The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible

The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible

The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible

615 Pages ·2005·4.07 MB ·English

The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible

The Ancient Hebrew


Lexicon of the Bible


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Hebrew Letters, Words and


Roots Defined Within Their


Ancient Cultural Context


Jeff A. Benner Cover design by Jeff A. Benner. Ancient Inscription photo taken at the University of


Pennsylvania, Museum of Archeology and Anthropology by the author. The inscription


reads "Sh'ma" meaning hear (see Duet 6.4) and is inscribed on a piece of broken


pottery dated 586 to 450 BCE.


“The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible,” by Jeff A. Benner. ISBN 1-58939-776-2.


Published 2005 by Virtualbookworm.com Publishing Inc., P.O. Box 9949, College


Station, TX 77842, US. uf6d92005, Jeff A. Benner. All rights reserved. Any part of this


book may be copied for non-profit educational purposes only, without prior


permission. Printed in the United States of America.


Library of Congress Control Number: 2005932420 Acknowledgments


I would first like to thank my wife Denise for her patience and


encouragement. I am extremely blessed to have been privileged with her


as a gift from above and the one who has been my continual companion


and confidant. She has always supported me in this endeavor and


allowed me the space and time for research and writing. Without her


devotion and inspiration this work would never have come to fruition.


I am also grateful to Dr. Larry S. Hirsch. Without his initial introduction


into Hebrew thought and language and his instruction in Biblical studies


I would never have started this journey into the Ancient Hebrew thought,


culture and language.


Also my friend Michael Calpino who continually supported my studies


in the Hebrew language, listened to my discoveries and assisted me by


working out many word and root origins and meanings.


I would also like to thank the hundreds of people who have supported


my work at the Ancient Hebrew Research Center Website with their


suggestions, corrections and encouragement.


There are also many great Hebrew scholars who, with their research and


work, have laid the foundations for me and others interested in the


Hebrew culture and language who are much deserving of our thanks. The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.............................................................................................3


INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................8


PURPOSE OF THE LEXICON...........................................................................................8


The written word.....................................................................................................8


The word meaning...................................................................................................8


Where is the Hebrew?.............................................................................................8


The original Hebrew...............................................................................................8


PERSPECTIVE OF THE LEXICON.....................................................................................9


WEBSITE....................................................................................................................10


ANCIENT HEBREW THOUGHT............................................................................11


ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE........................................................................................11


APPEARANCE AND FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTIONS........................................................12


STATIC AND DYNAMIC...............................................................................................13


THE ANCIENT HEBREW ALPHABET.................................................................14


EVOLUTION OF THE HEBREW ALPHABET...................................................................14


THEAYIN AND GHAH.................................................................................................16


One Word - Two Meanings....................................................................................16


Greek Transliterations of the Ghah.......................................................................17


Impact on Ancient Hebrew Studies........................................................................17


THESAMECH,SHIN AND SIN......................................................................................18


RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ORIGINAL HEBREW ALPHABET.........................................18


Letter Characteristics............................................................................................19


THE RECONSTRUCTED ALPHABET...................................................................20


AL..............................................................................................................................20


BET............................................................................................................................21


GAM...........................................................................................................................22


DAL............................................................................................................................22


HEY............................................................................................................................23


WAW..........................................................................................................................23


ZAN............................................................................................................................24


HHETS........................................................................................................................25


THET..........................................................................................................................25


YAD...........................................................................................................................26


KAPH.........................................................................................................................26


LAM...........................................................................................................................27


4 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


MAH...........................................................................................................................27


NUN...........................................................................................................................28


SIN.............................................................................................................................28


AYIN..........................................................................................................................29


PEY............................................................................................................................29


TSAD..........................................................................................................................30


QUPH.........................................................................................................................30


RESH..........................................................................................................................31


SHIN...........................................................................................................................31


TAW...........................................................................................................................32


GHAH.........................................................................................................................32


HEBREW ALPHABET CHART.......................................................................................33


THE HEBREW ROOT SYSTEM.............................................................................34


PARENTROOTS..........................................................................................................34


CHILD ROOTS.............................................................................................................34


ADOPTED ROOTS........................................................................................................35


RECONSTRUCTION OF ROOTS.....................................................................................36


THE HEBREW LANGUAGE...................................................................................37


VERBS........................................................................................................................37


Person...................................................................................................................37


Number..................................................................................................................37


Gender...................................................................................................................37


Tense.....................................................................................................................37


