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The Cambridge History of Islam

581 Pages · 2008 · 33.38 MB · English

  • The Cambridge History of Islam

    THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF ISLAM


    VOLUME 2B


    Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 THE CAMBRIDGE


    HISTORY OF


    ISLAM


    VOLUME 2B


    ISLAMIC SOCIETY AND


    CIVILIZATION


    EDITED BY


    P. M. HOLT


    Professor of Arab History in the University of London


    ANN K. S. LAMBTON


    Emeritus Professor of Persian in the University of London


    BERNARD LEWIS


    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton


    CAMBRIDGE


    UNIVERSITY PRESS


    Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS


    Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo


    Cambridge University Press


    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK


    Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


    ww w.cambridge. org


    Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521219495


    © Cambridge University Press 1970


    This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception


    and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,


    no reproduction of any part may take place without the written


    permission of Cambridge University Press.


    First published in two volumes 1970


    First paperback edition (four volumes) 1977


    First four-volume hardcover edition 1978


    Volume 2B reprinted 1980, 1981, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1995, 2000


    A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library


    Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 73-77291


    ISBN 978-0-521-21949-5 hardback


    ISBN 978-0-521-29138-5 paperback


    Transferred to digital printing 2007


    Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS


    List of Plates page vii


    Acknowledgements x


    Preface xi


    Introduction xiii


    PART VIII. ISLAMIC SOCIETY AND CIVILIZATION 441


    1 THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING 443


    by x. DE PLANHOL, University of Nancy


    2 THE SOURCES OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION 469


    by the late G. E. VON GRVNEBAVM, formerly at Near Eastern Center,


    University of California


    3 ECONOMY, SOCIETY, INSTITUTIONS JII


    by CLAUDE CAHEN, University of'Paris


    4 LAW AND JUSTICE 539


    by the late j. SCHACHT, Columbia University, New York


    5 RELIGION AND CULTURE 569


    iyLOUiSGARDET, College Phihsophique et Tblologique, Toulouse


    6 MYSTICISM 604


    by the late A. j. ARBERRY, University of Cambridge


    7 REVIVAL AND REFORM IN ISLAM 632


    by FAZLUR RAHMAN. Central Institute of Islamic Research, Karachi


    8 LITERATURE: 657


    (A) ARABIC LITERATURE 657


    by IRFAN SHAHID


    (b) PERSIAN LITERATURE 67I


    by E. YAR-SHATER, Columbia University, New York


    (c) TURKISH LITERATURE 682


    iyFAHiRiz, University of Istanbul


    (d) URDU LITERATURE 695


    ^AZIZAHMAD, University of Toronto


    Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS


    9 ART AND ARCHITECTURE JOZ


    by G. FEHERVARI, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of


    London


    IO SCIENCE 741


    I, Institut Dominicain tTEtudesOrientales, Cairo


    11 PHILOSOPHY 780


    by s. PINES, Hebrew University of Jerusalem


    12 WARFARE 824


    by the late v. j. PARRY, formerly at the University of London


    13 THE TRANSMISSION OF LEARNING AND LITER-


    ARY INFLUENCES TO WESTERN EUROPE 851


    by F. GABRIEU, University of Rome


    Dynastic List 890


    Bibliography 891


    Glossary 907


    Index 911


    VI


    Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES


    \a Damascus, the Great or Umayyad Mosque, the so-called 'Baradd'


    mosaic panel under the western portico


    b The Umayyad palace of Mshatta: audience hall with the triple


    apse


    za Qusayr 'Amra, view from the north


    b Qusayr 'Amra, painting of the enthroned monarch in the alcove


    3

    b Ewer of the Umayyad Caliph, Marwan II, Persian, second/eighth


    century


    44 Ukhaydir, the eastern gateway, looking from the north


    b Samarra, the Jawsaq al-Khaqani palace, the Bab al-'Amma (221/836)


