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Techniques in language Teaching

318 Pages · 2015 · 2.67 MB · English

  • Techniques in language Teaching

    Third Edition Techniques


    & Principles


    in Language


    Teaching


    Diane Larsen-Freeman


    and Marti Anderson Great Clarendon Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP


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    First published 2011


    2016 2015 2014 2013 2012


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    ISBN: 978 0 19 442360 1


    Printed in China


    This book is printed on paper from certified and well-managed sources.


    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


    The authors and publisher are grateful to those who have given permission to reproduce the following extract of


    copyright material: p.214 Screenshot from Facebook (http://www.facebook.com). Reproduced by kind permission


    of Facebook.


    Sources: p.215 www.wikipedia.com; p.205 The British National Corpus


    Illustrations by: Chris Pavely pp. 26, 38, 53, 56, 72, 87, 89, 106, 118, 135, 153, 172, 183, 188, 193.


    This title originally appeared in the series Teaching Techniques in English as a Second Language, edited by


    Russell N Campbell and William E Rutherford (First Edition 1986; Second Edition 2000). In memory of my parents, Elaine and Randolph Larsen, with heartfelt gratitude for


    their love and encouragement


    DIANE LARSEN-FREEMAN


    In memory of my mother, Mavis Anderson, and in honor of my father, Elmer


    Anderson, who both inspired me to be curious and compassionate


    MARTI ANDERSON Contents


    Acknowledgments


    List of Acronyms


    To the Teacher Educator


    1 Introduction


    2 The Grammar-Translation Method


    3 The Direct Method


    4 The Audio-Lingual Method


    5 The Silent Way


    6 Desuggestopedia


    7 Community Language Learning


    8 Total Physical Response


    9 Communicative Language Teaching


    10 Content-based Instruction


    11 Task-based Language Teaching


    12 The Political Dimensions of Language Teaching and the Participatory Approach


    13 Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple Intelligences


    14 Emerging Uses of Technology in Language Teaching and Learning


    15 Conclusion


    Glossary


    Index Acknowledgments


    We thank the readers of the first and second editions of this book. Your invaluable


    feedback and input have helped to shape this third edition.


    The approach we have used in this book, as in the previous two editions, is based


    on our experience in teaching the methods/approaches course at the Master of Arts in


    Teaching Program at the School for International Training. This book would not have


    been written in the first place if it had not been for the influence of colleagues and


    students there. We are indeed grateful for the time we spent in this wonderful


    community.


    Marti would like to thank Diane for being an inspiring teacher and mentor as well


    as beloved colleague and friend. Working with her on this project has been a great


    privilege.


    Diane would like to thank Marti for her willingness to join her in this project and


    her ‘can-do’ attitude throughout. Diane is counting on Marti to make this project her


    own and carry it into the future.


    We wish to thank our life partners for their encouragement and support.


    For the initial faith they showed and for their continued encouragement and helpful


    suggestions, Diane acknowledges with gratitude the editors of this series, Russell


    Campbell and William Rutherford.


    It has also been a pleasure working with the professionals at Oxford University


    Press. For this edition, we want to acknowledge Julia Bell’s helpfulness especially,


    and Ann Hunter’s and Keith Layfield’s skillful copy-editing.


    In addition, this book has benefited from the fact that leading methodologists and


    colleagues have generously responded to requests for feedback on portions of this


    manuscript, either the previous edition or the current one. We are indebted to Earl


    Stevick (To the Teacher Educator), Shakti Gattegno (Silent Way), Georgi Lozanov,


    Allison Miller, and Tetsuo Nishizawa (Desuggestopedia), Jennybelle Rardin and Pat


    Tirone (Community Language Learning), James Asher (Total Physical Response),


    Marjorie Wesche and Ann Snow (Content-based Instruction), Elsa Auerbach


    (Participatory Approach), and Leo van Lier and Mat Schulze (Technology). Their


    comments have made us feel more confident of our interpretation and representation.


