHOL, University of Nancy


2 THE SOURCES OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION 469


by the late G. E. VON GRVNEBAVM, formerly at Near Eastern Center,


University of California


3 ECONOMY, SOCIETY, INSTITUTIONS JII


by CLAUDE CAHEN, University of'Paris


4 LAW AND JUSTICE 539


by the late j. SCHACHT, Columbia University, New York


5 RELIGION AND CULTURE 569


iyLOUiSGARDET, College Phihsophique et Tblologique, Toulouse


6 MYSTICISM 604


by the late A. j. ARBERRY, University of Cambridge


7 REVIVAL AND REFORM IN ISLAM 632


by FAZLUR RAHMAN. Central Institute of Islamic Research, Karachi


8 LITERATURE: 657


(A) ARABIC LITERATURE 657


by IRFAN SHAHID


(b) PERSIAN LITERATURE 67I


by E. YAR-SHATER, Columbia University, New York


(c) TURKISH LITERATURE 682


iyFAHiRiz, University of Istanbul


(d) URDU LITERATURE 695


^AZIZAHMAD, University of Toronto


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS


9 ART AND ARCHITECTURE JOZ


by G. FEHERVARI, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of


London


IO SCIENCE 741


I, Institut Dominicain tTEtudesOrientales, Cairo


11 PHILOSOPHY 780


by s. PINES, Hebrew University of Jerusalem


12 WARFARE 824


by the late v. j. PARRY, formerly at the University of London


13 THE TRANSMISSION OF LEARNING AND LITER-


ARY INFLUENCES TO WESTERN EUROPE 851


by F. GABRIEU, University of Rome


Dynastic List 890


Bibliography 891


Glossary 907


Index 911


VI


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES


\a Damascus, the Great or Umayyad Mosque, the so-called 'Baradd'


mosaic panel under the western portico


b The Umayyad palace of Mshatta: audience hall with the triple


apse


za Qusayr 'Amra, view from the north


b Qusayr 'Amra, painting of the enthroned monarch in the alcove


3

b Ewer of the Umayyad Caliph, Marwan II, Persian, second/eighth


century


44 Ukhaydir, the eastern gateway, looking from the north


b Samarra, the Jawsaq al-Khaqani palace, the Bab al-'Amma (221/836)


