Sustainable diets and biodiversity - Food and Agriculture

Sustainable diets and biodiversity - Food and Agriculture

Sustainable diets and biodiversity - Food and Agriculture

309 Pages ·2012·3.53 MB ·English

Sustainable diets and biodiversity - Food and Agriculture

SUSTAINABLE DIETS


AND BIODIVERSITY


DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS


FOR POLICY, RESEARCH AND ACTION SUSTAINABLE DIETS


AND BIODIVERSITY


DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS


FOR POLICY, RESEARCH AND ACTION


1


Editors


Barbara Burlingame


Sandro Dernini


Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division


FAO


Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium


BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLE DIETS UNITED AGAINST HUNGER


3–5 November 2010


FAO Headquarters, Rome The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not


imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture


Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country,


territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.


The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have


been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in


preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.


The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily


reflect the views of FAO.


ISBN 978-92-5-107311-7


All rights reserved. FAO encourages reproduction and dissemination of material in this information


product. Non-commercial uses will be authorized free of charge, upon request. Reproduction


for resale or other commercial purposes, including educational purposes, may incur fees.


Applications for permission to reproduce or disseminate FAO copyright materials, and all queries


concerning rights and licences, should be addressed by e-mail to copyright@fao.org or to the Chief,


Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, FAO,


Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy.


© FAO 2012 Table of contents 6 PREFACE


Barbara Burlingame


10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


11 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


12 OPENING ADDRESSES


Changchui He


Emile Frison


20 KEYNOTE PAPER


Sustainable diets and biodiversity:


The challenge for policy, evidence and behaviour change


Tim Lang


28 CHAPTER 1


SUSTAINABLE DIETS AND BIODIVERSITY


30 Biodiversity and sustainable nutrition with a food-based approach


Denis Lairon


36 Biodiversity, nutrition and human well-being in the context of the Convention


on Biological Diversity


Kathryn Campbell, Kieran Noonan-Mooney and Kalemani Jo Mulongoy


3


44 Ensuring agriculture biodiversity and nutrition remain central to addressing


the MDG1 hunger target


Jessica Fanzo and Federico Mattei


54 CHAPTER 2


SUSTAINABLE FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION


56 Dynamic conservation of globally important agricultural heritage systems:


for a sustainable agriculture and rural development


Parviz Koohafkan


66 Sustainable crop production intensification


William J. Murray


75 Sustainability and diversity along the food chain


Daniele Rossi


82 Animal genetic diversity and sustainable diets


Roswitha Baumung and Irene Hoffmann


94 Aquatic biodiversity for sustainable diets: The role of aquatic foods in food


and nutrition security


Jogeir Toppe, Melba G. Bondad-Reantaso, Muhammad R. Hasan,


Helga Josupeit, Rohana P. Subasinghe, Matthias Halwart and David James


102 Dietary behaviours and pratices: Determinants, actions, outcomes


Patrick Etiévant 108 Conservation of plant biodiversity for sustainable diets


Kate Gold and Rory P.H. McBurney


116 CHAPTER 3


CASE STUDIES: BRINGING BIODIVERSITY TO THE PLATE


118 Biodiversity and sustainability of indigenous peoples’ foods and diets


Harriet V. Kuhnlein


126 Revisiting the vitamin A fiasco: Going local in Micronesia


Lois Englberger


134 Exploring new metrics: Nutritional diversity of cropping systems


Roseline Remans, Dan F.B. Flynn, Fabrice DeClerck, Willy Diru, Jessica


Fanzo, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Isabel Lambrecht, Joseph Mudiope, Patrick K. Mutuo,


