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Sustainable diets and biodiversity - Food and Agriculture

309 Pages · 2012 · 3.53 MB · English

  • Sustainable diets and biodiversity - Food and Agriculture

    SUSTAINABLE DIETS


    AND BIODIVERSITY


    DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS


    FOR POLICY, RESEARCH AND ACTION SUSTAINABLE DIETS


    AND BIODIVERSITY


    DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS


    FOR POLICY, RESEARCH AND ACTION


    1


    Editors


    Barbara Burlingame


    Sandro Dernini


    Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division


    FAO


    Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium


    BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLE DIETS UNITED AGAINST HUNGER


    3–5 November 2010


    FAO Headquarters, Rome The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not


    imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture


    Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country,


    territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.


    The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have


    been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in


    preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.


    The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily


    reflect the views of FAO.


    ISBN 978-92-5-107311-7


    All rights reserved. FAO encourages reproduction and dissemination of material in this information


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    concerning rights and licences, should be addressed by e-mail to copyright@fao.org or to the Chief,


    Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, FAO,


    Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy.


    © FAO 2012 Table of contents 6 PREFACE


    Barbara Burlingame


    10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


    11 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


    12 OPENING ADDRESSES


    Changchui He


    Emile Frison


    20 KEYNOTE PAPER


    Sustainable diets and biodiversity:


    The challenge for policy, evidence and behaviour change


    Tim Lang


    28 CHAPTER 1


    SUSTAINABLE DIETS AND BIODIVERSITY


    30 Biodiversity and sustainable nutrition with a food-based approach


    Denis Lairon


    36 Biodiversity, nutrition and human well-being in the context of the Convention


    on Biological Diversity


    Kathryn Campbell, Kieran Noonan-Mooney and Kalemani Jo Mulongoy


    3


    44 Ensuring agriculture biodiversity and nutrition remain central to addressing


    the MDG1 hunger target


    Jessica Fanzo and Federico Mattei


    54 CHAPTER 2


    SUSTAINABLE FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION


    56 Dynamic conservation of globally important agricultural heritage systems:


    for a sustainable agriculture and rural development


    Parviz Koohafkan


    66 Sustainable crop production intensification


    William J. Murray


    75 Sustainability and diversity along the food chain


    Daniele Rossi


    82 Animal genetic diversity and sustainable diets


    Roswitha Baumung and Irene Hoffmann


    94 Aquatic biodiversity for sustainable diets: The role of aquatic foods in food


    and nutrition security


    Jogeir Toppe, Melba G. Bondad-Reantaso, Muhammad R. Hasan,


    Helga Josupeit, Rohana P. Subasinghe, Matthias Halwart and David James


    102 Dietary behaviours and pratices: Determinants, actions, outcomes


    Patrick Etiévant 108 Conservation of plant biodiversity for sustainable diets


    Kate Gold and Rory P.H. McBurney


    116 CHAPTER 3


    CASE STUDIES: BRINGING BIODIVERSITY TO THE PLATE


    118 Biodiversity and sustainability of indigenous peoples’ foods and diets


    Harriet V. Kuhnlein


    126 Revisiting the vitamin A fiasco: Going local in Micronesia


    Lois Englberger


    134 Exploring new metrics: Nutritional diversity of cropping systems


    Roseline Remans, Dan F.B. Flynn, Fabrice DeClerck, Willy Diru, Jessica


    Fanzo, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Isabel Lambrecht, Joseph Mudiope, Patrick K. Mutuo,