    Any errors of interpretation are entirely our responsibility, of course. List of Acronyms


    ALM Audio-Lingual Method


    BNC British National Corpus


    CBI Content-based Instruction


    CLL Community Language Learning


    CLT Communicative Language Teaching


    CALL Computer-assisted Language Learning


    CLIL Content and Language Integrated Learning


    ELF English as a Lingua Franca


    LCD Liquid Crystal Display


    SLA Second Language Acquisition


    SAARRD Security, Aggression, Attention, Reflection, Retention, and


    Discrimination


    SIOP Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol


    TL Target Language


    TBLT Task-based Language Teaching


    WL Whole Language


    ZPD Zone of Proximal Development To the Teacher Educator


    The Work of Language Teaching


    The work of teaching is simultaneously mental and social. It is also physical,


    emotional, practical, behavioral, political, experiential, historical, cultural, spiritual,


    and personal. In short, teaching is very complex, influenced not only by these 12


    dimensions and perhaps others, but also requiring their contingent orchestration in


    support of students’ learning. When language teaching in particular is in focus, the


    complexity is even greater, shaped by teachers’ views of the nature of language, of


    language teaching and learning in general, and by their knowledge of the particular


    sociocultural setting in which the teaching and learning take place (Adamson 2004).


    Indeed, research has shown that there is a degree of shared pedagogical knowledge


    among language teachers that is different from that of teachers of other subjects


    (Gatbonton 2000; Mullock 2006). nulltheless, each teacher’s own language learning


    history is also unique. The way that teachers have been taught during their own


    ‘apprenticeship of observation’ (Lortie 1975) is bound to be formative. There is also


    the level of complexity at the immediate local level, due to the specific and unique


    needs of the students themselves in a particular class at a particular time, and the fact


    that these needs change from moment to moment. Finally, the reality of educational


    contexts being what they are, teachers must not only attempt to meet their students’


    learning needs, but they must also juggle other competing demands on their time and


    attention.


    Because of this complexity, although this is a book about the methods and


    methodological innovations of recent years, we do not seek to convince readers that


    one method is superior to another, or that there is or ever will be a perfect method


    (Prabhu 1990). The work of teaching suggests otherwise. As Brumfit observes:


    A claim that we can predict closely what will happen in a situation as complex as


    [the classroom] can only be based on either the view that human beings are more


    mechanical in their learning responses than any recent discussion would allow, or


    the notion that we can measure and predict the quantities and qualities of all …


    factors. Neither of these seems to be a sensible point of view to take.


    (Brumfit 1984: 18–19)


    After all, ‘If it could be assumed that learners were ‘simply’ learners, that teachers


    were ‘simply’ teachers, and that one classroom was essentially the same as another,


    there would probably be little need for other than a technological approach to language teaching’ (Tudor 2003: 3), with adjustments being made for the age of the


    learners, specific goals, or class numbers, etc. However, the truth is that


    Learners are not ‘simply’ learners any more than teachers are ‘simply’ teachers;


    teaching contexts, too, differ from one another in a significant number of ways. In


    other words, language teaching is far more complex than producing cars: we


    cannot therefore assume that the technology of language teaching will lead in a


    neat, deterministic manner to a predictable set of learning outcomes.


    (Tudor 2003: 3).


    Tudor goes on to observe that this is true even within a given culture. It cannot be


    assumed that all teachers will share the same conceptions of language, of learning,


    and of teaching.


    Rather than the elegant realisation of one rationality, then, language teaching is


    likely to involve the meeting and interaction of different rationalities. Murray


    (1996) is therefore right in drawing attention to the ‘tapestry of diversity’ which


    makes our classrooms what they are.


    (ibid. 2003: 7)


    Language Teacher Learning


    Recognizing the complex and diverse nature of the work of teaching has stimulated


    much discussion during the last 15 years around the question of how it is that


    language teachers learn to teach (Bailey and Nunan 1996; Bartels 2005; Burns and


    Richards 2009; Freeman and Richards 1996; Hawkins 2004; Johnson 2009; Tedick


    2005). In addition, during this same time period, the journal Language Teaching


    Research began publication with Rod Ellis as its editor. Much of the research reported


    on in these sources can be summed up in what Johnson describes as her current


    understanding of language teacher learning:


    L2 teacher learning [is] … socially negotiated and contingent on knowledge of


    self, subject matter, curricula, and setting … L2 teachers [are] … users and


    creators of legitimate forms of knowledge who make decisions about how best to


    teach their L2 students within complex socially, culturally, and historically


    situated contexts.


    (Johnson 2006: 239)


    Such a view has radically transformed notions of teacher learning. As Richards (2008:


    164) notes: ‘While traditional views of teacher-learning often viewed the teachers’


    task as the application of theory to practice, more recent views see teacher-learning as


    the theorization of practice.’ Rather than consumers of theory, then, teachers are seen


    to be both practitioners and theory builders (Prabhu 1992; Savignon 2007). Given this


    view of teachers as theory builders, teacher education must serve two functions: ‘It


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