Voice......................................................................................................................38


Mood.....................................................................................................................38


Verb Conjugations.................................................................................................38


NOUNS.......................................................................................................................39


Noun Derivatives...................................................................................................39


Feminine Derivatives............................................................................................39


Combination Derivatives.......................................................................................39


Plural Nouns.........................................................................................................39


Grammatical Tools................................................................................................40


DETERMINING THE ORIGINAL MEANING OF HEBREW WORDS.....................................40


LETTER EVOLUTION...................................................................................................41


ANCIENTHEBREW PRONUNCIATION..........................................................................42


Spirants and Stops.................................................................................................42


Vowels...................................................................................................................42


Syllables................................................................................................................42


Masoretic Vowels..................................................................................................43


Transliterations.....................................................................................................44


LEXICON FORMAT..................................................................................................45


PARENT AND ADOPTED ROOT FORMAT......................................................................45


CHILD ROOT FORMAT................................................................................................46


5 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


WORDFORMAT..........................................................................................................47


THE LEXICON...........................................................................................................49


PARENT AND CHILD ROOTS.......................................................................................50


Al...........................................................................................................................50


Bet.........................................................................................................................62


Gam.......................................................................................................................77


Dal.........................................................................................................................88


Hey......................................................................................................................100


Waw.....................................................................................................................107


Zan.......................................................................................................................109


Hhets...................................................................................................................117


Thet......................................................................................................................134


Yad.......................................................................................................................140


Kaph....................................................................................................................144


Lam......................................................................................................................155


Mah.....................................................................................................................165


Nun......................................................................................................................179


Sin........................................................................................................................193


Ayin.....................................................................................................................206


Pey.......................................................................................................................218


Tsad.....................................................................................................................229


Quph....................................................................................................................241


Resh.....................................................................................................................253


Shin......................................................................................................................271


Taw......................................................................................................................289


Ghah....................................................................................................................296


ADOPTED ROOTS (THREE LETTER)...........................................................................301


Al.........................................................................................................................301


Bet.......................................................................................................................303


Gam.....................................................................................................................312


Dal.......................................................................................................................320


Zan.......................................................................................................................324


Hhets...................................................................................................................329


Thet......................................................................................................................348


Kaph....................................................................................................................351


Lam......................................................................................................................361


Mah.....................................................................................................................366


Nun......................................................................................................................373


Sin........................................................................................................................388


Ayin.....................................................................................................................399


Pey.......................................................................................................................413


Tsad.....................................................................................................................424


Quph....................................................................................................................431


Resh.....................................................................................................................440


Shin......................................................................................................................451


6 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


Taw......................................................................................................................469


Ghah....................................................................................................................472


ADOPTED ROOTS (FOUR LETTER).............................................................................474


FOREIGN WORDS.....................................................................................................481


INDEXES...................................................................................................................483


ENGLISH DEFINITIONS..............................................................................................483


KINGJAMES TRANSLATION......................................................................................505


STRONG'SNUMBER..................................................................................................555


ALTERNATIVE SPELLINGS........................................................................................577


NOTES.......................................................................................................................612


7 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


Introduction


Purpose of the Lexicon


In order to demonstrate the need for an Ancient Hebrew lexicon let us examine the


word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) (halel), how it is written and what it means.


The written word


The Hebrew word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73), as it appears here, in Hebrew dictionaries and in Hebrew


Bibles, is written with the Modern Hebrew script. But where did the Modern Hebrew


script come from? Hebrew was originally written with a pictographic script similar to


Egyptian Hieroglyphs but, when Israel was taken into captivity in Babylon they


adopted the Aramaic script of the region and used it to write Hebrew. The Modern


Hebrew script used today is in fact Aramaic in origin, not Hebrew.


The word meaning


According to Hebrew dictionaries and lexicons the word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) is translated as "praise".


The Ancient Hebrew language is a concrete oriented language meaning that the


meaning of Hebrew words are rooted in something that can be sensed by the five senses


such as a tree which can be seen, sweet which can be tasted and noise which can be


heard. Abstract concepts such as "praise" have no foundation in the concrete and are a


product of ancient Greek philosophy.


Where is the Hebrew?


If the word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) is written with the Aramaic script and the definition "praise" is from


the Greek, where is the Hebrew in this word? The purpose of the "Ancient Hebrew


Lexicon of the Bible" is to restore the original Hebrew to the Hebrew language of the


Bible.


