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Teaching English Language Learners through Technology

235 Pages · 2008 · 5.41 MB · English

  • Teaching English Language Learners through Technology

    Teaching English Language


    Learners through Technology


    Today’s classrooms increasingly include students for whom English is a second language. Teaching


    English Language Learners through Technology explores the use of computers and technology as


    pedagogical tools to aid in the appropriate instruction of English language learners (ELLs) across


    all content areas. The authors identify various technologies and software programs regularly used


    in the classroom for all students that can also specifically aid ELLs. Teaching English Language


    Learners through Technology provides successful strategies for varying levels of access—whether


    teachers have one computer in their classroom, have multiple computers, or can only occasionally


    use a computer lab. A fully annotated list of web and print resources completes the volume, mak-


    ing this a valuable reference to help teachers harness the power of computer-assisted technologies


    in meeting the challenges of including all learners in effective instruction.


    Special Features:


    x83 “Implications for the Classroom” provides teachers with useful tools for creating balanced


    and inclusive lesson plans


    x83 “Teaching Tips” offer teachers additional print and online resources


    x83 Engaging vignettes vividly illustrate real-life interactions of teachers and ELLs in the


    classroom


    x83 Graphs, tables, and charts provide additional access points to the text in clear, meaningful


    ways


    Tony Erben is Assistant Professor of Education and Director of the ESOL Endorsement Program


    at the University of Tampa.


    Ruth Ban is Assistant Professor of Education in TESOL at Barry University.


    Martha Castañeda is Assistant Professor of Foreign Language Education at Miami University. Teaching English Language Learners Across the Curriculum


    Series Editors: Tony Erben, Bárbara C. Cruz, Stephen J. Thornton


    Teaching Mathematics to English Language Learners


    Gladis Kersaint, Denisse R. Thompson, Mariana Petkova


    Teaching English Language Learners in Career and Technical Education


    Programs


    Victor M. Hernández-Gantes and William Blank


    Teaching English Language Learners through Technology


    Tony Erben, Ruth Ban, Martha Castañeda


    Teaching Social Studies to English Language Learners


    Bárbara C. Cruz and Stephen J. Thornton Teaching English Language


    Learners through Technology


    TOny ErBEn, rUTh BAn, MArThA CASTAñEDA First published 2009


    by routledge


    270 Madison Ave, new york, ny 10016


    Simultaneously published in the UK


    by routledge


    2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4rn


    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business


    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008.


    “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s


    collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”


    © 2009 Taylor & Francis


    All rights reserved. no part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised


    in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or here-


    after invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage


    or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.


    Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered


    trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to


    infringe.


    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


    Erben, Tony.


    Teaching English language learners through technology / Tony Erben, ruth Ban,


    Martha Castaneda.


    p. cm. — (Teaching english language learners across the curriculum)


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBn 978-0-415-95767-0 (hb : alk. paper) — ISBn 978-0-415-95768-7 (pb : alk.


    paper) — ISBn 978-0-203-89442-2 (ebook) 1. English language—Study and


    teaching—Foreign speakers—Computer-assisted instruction. I. Ban, ruth. II.


    Castañeda, Martha E., 1972– III. Title.


    PE1128.3E73 2008


    428.0078'5—dc22


    2008001566


    ISBN 0-203-89442-1 Master e-book ISBN


    ISBn 10: 0–415–95767–2 (hbk)


    ISBn 10: 0–415–95768–0 (pbk)


    ISBn 10: 0–203–89442–1 (ebk)


    ISBn 13: 978–0–415–95767–0 (hbk)


    ISBn 13: 978–0–415–95768–7 (pbk)


    ISBn 13: 978–0–203–89442–2 (ebk) To all people who live in a new country


    and


    to our spouses, Silvina, hugo, and Daryl Contents


    List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xi


    Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii


    Series Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii


    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


    PArT 1 — Your English Language Learner Tony Erben . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


    1 .1 — Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


    1 .2 — The Process of English Language Learning and What to Expect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


    Principle 1: Give ELLs Many Opportunities to read, to Write, to Listen to, and to


    Discuss Oral and Written English Texts Expressed in a Variety of Ways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16


    Principle 2: Draw Attention to Patterns of English Language Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


    Principle 3: Give ELLs Classroom Time to Use their English Productively . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


    Principle 4: Give ELLs Opportunities to notice their Errors and to Correct their English . . . . . 18


    Principle 5: Construct Activities that Maximize Opportunities for ELLs to Interact with


    Others in English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


    1 .3 — Deciding on the Best ESOL Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


    1 .4 — Teaching for English Language Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 viii Contents


    1 .5 — Not All ELLs are the Same . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32


    Stages of Cultural Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34


    Cultural Practices at School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


    1 .6 — Culturally responsive Pedagogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


    1 .7 — Not All Parents are the Same: Home–School Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40


    Ideas: On Fostering Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


    Ideas: On Fostering Approachability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


    Ideas: On Achieving Good Follow-Through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42


    1 .8 — English Language Learners with Special Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43


    PArT 2 —What We Know from research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47


    2 .1 — Taking the Lead from Vygotsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49


    The Social Origins and Cultural Bases of Mind—Fundamental Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50


    Tools, Signs and Mediated Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51


    regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52


    The Zone of Proximal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53


    Sociocultural Theory in Second Language Acquisition research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


    2 .2 — Differentiated Instruction, Project-Based Learning, and Constructivist Pedagogy Principles 56


    Differentiated Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


    Project-Based Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


    Constructivist Pedagogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62


    2 .3 — Making Accommodations for ELLs and Infusing Technology into a Lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65


    2 .4 — Principles of Technology Use in Educational Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79


    Know your Students. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79


    Choosing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80


    Students Working with Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80


    Language Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81


    Challenges of Technology Use in Classrooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81


    2 .5 — Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84


    PArT 3 — Teaching ELLs through Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89


    3 .1 — Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Contents ix


    3 .2 — E-creation Tools and Self-Made Computer-Based resources: Getting ELLs to


    Play and Be Creative with Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97


    Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97


    how to Create and Use E-creation Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99


    how to Use E-creation Tools in the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


    3 .3 — Communicative-Facilitating E-tools: Getting ELLs to Produce Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119


    Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119


    Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119


    Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120


    Listservs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122


    Discussion Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123


    Instant Messaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125


    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127


    3 .4 — Writing/reading-Facilitative E-tools: Getting ELLs to Improve and Focus on


    Their Literacy Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131


    Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131


    Writeboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132


    Wikis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133


    Blogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136


    Webquests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138


    Ideas to Transfer to your Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139


    3 .5 — Listening-Facilitative E-tools: Improving ELLs’ Comprehension Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141


    Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141


    Vodcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144


    Audioblogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145


    Video Sharing Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146


    3 .6 — E-assessments: Portfolios, Quizzes, and rubrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150


    Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150


    Leveling the Playing Field: Assessment Strategies for ELLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150


    Performance-Based Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


    Using Technology and Multimedia to Assess ELLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155


    Example Lesson Incorporating E-portfolios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156


    Transferable Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164


    3 .7 — Managing Teaching through Virtual Learning Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166


    Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166


    how to Create and Use a nicenet Learning Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167


    how to Use nicenet in the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168


    how to Use Virtual Learning Environment Tools in the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170


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