2

The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible

615 Pages · 2005 · 4.07 MB · English

  • The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible

    The Ancient Hebrew


    Lexicon of the Bible


    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


    Hebrew Letters, Words and


    Roots Defined Within Their


    Ancient Cultural Context


    Jeff A. Benner Cover design by Jeff A. Benner. Ancient Inscription photo taken at the University of


    Pennsylvania, Museum of Archeology and Anthropology by the author. The inscription


    reads "Sh'ma" meaning hear (see Duet 6.4) and is inscribed on a piece of broken


    pottery dated 586 to 450 BCE.


    “The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible,” by Jeff A. Benner. ISBN 1-58939-776-2.


    Published 2005 by Virtualbookworm.com Publishing Inc., P.O. Box 9949, College


    Station, TX 77842, US. uf6d92005, Jeff A. Benner. All rights reserved. Any part of this


    book may be copied for non-profit educational purposes only, without prior


    permission. Printed in the United States of America.


    Library of Congress Control Number: 2005932420 Acknowledgments


    I would first like to thank my wife Denise for her patience and


    encouragement. I am extremely blessed to have been privileged with her


    as a gift from above and the one who has been my continual companion


    and confidant. She has always supported me in this endeavor and


    allowed me the space and time for research and writing. Without her


    devotion and inspiration this work would never have come to fruition.


    I am also grateful to Dr. Larry S. Hirsch. Without his initial introduction


    into Hebrew thought and language and his instruction in Biblical studies


    I would never have started this journey into the Ancient Hebrew thought,


    culture and language.


    Also my friend Michael Calpino who continually supported my studies


    in the Hebrew language, listened to my discoveries and assisted me by


    working out many word and root origins and meanings.


    I would also like to thank the hundreds of people who have supported


    my work at the Ancient Hebrew Research Center Website with their


    suggestions, corrections and encouragement.


    There are also many great Hebrew scholars who, with their research and


    work, have laid the foundations for me and others interested in the


    Hebrew culture and language who are much deserving of our thanks. The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


    TABLE OF CONTENTS


    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.............................................................................................3


    INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................8


    PURPOSE OF THE LEXICON...........................................................................................8


    The written word.....................................................................................................8


    The word meaning...................................................................................................8


    Where is the Hebrew?.............................................................................................8


    The original Hebrew...............................................................................................8


    PERSPECTIVE OF THE LEXICON.....................................................................................9


    WEBSITE....................................................................................................................10


    ANCIENT HEBREW THOUGHT............................................................................11


    ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE........................................................................................11


    APPEARANCE AND FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTIONS........................................................12


    STATIC AND DYNAMIC...............................................................................................13


    THE ANCIENT HEBREW ALPHABET.................................................................14


    EVOLUTION OF THE HEBREW ALPHABET...................................................................14


    THEAYIN AND GHAH.................................................................................................16


    One Word - Two Meanings....................................................................................16


    Greek Transliterations of the Ghah.......................................................................17


    Impact on Ancient Hebrew Studies........................................................................17


    THESAMECH,SHIN AND SIN......................................................................................18


    RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ORIGINAL HEBREW ALPHABET.........................................18


    Letter Characteristics............................................................................................19


    THE RECONSTRUCTED ALPHABET...................................................................20


    AL..............................................................................................................................20


    BET............................................................................................................................21


    GAM...........................................................................................................................22


    DAL............................................................................................................................22


    HEY............................................................................................................................23


    WAW..........................................................................................................................23


    ZAN............................................................................................................................24


    HHETS........................................................................................................................25


    THET..........................................................................................................................25


    YAD...........................................................................................................................26


    KAPH.........................................................................................................................26


    LAM...........................................................................................................................27


    4 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


    MAH...........................................................................................................................27


    NUN...........................................................................................................................28


    SIN.............................................................................................................................28


    AYIN..........................................................................................................................29


    PEY............................................................................................................................29


    TSAD..........................................................................................................................30