The original Hebrew


The word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) would have been written as (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) in the Early Hebrew script (over 3200


years ago) or as (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) in the Middle Hebrew script (between 3200 and 2500 years ago).


The original pictographic letters of the parent root (cid:80)(cid:73) is a man with his arms raised


"looking" at something spectacular and a shepherd staff that is used to move the flock


8 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


"toward" a place. When these are combined the idea of "looking toward" something is


represented. The original meaning of (cid:80)(cid:73) is the North Star, a bright light in the night


sky that is "looked toward" to guide one on the journey.


If we are going to read the Bible correctly it must be through the perspective of the


Ancient Hebrews who wrote it, not from a Modern Aramaic or Greek perspective. The


word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) in its original concrete meaning is a bright light that guides the journey and


we "praise" Yah by looking at him to guide us on our journey through life.


Perspective of the Lexicon


The first and foremost concept that a reader of the Biblical text must learn is that the


ancient Hebrews were products of an eastern culture while you as the reader are the


product of a western culture. These two cultures are as different as oil and vinegar, they


do not mix very well. What may seem rational in our western minds would be


considered irrational to an easterner of an ancient Near East culture. The same is true in


the reverse, what may be rational to an ancient Easterner would be completely irrational


in our western mind.


The authors of the Biblical text are writing from within their culture to those of the


same culture. In order to fully understand the text one needs to understand the culture


and thought processes of the Hebrew people.


All existing Hebrew Lexicons of the Bible convert the vocabulary of the ancient


Hebrews into a vocabulary compatible to our modern western language. The greatest


problem with this is that it promotes western thought when reading the Biblical text. In


this Lexicon the mind of the reader is transformed into an eastern one in order to


understand the text through the eyes of the ancient Hebrews who penned the words of


the Bible.


One of the greatest differences between this lexicon and others is the use of the ancient


pictographic script which Hebrew was originally written in. Because the Ancient


Hebrew language is based on these pictographs, they are used rather than the Modern


Hebrew script.


9 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


Website


The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible has its own website with additional material


and information such as verb charts, listing of Biblical Hebrew words in order of their


frequency, common Hebrew roots and updates to the lexicon and much more. The


author is also available for questions, comments and requests.


Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible website


http://ahlb.ancient-hebrew.org


10


The Ancient Hebrew


Lexicon of the Bible


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Hebrew Letters, Words and


Roots Defined Within Their


Ancient Cultural Context


Jeff A. Benner Cover design by Jeff A. Benner. Ancient Inscription photo taken at the University of


Pennsylvania, Museum of Archeology and Anthropology by the author. The inscription


reads "Sh'ma" meaning hear (see Duet 6.4) and is inscribed on a piece of broken


pottery dated 586 to 450 BCE.


“The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible,” by Jeff A. Benner. ISBN 1-58939-776-2.


Published 2005 by Virtualbookworm.com Publishing Inc., P.O. Box 9949, College


Station, TX 77842, US. uf6d92005, Jeff A. Benner. All rights reserved. Any part of this


book may be copied for non-profit educational purposes only, without prior


permission. Printed in the United States of America.


Library of Congress Control Number: 2005932420 Acknowledgments


I would first like to thank my wife Denise for her patience and


encouragement. I am extremely blessed to have been privileged with her


as a gift from above and the one who has been my continual companion


and confidant. She has always supported me in this endeavor and


allowed me the space and time for research and writing. Without her


devotion and inspiration this work would never have come to fruition.


I am also grateful to Dr. Larry S. Hirsch. Without his initial introduction


into Hebrew thought and language and his instruction in Biblical studies


I would never have started this journey into the Ancient Hebrew thought,


culture and language.


Also my friend Michael Calpino who continually supported my studies


in the Hebrew language, listened to my discoveries and assisted me by


working out many word and root origins and meanings.


I would also like to thank the hundreds of people who have supported


my work at the Ancient Hebrew Research Center Website with their


suggestions, corrections and encouragement.