Phelire Nkhoma, David Siriri, Clare Sullivan and Cheryl A. Palm


150 Nutrient diversity within rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L) from India


Thingnganing Longvah, V. Ravindra Babub, Basakanneyya Chanabasayya


Vikaktamath


164 Canarium odontophyllum Miq.: An underutilized fruit for human nutrition


and sustainable diets


Lye Yee Chew,  Krishna Nagendra Prasad, Ismail Amin, Azlan Azrina,


Cheng Yuon Lau


176 Improved management, increased culture and consumption of small fish species


can improve diets of the rural poor


Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted


182 Traditional food systems in assuring food security in Nigeria


Ignatius Onimawo


198 Edible insects in eastern and southern Africa: Challenges and opportunities


Muniirah Mbabazi


206 Bioactive non-nutrient components in indigenous African vegetables


Francis Omujal, Nnambwayo Juliet, Moses Solomon Agwaya, Ralph Henry


Tumusiime, Patrick Ogwang Engeu, Esther Katuura, Nusula Nalika and


Grace Kyeyune Nambatya


214 Achievements in biodiversity in relation to food composition in Latin America


Lilia Masson Salaue


222 CHAPTER 4


AN EXAMPLE OF A SUSTAINABLE DIET: THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET


224 Biocultural diversity and the Mediterranean diet


Pier Luigi Petrillo


230 Sustainability of the food chain from field to plate:


The case of the Mediterranean diet


Martine Padilla, Roberto Capone and Giulia Palma 242 Biodiversity and local food products in Italy


Elena Azzini, Alessandra Durazzo, Angela Polito, Eugenia Venneria, Maria


Stella Foddai, Maria Zaccaria, Beatrice Mauro, Federica Intorre and


Giuseppe Maiani


254 Organic farming: Sustainability, biodiversity and diets


Flavio Paoletti


262 Mediterranean diet: An integrated view


Mauro Gamboni, Francesco Carimi and Paola Migliorini


274 Food and energy: A sustainable approach


Massimo Iannetta, Federica Colucci, Ombretta Presenti and Fabio Vitali


280 Double Pyramid: Healthy food for people, sustainable food for the planet


Roberto Ciati and Luca Ruini


ANNEXES


294 ANNEX I


FINAL DOCUMENT


International Scientific Symposium


Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


295 ANNEX II


DRAFT PROPOSAL FOR


A “CODE OF CONDUCT FOR SUSTAINABLE DIETS”


International Scientific Symposium


Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


297 ANNEX III


PROGRAMME


International Scientific Symposium


Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


302 ANNEX IV


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS


International Scientific Symposium


Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


306 ANNEX V


LIST OF BACKGROUND PAPERS


International Scientific Symposium


Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


307 ANNEX VI


AFROFOODSCALL FOR ACTION FROM THE DOOR OF RETURN


FOR FOOD RENAISSANCE IN AFRICA PREFACE


Barbara Burlingame


Principal Officer,


Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division,


FAO, Rome, Italy The book presents the current state of thought on dietary choices.  Therefore, a shift to more sustain-


the common path of sustainable diets and biodiver- able diets would trigger upstream effects on the


sity. The articles contained herein were presented food production (e.g. diversification), processing


at the International Scientific Symposium “Biodi- chain and food consumption.


versity  and  Sustainable  Diets:  United  Against


Hunger” organized jointly by FAO and Bioversity In- With growing academic recognition of environmen-


ternational, held at FAO, in Rome, from 3 to 5 No- tal degradation and loss of biodiversity, as well as a


vember  2010.  The  Symposium  was  part  of  the dramatically increasing body of evidence of the un-


official World Food Day/Week programme, and in- sustainable nature of agriculture as it is currently


cluded one of the many activities in celebration of practiced in many parts of the world, renewed at-