5<7 Samarra, stucco panel from a recently excavated private house


b Samarra, Jawsaq al-Khaqani palace, wall fresco representing


dancing girls from the harem


c Samarra, the Great Mosque with the Malwiyya


6a Beaker, splashed and mottled ware, Mesopotamia, third/ninth


century


b Large dish, tin-glazed cobalt blue painted ware, Mesopotamia,


third/ninth century


c Small bowl painted in polychrome lustre, Mesopotamia, third/ninth


century


d Large bowl, slip-painted ware, NishapQr, fourth/tenth century


-ja Cairo, Mosque of Ahmad b. Tulfln, 263-5/876-9


b Cairo, Mosque of Ahmad b. Tulun, view of the sanctuary with two


stucco flat mihrabs on two pillars in the foreground


%a Cordoba, the Great Mosque, the mihrab, 354/96$


b Bukhara, the mausoleum of Isma'il the Samanid, 295/907


9a Tim, Uzbekistan, mausoleum of 'Arab Ata, 367/977-8, zone of


transition


b Na'In, mihrab and minbar of the Masjid-i Jami', late fourth/tenth


century


1 oa Cairo, Mosque of al-Azhar, dome over court end of sanctuary with


stucco decorations and window grills, c. 545/1150


b Kharaqan, recently discovered Seljuk tomb-tower, 486/1093


vii


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES


11 Cairo, Mosque of al-Juyushi, the stucco mihrdb, 478/1085


1 la Large dish, lustre painted, Egypt, fifth/eleventh century


b Fatimid painting: siege of a fortress, Egypt, sixth/twelfth century


13 Damavand, a recently discovered Seljuk tomb-tower, fifth/eleventh


century


14a Ardistan, Masjid-i Jami', 5 5 3-5/115 8-60, zone of transition


b Hamadan, Gunbad-i 'Alawiyyan, sixth/twelfth century


15a Natanz, Masjid-i Kuchi Mir, stucco mihrdb, sixth/twelfth century


b Mosul, the Great Mosque, 543/1148, the minaret


16a Divrighi, Ulu Jami1, 626/1229, detail of the main entrance


b Ankara, Arslankhane Jami', faience mihrdb, 688-9/1289-90


17a Bowl, decoration msgraffiato technique; Persian, Amul, late fourth/


tenth or early fifth/eleventh century


b Jug, so-called 'Seljuk white ware'; Persian, Rayy or Kashan, late


sixth/twelfth century


c Large dish, lustre-painted; Persian, Rayy, late sixth/twelfth or early


seventh/thirteenth century


d Bowl, overglaze, so-called mind'ipainted; Persian, Rayy, late sixth/


twelfth or early seventh/thirteenth century


1 $a Bucket, inlaid with silver, made in Herat, signed and dated:


559/1163


b Ewer, brass, inlaid with silver, signed by Shuja' b. Mana', dated:


629/1232


19a Miniature painting: the Pharmacy, from Dioscorides's Materia


Medica, Baghdad, 681/1224


b Miniature painting: Abii Zayd before the governor of Merv. From


the Maqdmdt of al-Harirl, Baghdad, c. 622-33/1225-35


^oa Islamic calligraphy: (i) simple Kufic, (ii) foliated Kufic, (in)


floriated Kufic, (iv) Naskhi, (v) Thuluth, (vi) Nasta'liq


b Seljuk carpet from Anatolia, seventh/thirteenth century


2.1a Aleppo, gateway to the citadel, sixth/twelfth century


b Cairo, the Mausoleum of Imam Shafi'I, woodcarvings of the


cenotaph, 608/1211


22a Detail of an inlaid bronze canteen, early seventh/thirteenth century


b Rabat, minaret of Mosque of Hassan


23*7 Granada, the Alhambra, eighth/fourteenth century


b Natanz, the minaret of the Masjid-i Jami', 704-9/1304-9, and the


dome of the tomb of Abii Samad, 707/1307


24a Samarqand, Gur-i Mir mausoleum, general view, 807/1404


viii


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES


Samarqand, Shah-i Zinda, detail of portal of Tughluk Tekin's


mausoleum, 774/1372


.25 a Miniature painting from the Jdmi' al-tawartkh of Rashid al-Dln,


714/1314: Muhammad replacing the stone in the Ka'ba


b Miniature painting from the Shdh-nama: Bahrain Gur hunting and


the death of his mistress, Azada; Shiraz school, early eighth/


fourteenth century


26 Miniature painting from the Diwdn of Hafiz: Dance of the der-


vishes ; Herat, Bihzad's school, late ninth/fifteenth century


zfa Cairo, facade of the mausoleum of Qalawun, 683-4/1284-5


b Mamluk carpet, Egypt, ninth/fifteenth century


28a Isfahan, the 'AH Qapu palace, early eleventh/seventeenth century


b Edirne, Selimiye Jami', built by Sinan Pasha, 997-83/1569-75


zya Dish, Iznik pottery, third period, early eleventh/seventeenth


century. Crown copyright


b Turkish embroidery, twelfth/eighteenth century


30 Isfahan, minaret of the Masjid-i Shah, 1020-48/1612-38


31a The so-called 'Polish rug', silk pile; Persian, eleventh/seventeenth


century


b Safavid metalwork: covered bowl, dated: 1089/1678. Crown


copyright


32a Large dish, so-called 'Kubachi' ware, north-western Persia,


eleventh/seventeenth century. Crown copyright


b Persian white, so-called 'Gombroon', ware, ewer, late eleventh/


seventeenth/century. Crown copyright


The plates appear between pages 708 and joy.


lx


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008


THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF ISLAM


VOLUME 2B


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 THE CAMBRIDGE


HISTORY OF


ISLAM


VOLUME 2B


ISLAMIC SOCIETY AND


CIVILIZATION


EDITED BY


P. M. HOLT


Professor of Arab History in the University of London


ANN K. S. LAMBTON


Emeritus Professor of Persian in the University of London


BERNARD LEWIS


Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton


CAMBRIDGE


UNIVERSITY PRESS


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo


Cambridge University Press


The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK


Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


ww w.cambridge. org


Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521219495


© Cambridge University Press 1970


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception


and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,


no reproduction of any part may take place without the written


permission of Cambridge University Press.