There are also many great Hebrew scholars who, with their research and


work, have laid the foundations for me and others interested in the


Hebrew culture and language who are much deserving of our thanks. The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.............................................................................................3


INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................8


PURPOSE OF THE LEXICON...........................................................................................8


The written word.....................................................................................................8


The word meaning...................................................................................................8


Where is the Hebrew?.............................................................................................8


The original Hebrew...............................................................................................8


PERSPECTIVE OF THE LEXICON.....................................................................................9


WEBSITE....................................................................................................................10


ANCIENT HEBREW THOUGHT............................................................................11


ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE........................................................................................11


APPEARANCE AND FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTIONS........................................................12


STATIC AND DYNAMIC...............................................................................................13


THE ANCIENT HEBREW ALPHABET.................................................................14


EVOLUTION OF THE HEBREW ALPHABET...................................................................14


THEAYIN AND GHAH.................................................................................................16


One Word - Two Meanings....................................................................................16


Greek Transliterations of the Ghah.......................................................................17


Impact on Ancient Hebrew Studies........................................................................17


THESAMECH,SHIN AND SIN......................................................................................18


RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ORIGINAL HEBREW ALPHABET.........................................18


Letter Characteristics............................................................................................19


THE RECONSTRUCTED ALPHABET...................................................................20


AL..............................................................................................................................20


BET............................................................................................................................21


GAM...........................................................................................................................22


DAL............................................................................................................................22


HEY............................................................................................................................23


WAW..........................................................................................................................23


ZAN............................................................................................................................24


HHETS........................................................................................................................25


THET..........................................................................................................................25


YAD...........................................................................................................................26


KAPH.........................................................................................................................26


LAM...........................................................................................................................27


4 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


MAH...........................................................................................................................27


NUN...........................................................................................................................28


SIN.............................................................................................................................28


AYIN..........................................................................................................................29


PEY............................................................................................................................29


TSAD..........................................................................................................................30


QUPH.........................................................................................................................30


RESH..........................................................................................................................31


SHIN...........................................................................................................................31


TAW...........................................................................................................................32


GHAH.........................................................................................................................32


HEBREW ALPHABET CHART.......................................................................................33


THE HEBREW ROOT SYSTEM.............................................................................34


PARENTROOTS..........................................................................................................34


CHILD ROOTS.............................................................................................................34


ADOPTED ROOTS........................................................................................................35


RECONSTRUCTION OF ROOTS.....................................................................................36


THE HEBREW LANGUAGE...................................................................................37


VERBS........................................................................................................................37


Person...................................................................................................................37


Number..................................................................................................................37


Gender...................................................................................................................37


Tense.....................................................................................................................37


Voice......................................................................................................................38


Mood.....................................................................................................................38


Verb Conjugations.................................................................................................38


NOUNS.......................................................................................................................39


Noun Derivatives...................................................................................................39


Feminine Derivatives............................................................................................39


Combination Derivatives.......................................................................................39


Plural Nouns.........................................................................................................39


Grammatical Tools................................................................................................40


DETERMINING THE ORIGINAL MEANING OF HEBREW WORDS.....................................40


LETTER EVOLUTION...................................................................................................41


ANCIENTHEBREW PRONUNCIATION..........................................................................42


Spirants and Stops.................................................................................................42


Vowels...................................................................................................................42


Syllables................................................................................................................42


Masoretic Vowels..................................................................................................43


Transliterations.....................................................................................................44


LEXICON FORMAT..................................................................................................45


PARENT AND ADOPTED ROOT FORMAT......................................................................45


CHILD ROOT FORMAT................................................................................................46


5 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


WORDFORMAT..........................................................................................................47


THE LEXICON...........................................................................................................49


PARENT AND CHILD ROOTS.......................................................................................50


Al...........................................................................................................................50


Bet.........................................................................................................................62


Gam.......................................................................................................................77


Dal.........................................................................................................................88


Hey......................................................................................................................100


Waw.....................................................................................................................107


Zan.......................................................................................................................109


Hhets...................................................................................................................117


Thet......................................................................................................................134


Yad.......................................................................................................................140


Kaph....................................................................................................................144


Lam......................................................................................................................155


Mah.....................................................................................................................165


Nun......................................................................................................................179


Sin........................................................................................................................193


Ayin.....................................................................................................................206


Pey.......................................................................................................................218


Tsad.....................................................................................................................229


Quph....................................................................................................................241


Resh.....................................................................................................................253


Shin......................................................................................................................271


Taw......................................................................................................................289


Ghah....................................................................................................................296


ADOPTED ROOTS (THREE LETTER)...........................................................................301


Al.........................................................................................................................301


Bet.......................................................................................................................303


Gam.....................................................................................................................312


Dal.......................................................................................................................320


Zan.......................................................................................................................324


Hhets...................................................................................................................329


Thet......................................................................................................................348


Kaph....................................................................................................................351


Lam......................................................................................................................361