International Year of Biodiversity, 2010. The Sympo- tention has been directed to sustainability in all its


sium addressed the linkages among agriculture, forms, including diets.  Therefore, the international


biodiversity, nutrition, food production, food con- community acknowledged that a definition, and a set


sumption and the environment.   of guiding principles for sustainable diets, was ur-


gently needed to address food and nutrition security


The Symposium served as a platform for reaching a as well as sustainability along the whole food chain


consensus definition of “sustainable diets” and to


further develop this concept with food and nutrition A working group was convened as part of the Sym-


security, and the realization of the Millennium De- posium and a definition was debated, built upon


velopment Goals, as objectives.   previous efforts of governments (e.g., the Sustain- 7


ability  Commission  of  the  UK),  UN  agencies


In the early 1980s, the notion of “sustainable diets” (FAO/Bioversity Technical Workshop and Biodiver-


was proposes, with dietary recommendations which sity and Sustainable Diets), and others. The defini-


would result in healthier environments as well as tion was presented in a plenary session of the


healthier consumers. But with the over-riding goal Symposium and accepted by the participants, as fol-


of feeding a hungry world, little attention was paid to lows: Sustainable Diets are those diets with low en-


the sustainability of agro–ecological zones, the sus- vironmental impacts which contribute to food and


tainable diets’ concept was neglected for many nutrition security and to healthy life for present and


years.  future generations. Sustainable diets are protective


and respectful of biodiversity and ecosystems, cul-


Regardless of the many successes of agriculture turally acceptable, accessible, economically fair and


during the last three decades, it is clear that food affordable; nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy;


systems, and diets, are not sustainable. FAO data while optimizing natural and human resources.


show that one billion people suffer from hunger,


while even more people are overweight or obese. In The agreed definition acknowledged the interde-


both groups, there is a high prevalence of micronu- pendencies of food production and consumption


trient malnutrition.  In spite of many efforts, the nu- with food requirements and nutrient recommenda-


trition  problems  of  the  world  are  escalating. tions, and at the same time, reaffirmed the notion


Improving nutrition through better balanced nutri- that the health of humans cannot be isolated from


tious diets can also reduce the ecological impact of the health of ecosystems. To address also the food and nutrition needs of a directions and solutions for policy, research and ac-


richer and more urbanized growing world popula- tion on sustainable diets, and useful contributions


tion, while preserving natural and productive re- to the follow-up for the Rio+20 United Nations Con-


sources, food systems have to undergo radical ference on Sustainable Development, and its out-


transformations towards more efficiency in the use come document,The Future We Want.


of resources, and more efficiency and equity in the


consumption of food and towards sustainable diets. Although the evidence base must be improved, ex-


Sustainable diets can address the consumption of isting knowledge warrants immediate action to pro-


foods with lower water and carbon footprints, pro- mote sustainable diets and food biodiversity in


mote the use of food biodiversity, including tradi- nutrition-driven  agriculture  policies  and  pro-


tional and local foods, with their many nutritionally grammes, as contributions to the achievement of


rich species and varieties. The sustainable diets’ ap- food and nutrition security, the Millennium Devel-


proach will contribute in the capturing efficiencies opment Goals, and post-2015 development agenda.


through the ecosystem approach throughout the


food chain. Sustainable diets can also contribute to The contributions of all session chairpersons, rap-


the transition to nutrition-sensitive and climate- porteurs, speakers and everyone who participated in


smart agriculture and nutrition-driven food systems. the discussions and working groups were a vital part


of the Symposium’s successful outcomes. This book


A close involvement of civil society and the private represents a significant international achievement.


8 sector is needed to engage directly all stakeholders


in the fields of agriculture, nutrition, health, envi-


ronment, education, culture and trade, along with


consumers.


The  Symposium  served  to  position  sustainable


diets, nutrition and biodiversity as central to sus-


tainable development. The Proceedings of the Sym-


posium,  presented  in  this  publication,  provide


examples of sustainable diets, which minimize en-


vironmental degradation and biodiversity loss.  Var-


ious case studies and practices are also presented


bringing biodiversity to the plate, with data showing


improvements in nutrient intakes through food bio-


diversity, as a counterbalance to the trend of diets


low in diversity but high in energy which contribute


to the escalating problems of obesity and chronic


diseases. The Mediterranean Diet was showcased


as a useful model.


