Sustainable Urban Planning

Sustainable Urban Planning

Sustainable Urban Planning

355 Pages ·2008·2.27 MB ·English

Sustainable Urban Planning

Sustainable Urban Planning


Tipping the Balance


Robert Riddell Sustainable Urban Planning the design of building the City doth go on apace;and by


description,it will be mighty handsome,and to the satisfaction


of people.But I pray God it will come out not too late.


Samuel Pepys, Sunday, 25 November 1666,


two months after the Great Fire of London Sustainable Urban Planning


Tipping the Balance


Robert Riddell © 2004 by Robert Riddell


350 Main Street, Malden, MA02148-5020, USA


108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK


550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia


The right of Robert Riddell to be identified as the Author of this Work has been asserted in


accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988.


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or


transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or other-


wise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior


permission of the publisher.


First published 2004 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Riddell, Robert, 1934–


Sustainable urban planning : tipping the balance / Robert Riddell.


p. cm


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN 1–4051–0289–6 (alk. paper)—ISBN 1–4051–0290–X (pbk. : alk. paper)


1. Urban ecology. 2. City planning—Environmental aspects. 3. Sustainable development.


I. Title.


HT241.R53 2003


307.76—dc21 2003051819


Acatalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.


Set in 10 on 12.5pt Palatino


by SNPBest-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong


Printed and bound in the United Kingdom


by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall


Illustrations by Bruce Weir


For further information on


Blackwell Publishing, visit our website:


http://www.blackwellpublishing.com Contents


List of Boxes viii


List of Figures ix


Acknowledgements x


Glossary xii


Introduction 1


Part I Principles 5


1 Sustainable and Ethical 7


Development, Planning and Sustainability 12


Property, Interests and Neomodernity 16


Property 16


Interests 20


Neomodernity 20


Conservancy and Development Ethics 26


Practice ethics 28


With Sustainable and Ethical Intent 37


2 Knowledge Power Outcomes: The Theory Fundamentals 39


How Planning Works 49


Traditional-Lineal Planning 53


The Radical-Multiplex Approach 58


Progressive Change 66


Part II Practice 71


3 Charter for Conservation with Development 73


Backgrounding 74


Foregrounding 79


Resource Exploitation and Discard Dynamics 86 vi Contents


Socio-Environmentalism: The New Reality 90


The political ecology of scale shifts 96


Resource Guardianship: Principles into Practice 101


The Soft Pathways Matrix 107


The New Culture: Balanced Harmony 114


4 Growth Pattern Management 117


Multiplier Principles 120


Growth Pattern Information Needs 124


Data assembly and raw data analysis 125


Linkage and pattern analyses 129


Rural-urban understandings 132


Growth Management Basics 133


Project propagation (generation) 133


Risk assessment and risk management 139


Project implementation 148


Macro Practice Patterns 150


‘Ownerships’ and ‘rights’ 151


Urban-rural growth patterning 156


Coastal zone management 163


Agriculture and forestry 166


Tourism 169


Unemployment alleviation 181


Waste disposal management 183


Growth Pattern Policy Directions 186


5 Urban Growth Management 188


Yesterday’s Solutions, Today’s Problems 189


Suburbia and Ex-urbia Costed 198


Urban Reforms: Options and Actions 203


Urban social arrangement and style 204


Ex-urban sprawl control 211


Small-town conservation with development 217


Water’s edge urbanization 221


ECO-village ideals 223


Raw land suburbanization 227


Urban retrofit compaction and clustering 238


Shopping as a lesiure activity 251


The Delivery of Outcome 257 Contents vii


Balanced Urban Living 260


Appendix: Agenda 21 264


6 Tipping the Balance 269


The Ends 269


The Means 273


Within the academy 274


Trends and Changes: AConcluding Commentary 276


Bibliographical Retrospective 281


Notes 284


References 296


Index 319 List of Boxes


1.1 Terra psyche: the land settlement continuum 17


1.2 New-age pragmatics 22


1.3 Connecting philosophy to planning 27


1.4 Ethical canon for community transactions 34


2.1 Traditional and radical formats: an explication of theory 47


2.2 Radical-multiplex skills set 62


3.1 The ever-changing scene 85


3.2 Resources within ecosystems 92


3.3 Global population and energy use 94


3.4 Soft pathways 98


3.5 Sustainable co-dependency 100


3.6 Kicking the energy-use habit 102


3.7 Matrixfor conservation with development 108


4.1 Socio-ecological economics 120


4.2 Export and residentiary considerations relative to an agricultural


region 126


4.3 Pattern data: a dump listing 127


4.4 Input–output patterns 130


4.5 Risk Impact Assessment (RIA): an agency perspective 144


4.6 Benefit-cost prognosis 147


4.7 Log Frame project implementation 149


4.8 Sustainable tourism policies 179


5.1 Urban social arrangement and style 205


5.2 Basic residential componentry 209


5.3 Suburban design-detail code 232


5.4 Compaction: an urban retrofit code 245


5.5 Mainstreet guidelines 253


5.6 Planning in action: the delivery of outcome 258


6.1 Easter Island – Earth Island 274


Sustainable Urban Planning


Tipping the Balance


Robert Riddell Sustainable Urban Planning the design of building the City doth go on apace;and by


description,it will be mighty handsome,and to the satisfaction


of people.But I pray God it will come out not too late.