Mah.....................................................................................................................366


Nun......................................................................................................................373


Sin........................................................................................................................388


Ayin.....................................................................................................................399


Pey.......................................................................................................................413


Tsad.....................................................................................................................424


Quph....................................................................................................................431


Resh.....................................................................................................................440


Shin......................................................................................................................451


6 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


Taw......................................................................................................................469


Ghah....................................................................................................................472


ADOPTED ROOTS (FOUR LETTER).............................................................................474


FOREIGN WORDS.....................................................................................................481


INDEXES...................................................................................................................483


ENGLISH DEFINITIONS..............................................................................................483


KINGJAMES TRANSLATION......................................................................................505


STRONG'SNUMBER..................................................................................................555


ALTERNATIVE SPELLINGS........................................................................................577


NOTES.......................................................................................................................612


7 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


Introduction


Purpose of the Lexicon


In order to demonstrate the need for an Ancient Hebrew lexicon let us examine the


word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) (halel), how it is written and what it means.


The written word


The Hebrew word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73), as it appears here, in Hebrew dictionaries and in Hebrew


Bibles, is written with the Modern Hebrew script. But where did the Modern Hebrew


script come from? Hebrew was originally written with a pictographic script similar to


Egyptian Hieroglyphs but, when Israel was taken into captivity in Babylon they


adopted the Aramaic script of the region and used it to write Hebrew. The Modern


Hebrew script used today is in fact Aramaic in origin, not Hebrew.


The word meaning


According to Hebrew dictionaries and lexicons the word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) is translated as "praise".


The Ancient Hebrew language is a concrete oriented language meaning that the


meaning of Hebrew words are rooted in something that can be sensed by the five senses


such as a tree which can be seen, sweet which can be tasted and noise which can be


heard. Abstract concepts such as "praise" have no foundation in the concrete and are a


product of ancient Greek philosophy.


Where is the Hebrew?


If the word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) is written with the Aramaic script and the definition "praise" is from


the Greek, where is the Hebrew in this word? The purpose of the "Ancient Hebrew


Lexicon of the Bible" is to restore the original Hebrew to the Hebrew language of the


Bible.


The original Hebrew


The word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) would have been written as (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) in the Early Hebrew script (over 3200


years ago) or as (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) in the Middle Hebrew script (between 3200 and 2500 years ago).


The original pictographic letters of the parent root (cid:80)(cid:73) is a man with his arms raised


"looking" at something spectacular and a shepherd staff that is used to move the flock


8 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


"toward" a place. When these are combined the idea of "looking toward" something is


represented. The original meaning of (cid:80)(cid:73) is the North Star, a bright light in the night


sky that is "looked toward" to guide one on the journey.


If we are going to read the Bible correctly it must be through the perspective of the


Ancient Hebrews who wrote it, not from a Modern Aramaic or Greek perspective. The


word (cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:73) in its original concrete meaning is a bright light that guides the journey and


we "praise" Yah by looking at him to guide us on our journey through life.


Perspective of the Lexicon


The first and foremost concept that a reader of the Biblical text must learn is that the


ancient Hebrews were products of an eastern culture while you as the reader are the


product of a western culture. These two cultures are as different as oil and vinegar, they


do not mix very well. What may seem rational in our western minds would be


considered irrational to an easterner of an ancient Near East culture. The same is true in


the reverse, what may be rational to an ancient Easterner would be completely irrational


in our western mind.


The authors of the Biblical text are writing from within their culture to those of the


same culture. In order to fully understand the text one needs to understand the culture


and thought processes of the Hebrew people.


All existing Hebrew Lexicons of the Bible convert the vocabulary of the ancient


Hebrews into a vocabulary compatible to our modern western language. The greatest


problem with this is that it promotes western thought when reading the Biblical text. In


this Lexicon the mind of the reader is transformed into an eastern one in order to


understand the text through the eyes of the ancient Hebrews who penned the words of


the Bible.


One of the greatest differences between this lexicon and others is the use of the ancient


pictographic script which Hebrew was originally written in. Because the Ancient


Hebrew language is based on these pictographs, they are used rather than the Modern


Hebrew script.


9 The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible


Website


The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible has its own website with additional material


and information such as verb charts, listing of Biblical Hebrew words in order of their


frequency, common Hebrew roots and updates to the lexicon and much more. The


author is also available for questions, comments and requests.


Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible website


http://ahlb.ancient-hebrew.org


10


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