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Sustainable Urban Planning

355 Pages · 2008 · 2.27 MB · English

  • Sustainable Urban Planning

    Sustainable Urban Planning


    Tipping the Balance


    Robert Riddell Sustainable Urban Planning the design of building the City doth go on apace;and by


    description,it will be mighty handsome,and to the satisfaction


    of people.But I pray God it will come out not too late.


    Samuel Pepys, Sunday, 25 November 1666,


    two months after the Great Fire of London Sustainable Urban Planning


    Tipping the Balance


    Robert Riddell © 2004 by Robert Riddell


    350 Main Street, Malden, MA02148-5020, USA


    108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK


    550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia


    The right of Robert Riddell to be identified as the Author of this Work has been asserted in


    accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988.


    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or


    transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or other-


    wise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior


    permission of the publisher.


    First published 2004 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Riddell, Robert, 1934–


    Sustainable urban planning : tipping the balance / Robert Riddell.


    p. cm


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 1–4051–0289–6 (alk. paper)—ISBN 1–4051–0290–X (pbk. : alk. paper)


    1. Urban ecology. 2. City planning—Environmental aspects. 3. Sustainable development.


    I. Title.


    HT241.R53 2003


    307.76—dc21 2003051819


    Acatalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.


    Set in 10 on 12.5pt Palatino


    by SNPBest-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong


    Printed and bound in the United Kingdom


    by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall


    Illustrations by Bruce Weir


    For further information on


    Blackwell Publishing, visit our website:


    http://www.blackwellpublishing.com Contents


    List of Boxes viii


    List of Figures ix


    Acknowledgements x


    Glossary xii


    Introduction 1


    Part I Principles 5


    1 Sustainable and Ethical 7


    Development, Planning and Sustainability 12


    Property, Interests and Neomodernity 16


    Property 16


    Interests 20


    Neomodernity 20


    Conservancy and Development Ethics 26


    Practice ethics 28


    With Sustainable and Ethical Intent 37


    2 Knowledge Power Outcomes: The Theory Fundamentals 39


    How Planning Works 49


    Traditional-Lineal Planning 53


    The Radical-Multiplex Approach 58


    Progressive Change 66


    Part II Practice 71


    3 Charter for Conservation with Development 73


    Backgrounding 74


    Foregrounding 79


    Resource Exploitation and Discard Dynamics 86 vi Contents


    Socio-Environmentalism: The New Reality 90


    The political ecology of scale shifts 96


    Resource Guardianship: Principles into Practice 101


    The Soft Pathways Matrix 107


    The New Culture: Balanced Harmony 114


    4 Growth Pattern Management 117


    Multiplier Principles 120


    Growth Pattern Information Needs 124


    Data assembly and raw data analysis 125


    Linkage and pattern analyses 129


    Rural-urban understandings 132


    Growth Management Basics 133


    Project propagation (generation) 133


    Risk assessment and risk management 139


    Project implementation 148


    Macro Practice Patterns 150


    ‘Ownerships’ and ‘rights’ 151


    Urban-rural growth patterning 156


    Coastal zone management 163


    Agriculture and forestry 166


    Tourism 169


    Unemployment alleviation 181


    Waste disposal management 183


    Growth Pattern Policy Directions 186


    5 Urban Growth Management 188


    Yesterday’s Solutions, Today’s Problems 189


    Suburbia and Ex-urbia Costed 198


    Urban Reforms: Options and Actions 203


    Urban social arrangement and style 204


    Ex-urban sprawl control 211


    Small-town conservation with development 217


    Water’s edge urbanization 221


    ECO-village ideals 223


    Raw land suburbanization 227


    Urban retrofit compaction and clustering 238


    Shopping as a lesiure activity 251


    The Delivery of Outcome 257 Contents vii


    Balanced Urban Living 260


    Appendix: Agenda 21 264


    6 Tipping the Balance 269


    The Ends 269


    The Means 273


    Within the academy 274


    Trends and Changes: AConcluding Commentary 276


    Bibliographical Retrospective 281


    Notes 284


    References 296


    Index 319 List of Boxes


    1.1 Terra psyche: the land settlement continuum 17


    1.2 New-age pragmatics 22


    1.3 Connecting philosophy to planning 27


    1.4 Ethical canon for community transactions 34


    2.1 Traditional and radical formats: an explication of theory 47


    2.2 Radical-multiplex skills set 62


    3.1 The ever-changing scene 85


    3.2 Resources within ecosystems 92


    3.3 Global population and energy use 94


    3.4 Soft pathways 98


    3.5 Sustainable co-dependency 100


    3.6 Kicking the energy-use habit 102


    3.7 Matrixfor conservation with development 108


    4.1 Socio-ecological economics 120


    4.2 Export and residentiary considerations relative to an agricultural


    region 126


    4.3 Pattern data: a dump listing 127


    4.4 Input–output patterns 130


    4.5 Risk Impact Assessment (RIA): an agency perspective 144


    4.6 Benefit-cost prognosis 147


    4.7 Log Frame project implementation 149


    4.8 Sustainable tourism policies 179


    5.1 Urban social arrangement and style 205


    5.2 Basic residential componentry 209


    5.3 Suburban design-detail code 232


    5.4 Compaction: an urban retrofit code 245


    5.5 Mainstreet guidelines 253


    5.6 Planning in action: the delivery of outcome 258


    6.1 Easter Island – Earth Island 274


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