    QUPH.........................................................................................................................30


    RESH..........................................................................................................................31


    SHIN...........................................................................................................................31


    TAW...........................................................................................................................32


    GHAH.........................................................................................................................32


    HEBREW ALPHABET CHART.......................................................................................33


    THE HEBREW ROOT SYSTEM.............................................................................34


    PARENTROOTS..........................................................................................................34


    CHILD ROOTS.............................................................................................................34


    ADOPTED ROOTS........................................................................................................35


    RECONSTRUCTION OF ROOTS.....................................................................................36


    THE HEBREW LANGUAGE...................................................................................37


    VERBS........................................................................................................................37


    Person...................................................................................................................37


    Number..................................................................................................................37


    Gender...................................................................................................................37


    Tense.....................................................................................................................37


    Voice......................................................................................................................38


    Mood.....................................................................................................................38


    Verb Conjugations.................................................................................................38


    NOUNS.......................................................................................................................39


    Noun Derivatives...................................................................................................39


    Feminine Derivatives............................................................................................39


    Combination Derivatives.......................................................................................39


    Plural Nouns.........................................................................................................39


    Grammatical Tools................................................................................................40


    DETERMINING THE ORIGINAL MEANING OF HEBREW WORDS.....................................40


    LETTER EVOLUTION...................................................................................................41


    ANCIENTHEBREW PRONUNCIATION..........................................................................42


    Spirants and Stops.................................................................................................42


    Vowels...................................................................................................................42


    Syllables................................................................................................................42


    Masoretic Vowels..................................................................................................43


    Transliterations.....................................................................................................44


    LEXICON FORMAT..................................................................................................45


    PARENT AND ADOPTED ROOT FORMAT......................................................................45


    CHILD ROOT FORMAT................................................................................................46


    5 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


    WORDFORMAT..........................................................................................................47


    THE LEXICON...........................................................................................................49


    PARENT AND CHILD ROOTS.......................................................................................50


    Al...........................................................................................................................50


    Bet.........................................................................................................................62


    Gam.......................................................................................................................77


    Dal.........................................................................................................................88


    Hey......................................................................................................................100


    Waw.....................................................................................................................107


    Zan.......................................................................................................................109


    Hhets...................................................................................................................117


    Thet......................................................................................................................134


    Yad.......................................................................................................................140


    Kaph....................................................................................................................144


    Lam......................................................................................................................155


    Mah.....................................................................................................................165


    Nun......................................................................................................................179


    Sin........................................................................................................................193


    Ayin.....................................................................................................................206


    Pey.......................................................................................................................218


    Tsad.....................................................................................................................229


    Quph....................................................................................................................241


    Resh.....................................................................................................................253


    Shin......................................................................................................................271


    Taw......................................................................................................................289


    Ghah....................................................................................................................296


    ADOPTED ROOTS (THREE LETTER)...........................................................................301


    Al.........................................................................................................................301


    Bet.......................................................................................................................303


    Gam.....................................................................................................................312


    Dal.......................................................................................................................320


    Zan.......................................................................................................................324


    Hhets...................................................................................................................329


    Thet......................................................................................................................348


    Kaph....................................................................................................................351


    Lam......................................................................................................................361


    Mah.....................................................................................................................366


    Nun......................................................................................................................373


    Sin........................................................................................................................388


    Ayin.....................................................................................................................399


    Pey.......................................................................................................................413


    Tsad.....................................................................................................................424


    Quph....................................................................................................................431


    Resh.....................................................................................................................440


    Shin......................................................................................................................451


    6 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


    Taw......................................................................................................................469


    Ghah....................................................................................................................472


    ADOPTED ROOTS (FOUR LETTER).............................................................................474


    FOREIGN WORDS.....................................................................................................481


    INDEXES...................................................................................................................483


    ENGLISH DEFINITIONS..............................................................................................483


    KINGJAMES TRANSLATION......................................................................................505


    STRONG'SNUMBER..................................................................................................555


    ALTERNATIVE SPELLINGS........................................................................................577


    NOTES.......................................................................................................................612


    7 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


    Introduction


    Purpose of the Lexicon


    In order to demonstrate the need for an Ancient Hebrew lexicon let us examine the


    word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) (halel), how it is written and what it means.