The contents of this book provide an array of new 9


SUSTAINABLE DIETS


AND BIODIVERSITY


DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS


FOR POLICY, RESEARCH AND ACTION SUSTAINABLE DIETS


AND BIODIVERSITY


DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS


FOR POLICY, RESEARCH AND ACTION


1


Editors


Barbara Burlingame


Sandro Dernini


Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division


FAO


Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium


BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLE DIETS UNITED AGAINST HUNGER


3–5 November 2010


FAO Headquarters, Rome The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not


imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture


Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country,


territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.


The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have


been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in


preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.


The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily


reflect the views of FAO.


ISBN 978-92-5-107311-7


All rights reserved. FAO encourages reproduction and dissemination of material in this information


product. Non-commercial uses will be authorized free of charge, upon request. Reproduction


for resale or other commercial purposes, including educational purposes, may incur fees.


Applications for permission to reproduce or disseminate FAO copyright materials, and all queries


concerning rights and licences, should be addressed by e-mail to copyright@fao.org or to the Chief,


Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, FAO,


Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy.


© FAO 2012 Table of contents 6 PREFACE


Barbara Burlingame


10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


11 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


12 OPENING ADDRESSES


Changchui He


Emile Frison


20 KEYNOTE PAPER


Sustainable diets and biodiversity:


The challenge for policy, evidence and behaviour change


Tim Lang


28 CHAPTER 1


SUSTAINABLE DIETS AND BIODIVERSITY


30 Biodiversity and sustainable nutrition with a food-based approach


Denis Lairon


36 Biodiversity, nutrition and human well-being in the context of the Convention


on Biological Diversity


Kathryn Campbell, Kieran Noonan-Mooney and Kalemani Jo Mulongoy


3


44 Ensuring agriculture biodiversity and nutrition remain central to addressing


the MDG1 hunger target


Jessica Fanzo and Federico Mattei


54 CHAPTER 2


SUSTAINABLE FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION


56 Dynamic conservation of globally important agricultural heritage systems:


for a sustainable agriculture and rural development


Parviz Koohafkan


66 Sustainable crop production intensification


William J. Murray


75 Sustainability and diversity along the food chain


Daniele Rossi


82 Animal genetic diversity and sustainable diets


Roswitha Baumung and Irene Hoffmann


94 Aquatic biodiversity for sustainable diets: The role of aquatic foods in food


and nutrition security


Jogeir Toppe, Melba G. Bondad-Reantaso, Muhammad R. Hasan,


Helga Josupeit, Rohana P. Subasinghe, Matthias Halwart and David James


102 Dietary behaviours and pratices: Determinants, actions, outcomes


Patrick Etiévant 108 Conservation of plant biodiversity for sustainable diets


Kate Gold and Rory P.H. McBurney


116 CHAPTER 3


CASE STUDIES: BRINGING BIODIVERSITY TO THE PLATE


118 Biodiversity and sustainability of indigenous peoples’ foods and diets


Harriet V. Kuhnlein


126 Revisiting the vitamin A fiasco: Going local in Micronesia


Lois Englberger


134 Exploring new metrics: Nutritional diversity of cropping systems


Roseline Remans, Dan F.B. Flynn, Fabrice DeClerck, Willy Diru, Jessica


Fanzo, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Isabel Lambrecht, Joseph Mudiope, Patrick K. Mutuo,