    Phelire Nkhoma, David Siriri, Clare Sullivan and Cheryl A. Palm


    150 Nutrient diversity within rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L) from India


    Thingnganing Longvah, V. Ravindra Babub, Basakanneyya Chanabasayya


    Vikaktamath


    164 Canarium odontophyllum Miq.: An underutilized fruit for human nutrition


    and sustainable diets


    Lye Yee Chew,  Krishna Nagendra Prasad, Ismail Amin, Azlan Azrina,


    Cheng Yuon Lau


    176 Improved management, increased culture and consumption of small fish species


    can improve diets of the rural poor


    Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted


    182 Traditional food systems in assuring food security in Nigeria


    Ignatius Onimawo


    198 Edible insects in eastern and southern Africa: Challenges and opportunities


    Muniirah Mbabazi


    206 Bioactive non-nutrient components in indigenous African vegetables


    Francis Omujal, Nnambwayo Juliet, Moses Solomon Agwaya, Ralph Henry


    Tumusiime, Patrick Ogwang Engeu, Esther Katuura, Nusula Nalika and


    Grace Kyeyune Nambatya


    214 Achievements in biodiversity in relation to food composition in Latin America


    Lilia Masson Salaue


    222 CHAPTER 4


    AN EXAMPLE OF A SUSTAINABLE DIET: THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET


    224 Biocultural diversity and the Mediterranean diet


    Pier Luigi Petrillo


    230 Sustainability of the food chain from field to plate:


    The case of the Mediterranean diet


    Martine Padilla, Roberto Capone and Giulia Palma 242 Biodiversity and local food products in Italy


    Elena Azzini, Alessandra Durazzo, Angela Polito, Eugenia Venneria, Maria


    Stella Foddai, Maria Zaccaria, Beatrice Mauro, Federica Intorre and


    Giuseppe Maiani


    254 Organic farming: Sustainability, biodiversity and diets


    Flavio Paoletti


    262 Mediterranean diet: An integrated view


    Mauro Gamboni, Francesco Carimi and Paola Migliorini


    274 Food and energy: A sustainable approach


    Massimo Iannetta, Federica Colucci, Ombretta Presenti and Fabio Vitali


    280 Double Pyramid: Healthy food for people, sustainable food for the planet


    Roberto Ciati and Luca Ruini


    ANNEXES


    294 ANNEX I


    FINAL DOCUMENT


    International Scientific Symposium


    Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


    295 ANNEX II


    DRAFT PROPOSAL FOR


    A “CODE OF CONDUCT FOR SUSTAINABLE DIETS”


    International Scientific Symposium


    Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


    297 ANNEX III


    PROGRAMME


    International Scientific Symposium


    Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


    302 ANNEX IV


    LIST OF PARTICIPANTS


    International Scientific Symposium


    Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


    306 ANNEX V


    LIST OF BACKGROUND PAPERS


    International Scientific Symposium


    Biodiversity and sustainable diets united against hunger


    307 ANNEX VI


    AFROFOODSCALL FOR ACTION FROM THE DOOR OF RETURN


    FOR FOOD RENAISSANCE IN AFRICA PREFACE


    Barbara Burlingame


    Principal Officer,


    Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division,


    FAO, Rome, Italy The book presents the current state of thought on dietary choices.  Therefore, a shift to more sustain-


    the common path of sustainable diets and biodiver- able diets would trigger upstream effects on the


    sity. The articles contained herein were presented food production (e.g. diversification), processing


    at the International Scientific Symposium “Biodi- chain and food consumption.


    versity  and  Sustainable  Diets:  United  Against


    Hunger” organized jointly by FAO and Bioversity In- With growing academic recognition of environmen-


    ternational, held at FAO, in Rome, from 3 to 5 No- tal degradation and loss of biodiversity, as well as a


    vember  2010.  The  Symposium  was  part  of  the dramatically increasing body of evidence of the un-


    official World Food Day/Week programme, and in- sustainable nature of agriculture as it is currently


    cluded one of the many activities in celebration of practiced in many parts of the world, renewed at-