    The written word


    The Hebrew word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73), as it appears here, in Hebrew dictionaries and in Hebrew


    Bibles, is written with the Modern Hebrew script. But where did the Modern Hebrew


    script come from? Hebrew was originally written with a pictographic script similar to


    Egyptian Hieroglyphs but, when Israel was taken into captivity in Babylon they


    adopted the Aramaic script of the region and used it to write Hebrew. The Modern


    Hebrew script used today is in fact Aramaic in origin, not Hebrew.


    The word meaning


    According to Hebrew dictionaries and lexicons the word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) is translated as "praise".


    The Ancient Hebrew language is a concrete oriented language meaning that the


    meaning of Hebrew words are rooted in something that can be sensed by the five senses


    such as a tree which can be seen, sweet which can be tasted and noise which can be


    heard. Abstract concepts such as "praise" have no foundation in the concrete and are a


    product of ancient Greek philosophy.


    Where is the Hebrew?


    If the word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) is written with the Aramaic script and the definition "praise" is from


    the Greek, where is the Hebrew in this word? The purpose of the "Ancient Hebrew


    Lexicon of the Bible" is to restore the original Hebrew to the Hebrew language of the


    Bible.


    The original Hebrew


    The word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) would have been written as (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) in the Early Hebrew script (over 3200


    years ago) or as (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) in the Middle Hebrew script (between 3200 and 2500 years ago).


    The original pictographic letters of the parent root (cid:80)(cid:73) is a man with his arms raised


    "looking" at something spectacular and a shepherd staff that is used to move the flock


    8 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


    "toward" a place. When these are combined the idea of "looking toward" something is


    represented. The original meaning of (cid:80)(cid:73) is the North Star, a bright light in the night


    sky that is "looked toward" to guide one on the journey.


    If we are going to read the Bible correctly it must be through the perspective of the


    Ancient Hebrews who wrote it, not from a Modern Aramaic or Greek perspective. The


    word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) in its original concrete meaning is a bright light that guides the journey and


    we "praise" Yah by looking at him to guide us on our journey through life.


    Perspective of the Lexicon


    The first and foremost concept that a reader of the Biblical text must learn is that the


    ancient Hebrews were products of an eastern culture while you as the reader are the


    product of a western culture. These two cultures are as different as oil and vinegar, they


    do not mix very well. What may seem rational in our western minds would be


    considered irrational to an easterner of an ancient Near East culture. The same is true in


    the reverse, what may be rational to an ancient Easterner would be completely irrational


    in our western mind.


    The authors of the Biblical text are writing from within their culture to those of the


    same culture. In order to fully understand the text one needs to understand the culture


    and thought processes of the Hebrew people.


    All existing Hebrew Lexicons of the Bible convert the vocabulary of the ancient


    Hebrews into a vocabulary compatible to our modern western language. The greatest


    problem with this is that it promotes western thought when reading the Biblical text. In


    this Lexicon the mind of the reader is transformed into an eastern one in order to


    understand the text through the eyes of the ancient Hebrews who penned the words of


    the Bible.


    One of the greatest differences between this lexicon and others is the use of the ancient


    pictographic script which Hebrew was originally written in. Because the Ancient


    Hebrew language is based on these pictographs, they are used rather than the Modern


    Hebrew script.


    9 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


    Website


    The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible has its own website with additional material


    and information such as verb charts, listing of Biblical Hebrew words in order of their


    frequency, common Hebrew roots and updates to the lexicon and much more. The


    author is also available for questions, comments and requests.


    Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible website


    http://ahlb.ancient-hebrew.org


    10


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.