Phelire Nkhoma, David Siriri, Clare Sullivan and Cheryl A. Palm


150 Nutrient diversity within rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L) from India


Thingnganing Longvah, V. Ravindra Babub, Basakanneyya Chanabasayya


Vikaktamath


164 Canarium odontophyllum Miq.: An underutilized fruit for human nutrition


and sustainable diets


Lye Yee Chew,  Krishna Nagendra Prasad, Ismail Amin, Azlan Azrina,


Cheng Yuon Lau


176 Improved management, increased culture and consumption of small fish species


can improve diets of the rural poor


Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted


182 Traditional food systems in assuring food security in Nigeria


Ignatius Onimawo


198 Edible insects in eastern and southern Africa: Challenges and opportunities


Muniirah Mbabazi


206 Bioactive non-nutrient components in indigenous African vegetables


Francis Omujal, Nnambwayo Juliet, Moses Solomon Agwaya, Ralph Henry


Tumusiime, Patrick Ogwang Engeu, Esther Katuura, Nusula Nalika and


Grace Kyeyune Nambatya


214 Achievements in biodiversity in relation to food composition in Latin America


Lilia Masson Salaue


222 CHAPTER 4


AN EXAMPLE OF A SUSTAINABLE DIET: THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET


224 Biocultural diversity and the Mediterranean diet


Pier Luigi Petrillo


230 Sustainability of the food chain from field to plate:


The case of the Mediterranean diet


Martine Padilla, Roberto Capone and Giulia Palma 242 Biodiversity and local food products in Italy


Elena Azzini, Alessandra Durazzo, Angela Polito, Eugenia Venneria, Maria


Stella Foddai, Maria Zaccaria, Beatrice Mauro, Federica Intorre and


Giuseppe Maiani


254 Organic farming: Sustainability, biodiversity and diets


Flavio Paoletti


262 Mediterranean diet: An integrated view


Mauro Gamboni, Francesco Carimi and Paola Migliorini


274 Food and energy: A sustainable approach


Massimo Iannetta, Federica Colucci, Ombretta Presenti and Fabio Vitali


280 Double Pyramid: Healthy food for people, sustainable food for the planet


Roberto Ciati and Luca Ruini


ANNEXES


294 ANNEX I


FINAL DOCUMENT


International Scientific Symposium


Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


295 ANNEX II


DRAFT PROPOSAL FOR


A “CODE OF CONDUCT FOR SUSTAINABLE DIETS”


International Scientific Symposium


Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


297 ANNEX III


PROGRAMME


International Scientific Symposium


Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


302 ANNEX IV


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS


International Scientific Symposium


Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


306 ANNEX V


LIST OF BACKGROUND PAPERS


International Scientific Symposium


Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


307 ANNEX VI


AFROFOODSCALL FOR ACTION FROM THE DOOR OF RETURN


FOR FOOD RENAISSANCE IN AFRICA PREFACE


Barbara Burlingame


Principal Officer,


Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division,


FAO, Rome, Italy The book presents the current state of thought on dietary choices.  Therefore, a shift to more sustain-


the common path of sustainable diets and biodiver- able diets would trigger upstream effects on the


sity. The articles contained herein were presented food production (e.g. diversification), processing


at the International Scientific Symposium “Biodi- chain and food consumption.


versity  and  Sustainable  Diets:  United  Against


Hunger” organized jointly by FAO and Bioversity In- With growing academic recognition of environmen-


ternational, held at FAO, in Rome, from 3 to 5 No- tal degradation and loss of biodiversity, as well as a


vember  2010.  The  Symposium  was  part  of  the dramatically increasing body of evidence of the un-


official World Food Day/Week programme, and in- sustainable nature of agriculture as it is currently


cluded one of the many activities in celebration of practiced in many parts of the world, renewed at-