    International Year of Biodiversity, 2010. The Sympo- tention has been directed to sustainability in all its


    sium addressed the linkages among agriculture, forms, including diets.  Therefore, the international


    biodiversity, nutrition, food production, food con- community acknowledged that a definition, and a set


    sumption and the environment.   of guiding principles for sustainable diets, was ur-


    gently needed to address food and nutrition security


    The Symposium served as a platform for reaching a as well as sustainability along the whole food chain


    consensus definition of “sustainable diets” and to


    further develop this concept with food and nutrition A working group was convened as part of the Sym-


    security, and the realization of the Millennium De- posium and a definition was debated, built upon


    velopment Goals, as objectives.   previous efforts of governments (e.g., the Sustain- 7


    ability  Commission  of  the  UK),  UN  agencies


    In the early 1980s, the notion of “sustainable diets” (FAO/Bioversity Technical Workshop and Biodiver-


    was proposes, with dietary recommendations which sity and Sustainable Diets), and others. The defini-


    would result in healthier environments as well as tion was presented in a plenary session of the


    healthier consumers. But with the over-riding goal Symposium and accepted by the participants, as fol-


    of feeding a hungry world, little attention was paid to lows: Sustainable Diets are those diets with low en-


    the sustainability of agro–ecological zones, the sus- vironmental impacts which contribute to food and


    tainable diets’ concept was neglected for many nutrition security and to healthy life for present and


    years.  future generations. Sustainable diets are protective


    and respectful of biodiversity and ecosystems, cul-


    Regardless of the many successes of agriculture turally acceptable, accessible, economically fair and


    during the last three decades, it is clear that food affordable; nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy;


    systems, and diets, are not sustainable. FAO data while optimizing natural and human resources.


    show that one billion people suffer from hunger,


    while even more people are overweight or obese. In The agreed definition acknowledged the interde-


    both groups, there is a high prevalence of micronu- pendencies of food production and consumption


    trient malnutrition.  In spite of many efforts, the nu- with food requirements and nutrient recommenda-


    trition  problems  of  the  world  are  escalating. tions, and at the same time, reaffirmed the notion


    Improving nutrition through better balanced nutri- that the health of humans cannot be isolated from


    tious diets can also reduce the ecological impact of the health of ecosystems. To address also the food and nutrition needs of a directions and solutions for policy, research and ac-


    richer and more urbanized growing world popula- tion on sustainable diets, and useful contributions


    tion, while preserving natural and productive re- to the follow-up for the Rio+20 United Nations Con-


    sources, food systems have to undergo radical ference on Sustainable Development, and its out-


    transformations towards more efficiency in the use come document,The Future We Want.


    of resources, and more efficiency and equity in the


    consumption of food and towards sustainable diets. Although the evidence base must be improved, ex-


    Sustainable diets can address the consumption of isting knowledge warrants immediate action to pro-


    foods with lower water and carbon footprints, pro- mote sustainable diets and food biodiversity in


    mote the use of food biodiversity, including tradi- nutrition-driven  agriculture  policies  and  pro-


    tional and local foods, with their many nutritionally grammes, as contributions to the achievement of


    rich species and varieties. The sustainable diets’ ap- food and nutrition security, the Millennium Devel-


    proach will contribute in the capturing efficiencies opment Goals, and post-2015 development agenda.


    through the ecosystem approach throughout the


    food chain. Sustainable diets can also contribute to The contributions of all session chairpersons, rap-


    the transition to nutrition-sensitive and climate- porteurs, speakers and everyone who participated in


    smart agriculture and nutrition-driven food systems. the discussions and working groups were a vital part


    of the Symposium’s successful outcomes. This book


    A close involvement of civil society and the private represents a significant international achievement.


    8 sector is needed to engage directly all stakeholders


    in the fields of agriculture, nutrition, health, envi-


    ronment, education, culture and trade, along with


    consumers.


    The  Symposium  served  to  position  sustainable


    diets, nutrition and biodiversity as central to sus-


    tainable development. The Proceedings of the Sym-


    posium,  presented  in  this  publication,  provide


    examples of sustainable diets, which minimize en-


    vironmental degradation and biodiversity loss.  Var-


    ious case studies and practices are also presented


    bringing biodiversity to the plate, with data showing


    improvements in nutrient intakes through food bio-


    diversity, as a counterbalance to the trend of diets


    low in diversity but high in energy which contribute


    to the escalating problems of obesity and chronic


    diseases. The Mediterranean Diet was showcased


    as a useful model.


    The contents of this book provide an array of new 9


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