    5<7 Samarra, stucco panel from a recently excavated private house


    b Samarra, Jawsaq al-Khaqani palace, wall fresco representing


    dancing girls from the harem


    c Samarra, the Great Mosque with the Malwiyya


    6a Beaker, splashed and mottled ware, Mesopotamia, third/ninth


    century


    b Large dish, tin-glazed cobalt blue painted ware, Mesopotamia,


    third/ninth century


    c Small bowl painted in polychrome lustre, Mesopotamia, third/ninth


    century


    d Large bowl, slip-painted ware, NishapQr, fourth/tenth century


    -ja Cairo, Mosque of Ahmad b. Tulfln, 263-5/876-9


    b Cairo, Mosque of Ahmad b. Tulun, view of the sanctuary with two


    stucco flat mihrabs on two pillars in the foreground


    %a Cordoba, the Great Mosque, the mihrab, 354/96$


    b Bukhara, the mausoleum of Isma'il the Samanid, 295/907


    9a Tim, Uzbekistan, mausoleum of 'Arab Ata, 367/977-8, zone of


    transition


    b Na'In, mihrab and minbar of the Masjid-i Jami', late fourth/tenth


    century


    1 oa Cairo, Mosque of al-Azhar, dome over court end of sanctuary with


    stucco decorations and window grills, c. 545/1150


    b Kharaqan, recently discovered Seljuk tomb-tower, 486/1093


    vii


    Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES


    11 Cairo, Mosque of al-Juyushi, the stucco mihrdb, 478/1085


    1 la Large dish, lustre painted, Egypt, fifth/eleventh century


    b Fatimid painting: siege of a fortress, Egypt, sixth/twelfth century


    13 Damavand, a recently discovered Seljuk tomb-tower, fifth/eleventh


    century


    14a Ardistan, Masjid-i Jami', 5 5 3-5/115 8-60, zone of transition


    b Hamadan, Gunbad-i 'Alawiyyan, sixth/twelfth century


    15a Natanz, Masjid-i Kuchi Mir, stucco mihrdb, sixth/twelfth century


    b Mosul, the Great Mosque, 543/1148, the minaret


    16a Divrighi, Ulu Jami1, 626/1229, detail of the main entrance


    b Ankara, Arslankhane Jami', faience mihrdb, 688-9/1289-90


    17a Bowl, decoration msgraffiato technique; Persian, Amul, late fourth/


    tenth or early fifth/eleventh century


    b Jug, so-called 'Seljuk white ware'; Persian, Rayy or Kashan, late


    sixth/twelfth century


    c Large dish, lustre-painted; Persian, Rayy, late sixth/twelfth or early


    seventh/thirteenth century


    d Bowl, overglaze, so-called mind'ipainted; Persian, Rayy, late sixth/


    twelfth or early seventh/thirteenth century


    1 $a Bucket, inlaid with silver, made in Herat, signed and dated:


    559/1163


    b Ewer, brass, inlaid with silver, signed by Shuja' b. Mana', dated:


    629/1232


    19a Miniature painting: the Pharmacy, from Dioscorides's Materia


    Medica, Baghdad, 681/1224


    b Miniature painting: Abii Zayd before the governor of Merv. From


    the Maqdmdt of al-Harirl, Baghdad, c. 622-33/1225-35


    ^oa Islamic calligraphy: (i) simple Kufic, (ii) foliated Kufic, (in)


    floriated Kufic, (iv) Naskhi, (v) Thuluth, (vi) Nasta'liq


    b Seljuk carpet from Anatolia, seventh/thirteenth century


    2.1a Aleppo, gateway to the citadel, sixth/twelfth century


    b Cairo, the Mausoleum of Imam Shafi'I, woodcarvings of the


    cenotaph, 608/1211


    22a Detail of an inlaid bronze canteen, early seventh/thirteenth century


    b Rabat, minaret of Mosque of Hassan


    23*7 Granada, the Alhambra, eighth/fourteenth century


    b Natanz, the minaret of the Masjid-i Jami', 704-9/1304-9, and the


    dome of the tomb of Abii Samad, 707/1307


    24a Samarqand, Gur-i Mir mausoleum, general view, 807/1404


    viii


    Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES


    Samarqand, Shah-i Zinda, detail of portal of Tughluk Tekin's


    mausoleum, 774/1372


    .25 a Miniature painting from the Jdmi' al-tawartkh of Rashid al-Dln,


    714/1314: Muhammad replacing the stone in the Ka'ba


    b Miniature painting from the Shdh-nama: Bahrain Gur hunting and


    the death of his mistress, Azada; Shiraz school, early eighth/


    fourteenth century


    26 Miniature painting from the Diwdn of Hafiz: Dance of the der-


    vishes ; Herat, Bihzad's school, late ninth/fifteenth century


    zfa Cairo, facade of the mausoleum of Qalawun, 683-4/1284-5


    b Mamluk carpet, Egypt, ninth/fifteenth century


    28a Isfahan, the 'AH Qapu palace, early eleventh/seventeenth century


    b Edirne, Selimiye Jami', built by Sinan Pasha, 997-83/1569-75


    zya Dish, Iznik pottery, third period, early eleventh/seventeenth


    century. Crown copyright


    b Turkish embroidery, twelfth/eighteenth century


    30 Isfahan, minaret of the Masjid-i Shah, 1020-48/1612-38


    31a The so-called 'Polish rug', silk pile; Persian, eleventh/seventeenth


    century


    b Safavid metalwork: covered bowl, dated: 1089/1678. Crown


    copyright


    32a Large dish, so-called 'Kubachi' ware, north-western Persia,


    eleventh/seventeenth century. Crown copyright


    b Persian white, so-called 'Gombroon', ware, ewer, late eleventh/


    seventeenth/century. Crown copyright


    The plates appear between pages 708 and joy.


    lx


    Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008


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