International Year of Biodiversity, 2010. The Sympo- tention has been directed to sustainability in all its


sium addressed the linkages among agriculture, forms, including diets.  Therefore, the international


biodiversity, nutrition, food production, food con- community acknowledged that a definition, and a set


sumption and the environment.   of guiding principles for sustainable diets, was ur-


gently needed to address food and nutrition security


The Symposium served as a platform for reaching a as well as sustainability along the whole food chain


consensus definition of “sustainable diets” and to


further develop this concept with food and nutrition A working group was convened as part of the Sym-


security, and the realization of the Millennium De- posium and a definition was debated, built upon


velopment Goals, as objectives.   previous efforts of governments (e.g., the Sustain- 7


ability  Commission  of  the  UK),  UN  agencies


In the early 1980s, the notion of “sustainable diets” (FAO/Bioversity Technical Workshop and Biodiver-


was proposes, with dietary recommendations which sity and Sustainable Diets), and others. The defini-


would result in healthier environments as well as tion was presented in a plenary session of the


healthier consumers. But with the over-riding goal Symposium and accepted by the participants, as fol-


of feeding a hungry world, little attention was paid to lows: Sustainable Diets are those diets with low en-


the sustainability of agro–ecological zones, the sus- vironmental impacts which contribute to food and


tainable diets’ concept was neglected for many nutrition security and to healthy life for present and


years.  future generations. Sustainable diets are protective


and respectful of biodiversity and ecosystems, cul-


Regardless of the many successes of agriculture turally acceptable, accessible, economically fair and


during the last three decades, it is clear that food affordable; nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy;


systems, and diets, are not sustainable. FAO data while optimizing natural and human resources.


show that one billion people suffer from hunger,


while even more people are overweight or obese. In The agreed definition acknowledged the interde-


both groups, there is a high prevalence of micronu- pendencies of food production and consumption


trient malnutrition.  In spite of many efforts, the nu- with food requirements and nutrient recommenda-


trition  problems  of  the  world  are  escalating. tions, and at the same time, reaffirmed the notion


Improving nutrition through better balanced nutri- that the health of humans cannot be isolated from


tious diets can also reduce the ecological impact of the health of ecosystems. To address also the food and nutrition needs of a directions and solutions for policy, research and ac-


richer and more urbanized growing world popula- tion on sustainable diets, and useful contributions


tion, while preserving natural and productive re- to the follow-up for the Rio+20 United Nations Con-


sources, food systems have to undergo radical ference on Sustainable Development, and its out-


transformations towards more efficiency in the use come document,The Future We Want.


of resources, and more efficiency and equity in the


consumption of food and towards sustainable diets. Although the evidence base must be improved, ex-


Sustainable diets can address the consumption of isting knowledge warrants immediate action to pro-


foods with lower water and carbon footprints, pro- mote sustainable diets and food biodiversity in


mote the use of food biodiversity, including tradi- nutrition-driven  agriculture  policies  and  pro-


tional and local foods, with their many nutritionally grammes, as contributions to the achievement of


rich species and varieties. The sustainable diets’ ap- food and nutrition security, the Millennium Devel-


proach will contribute in the capturing efficiencies opment Goals, and post-2015 development agenda.


through the ecosystem approach throughout the


food chain. Sustainable diets can also contribute to The contributions of all session chairpersons, rap-


the transition to nutrition-sensitive and climate- porteurs, speakers and everyone who participated in


smart agriculture and nutrition-driven food systems. the discussions and working groups were a vital part


of the Symposium’s successful outcomes. This book


A close involvement of civil society and the private represents a significant international achievement.


8 sector is needed to engage directly all stakeholders


in the fields of agriculture, nutrition, health, envi-


ronment, education, culture and trade, along with


consumers.


The  Symposium  served  to  position  sustainable


diets, nutrition and biodiversity as central to sus-


tainable development. The Proceedings of the Sym-


posium,  presented  in  this  publication,  provide


examples of sustainable diets, which minimize en-


vironmental degradation and biodiversity loss.  Var-


ious case studies and practices are also presented


bringing biodiversity to the plate, with data showing


improvements in nutrient intakes through food bio-


diversity, as a counterbalance to the trend of diets


low in diversity but high in energy which contribute


to the escalating problems of obesity and chronic


diseases. The Mediterranean Diet was showcased


as a useful model.


The contents of this book provide an array of new 9


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