First published in two volumes 1970


First paperback edition (four volumes) 1977


First four-volume hardcover edition 1978


Volume 2B reprinted 1980, 1981, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1995, 2000


A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library


Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 73-77291


ISBN 978-0-521-21949-5 hardback


ISBN 978-0-521-29138-5 paperback


Transferred to digital printing 2007


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS


List of Plates page vii


Acknowledgements x


Preface xi


Introduction xiii


PART VIII. ISLAMIC SOCIETY AND CIVILIZATION 441


1 THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING 443


by x. DE PLANHOL, University of Nancy


2 THE SOURCES OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION 469


by the late G. E. VON GRVNEBAVM, formerly at Near Eastern Center,


University of California


3 ECONOMY, SOCIETY, INSTITUTIONS JII


by CLAUDE CAHEN, University of'Paris


4 LAW AND JUSTICE 539


by the late j. SCHACHT, Columbia University, New York


5 RELIGION AND CULTURE 569


iyLOUiSGARDET, College Phihsophique et Tblologique, Toulouse


6 MYSTICISM 604


by the late A. j. ARBERRY, University of Cambridge


7 REVIVAL AND REFORM IN ISLAM 632


by FAZLUR RAHMAN. Central Institute of Islamic Research, Karachi


8 LITERATURE: 657


(A) ARABIC LITERATURE 657


by IRFAN SHAHID


(b) PERSIAN LITERATURE 67I


by E. YAR-SHATER, Columbia University, New York


(c) TURKISH LITERATURE 682


iyFAHiRiz, University of Istanbul


(d) URDU LITERATURE 695


^AZIZAHMAD, University of Toronto


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS


9 ART AND ARCHITECTURE JOZ


by G. FEHERVARI, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of


London


IO SCIENCE 741


I, Institut Dominicain tTEtudesOrientales, Cairo


11 PHILOSOPHY 780


by s. PINES, Hebrew University of Jerusalem


12 WARFARE 824


by the late v. j. PARRY, formerly at the University of London


13 THE TRANSMISSION OF LEARNING AND LITER-


ARY INFLUENCES TO WESTERN EUROPE 851


by F. GABRIEU, University of Rome


Dynastic List 890


Bibliography 891


Glossary 907


Index 911


VI


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES


\a Damascus, the Great or Umayyad Mosque, the so-called 'Baradd'


mosaic panel under the western portico


b The Umayyad palace of Mshatta: audience hall with the triple


apse


za Qusayr 'Amra, view from the north


b Qusayr 'Amra, painting of the enthroned monarch in the alcove


3

b Ewer of the Umayyad Caliph, Marwan II, Persian, second/eighth


century


44 Ukhaydir, the eastern gateway, looking from the north


b Samarra, the Jawsaq al-Khaqani palace, the Bab al-'Amma (221/836)