Samuel Pepys, Sunday, 25 November 1666,


two months after the Great Fire of London Sustainable Urban Planning


Tipping the Balance


Robert Riddell © 2004 by Robert Riddell


350 Main Street, Malden, MA02148-5020, USA


108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK


550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia


The right of Robert Riddell to be identified as the Author of this Work has been asserted in


accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988.


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or


transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or other-


wise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior


permission of the publisher.


First published 2004 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Riddell, Robert, 1934–


Sustainable urban planning : tipping the balance / Robert Riddell.


p. cm


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN 1–4051–0289–6 (alk. paper)—ISBN 1–4051–0290–X (pbk. : alk. paper)


1. Urban ecology. 2. City planning—Environmental aspects. 3. Sustainable development.


I. Title.


HT241.R53 2003


307.76—dc21 2003051819


Acatalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.


Set in 10 on 12.5pt Palatino


by SNPBest-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong


Printed and bound in the United Kingdom


by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall


Illustrations by Bruce Weir


For further information on


Blackwell Publishing, visit our website:


http://www.blackwellpublishing.com Contents


List of Boxes viii


List of Figures ix


Acknowledgements x


Glossary xii


Introduction 1


Part I Principles 5


1 Sustainable and Ethical 7


Development, Planning and Sustainability 12


Property, Interests and Neomodernity 16


Property 16


Interests 20


Neomodernity 20


Conservancy and Development Ethics 26


Practice ethics 28


With Sustainable and Ethical Intent 37


2 Knowledge Power Outcomes: The Theory Fundamentals 39


How Planning Works 49


Traditional-Lineal Planning 53


The Radical-Multiplex Approach 58


Progressive Change 66


Part II Practice 71


3 Charter for Conservation with Development 73


Backgrounding 74


Foregrounding 79


Resource Exploitation and Discard Dynamics 86 vi Contents


Socio-Environmentalism: The New Reality 90


The political ecology of scale shifts 96


Resource Guardianship: Principles into Practice 101


The Soft Pathways Matrix 107


The New Culture: Balanced Harmony 114


4 Growth Pattern Management 117


Multiplier Principles 120


Growth Pattern Information Needs 124


Data assembly and raw data analysis 125


Linkage and pattern analyses 129


Rural-urban understandings 132


Growth Management Basics 133


Project propagation (generation) 133


Risk assessment and risk management 139


Project implementation 148


Macro Practice Patterns 150


‘Ownerships’ and ‘rights’ 151


Urban-rural growth patterning 156


Coastal zone management 163


Agriculture and forestry 166


Tourism 169


Unemployment alleviation 181


Waste disposal management 183


Growth Pattern Policy Directions 186


5 Urban Growth Management 188


Yesterday’s Solutions, Today’s Problems 189


Suburbia and Ex-urbia Costed 198


Urban Reforms: Options and Actions 203


Urban social arrangement and style 204


Ex-urban sprawl control 211


Small-town conservation with development 217


Water’s edge urbanization 221


ECO-village ideals 223


Raw land suburbanization 227


Urban retrofit compaction and clustering 238


Shopping as a lesiure activity 251


The Delivery of Outcome 257 Contents vii


Balanced Urban Living 260


Appendix: Agenda 21 264


6 Tipping the Balance 269


The Ends 269


The Means 273


Within the academy 274


Trends and Changes: AConcluding Commentary 276


Bibliographical Retrospective 281


Notes 284


References 296


Index 319 List of Boxes


1.1 Terra psyche: the land settlement continuum 17


1.2 New-age pragmatics 22


1.3 Connecting philosophy to planning 27


1.4 Ethical canon for community transactions 34


2.1 Traditional and radical formats: an explication of theory 47


2.2 Radical-multiplex skills set 62


3.1 The ever-changing scene 85


3.2 Resources within ecosystems 92


3.3 Global population and energy use 94


3.4 Soft pathways 98


3.5 Sustainable co-dependency 100


3.6 Kicking the energy-use habit 102


3.7 Matrixfor conservation with development 108


4.1 Socio-ecological economics 120


4.2 Export and residentiary considerations relative to an agricultural


region 126


4.3 Pattern data: a dump listing 127


4.4 Input–output patterns 130


4.5 Risk Impact Assessment (RIA): an agency perspective 144


4.6 Benefit-cost prognosis 147


4.7 Log Frame project implementation 149


4.8 Sustainable tourism policies 179


5.1 Urban social arrangement and style 205


5.2 Basic residential componentry 209


5.3 Suburban design-detail code 232


5.4 Compaction: an urban retrofit code 245


5.5 Mainstreet guidelines 253


5.6 Planning in action: the delivery of outcome 258


6.1 Easter Island – Earth Island 274


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