5<7 Samarra, stucco panel from a recently excavated private house


b Samarra, Jawsaq al-Khaqani palace, wall fresco representing


dancing girls from the harem


c Samarra, the Great Mosque with the Malwiyya


6a Beaker, splashed and mottled ware, Mesopotamia, third/ninth


century


b Large dish, tin-glazed cobalt blue painted ware, Mesopotamia,


third/ninth century


c Small bowl painted in polychrome lustre, Mesopotamia, third/ninth


century


d Large bowl, slip-painted ware, NishapQr, fourth/tenth century


-ja Cairo, Mosque of Ahmad b. Tulfln, 263-5/876-9


b Cairo, Mosque of Ahmad b. Tulun, view of the sanctuary with two


stucco flat mihrabs on two pillars in the foreground


%a Cordoba, the Great Mosque, the mihrab, 354/96$


b Bukhara, the mausoleum of Isma'il the Samanid, 295/907


9a Tim, Uzbekistan, mausoleum of 'Arab Ata, 367/977-8, zone of


transition


b Na'In, mihrab and minbar of the Masjid-i Jami', late fourth/tenth


century


1 oa Cairo, Mosque of al-Azhar, dome over court end of sanctuary with


stucco decorations and window grills, c. 545/1150


b Kharaqan, recently discovered Seljuk tomb-tower, 486/1093


vii


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES


11 Cairo, Mosque of al-Juyushi, the stucco mihrdb, 478/1085


1 la Large dish, lustre painted, Egypt, fifth/eleventh century


b Fatimid painting: siege of a fortress, Egypt, sixth/twelfth century


13 Damavand, a recently discovered Seljuk tomb-tower, fifth/eleventh


century


14a Ardistan, Masjid-i Jami', 5 5 3-5/115 8-60, zone of transition


b Hamadan, Gunbad-i 'Alawiyyan, sixth/twelfth century


15a Natanz, Masjid-i Kuchi Mir, stucco mihrdb, sixth/twelfth century


b Mosul, the Great Mosque, 543/1148, the minaret


16a Divrighi, Ulu Jami1, 626/1229, detail of the main entrance


b Ankara, Arslankhane Jami', faience mihrdb, 688-9/1289-90


17a Bowl, decoration msgraffiato technique; Persian, Amul, late fourth/


tenth or early fifth/eleventh century


b Jug, so-called 'Seljuk white ware'; Persian, Rayy or Kashan, late


sixth/twelfth century


c Large dish, lustre-painted; Persian, Rayy, late sixth/twelfth or early


seventh/thirteenth century


d Bowl, overglaze, so-called mind'ipainted; Persian, Rayy, late sixth/


twelfth or early seventh/thirteenth century


1 $a Bucket, inlaid with silver, made in Herat, signed and dated:


559/1163


b Ewer, brass, inlaid with silver, signed by Shuja' b. Mana', dated:


629/1232


19a Miniature painting: the Pharmacy, from Dioscorides's Materia


Medica, Baghdad, 681/1224


b Miniature painting: Abii Zayd before the governor of Merv. From


the Maqdmdt of al-Harirl, Baghdad, c. 622-33/1225-35


^oa Islamic calligraphy: (i) simple Kufic, (ii) foliated Kufic, (in)


floriated Kufic, (iv) Naskhi, (v) Thuluth, (vi) Nasta'liq


b Seljuk carpet from Anatolia, seventh/thirteenth century


2.1a Aleppo, gateway to the citadel, sixth/twelfth century


b Cairo, the Mausoleum of Imam Shafi'I, woodcarvings of the


cenotaph, 608/1211


22a Detail of an inlaid bronze canteen, early seventh/thirteenth century


b Rabat, minaret of Mosque of Hassan


23*7 Granada, the Alhambra, eighth/fourteenth century


b Natanz, the minaret of the Masjid-i Jami', 704-9/1304-9, and the


dome of the tomb of Abii Samad, 707/1307


24a Samarqand, Gur-i Mir mausoleum, general view, 807/1404


viii


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES


Samarqand, Shah-i Zinda, detail of portal of Tughluk Tekin's


mausoleum, 774/1372


.25 a Miniature painting from the Jdmi' al-tawartkh of Rashid al-Dln,


714/1314: Muhammad replacing the stone in the Ka'ba


b Miniature painting from the Shdh-nama: Bahrain Gur hunting and


the death of his mistress, Azada; Shiraz school, early eighth/


fourteenth century


26 Miniature painting from the Diwdn of Hafiz: Dance of the der-


vishes ; Herat, Bihzad's school, late ninth/fifteenth century


zfa Cairo, facade of the mausoleum of Qalawun, 683-4/1284-5


b Mamluk carpet, Egypt, ninth/fifteenth century


28a Isfahan, the 'AH Qapu palace, early eleventh/seventeenth century


b Edirne, Selimiye Jami', built by Sinan Pasha, 997-83/1569-75


zya Dish, Iznik pottery, third period, early eleventh/seventeenth


century. Crown copyright


b Turkish embroidery, twelfth/eighteenth century


30 Isfahan, minaret of the Masjid-i Shah, 1020-48/1612-38


31a The so-called 'Polish rug', silk pile; Persian, eleventh/seventeenth


century


b Safavid metalwork: covered bowl, dated: 1089/1678. Crown


copyright


32a Large dish, so-called 'Kubachi' ware, north-western Persia,


eleventh/seventeenth century. Crown copyright


b Persian white, so-called 'Gombroon', ware, ewer, late eleventh/


seventeenth/century. Crown copyright


The plates appear between pages 708 and joy.


lx


Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008


Please note: To fully read this free PDF ebook completely for free you need .