Sustainable Agriculture and Food

1949 Pages · 2007 · 15.55 MB · English

  • Sustainable Agriculture and Food

    spine 49mm




    ‘Jules Pretty brings together the most E REFERENCE


    comprehensive and carefully selected collection

    of writings available about sustainable and food


    agriculture. Together with an excellent overview

    This 4-volume set, edited by the world’s

    chapter, the collected works provide the best aS

    leading expert on agricultural E

    available source for an enlightened analysis and


    sustainability, brings together the most n

    debate about sustainability in agriculture. The

    influential and time-tested international

    four volumes will serve both as an excellent R s

    scholarship across the fields of agriculture d Sustainable

    reader for students and a unique reference for all t

    and food production with an overview

    with an interest in the pursuit of sustainability in

    and individual volume introductions that a

    the food system.’ E F

    make sense of a diverse and complex

    Professor Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Cornell University, i

    field. o

    former Chair of CGIAR Science Council and n

    N Agriculture

    World Food Prize Laureate, 2001 Volume I o


    covers the history of agriculture from its

    ‘This is the single most comprehensive overview

    ancient origins through successive db

    of sustainable agriculture, from ancient

    beginnings to the most topical modern issues. revolutions to the present. C l

    Volume II

    Jules Pretty e and Food

    has assembled a marvellous collection of the examines the relationship between

    most seminal papers that are driving sustainable agriculture and the environment. E A

    agriculture in all parts of the world.’ Volume III


    Jeffrey A. McNeely, Chief Scientist, provides coverage of the modern

    IUCN–The World Conservation Union industrialized global food system, r


    including poverty, hunger and

    ‘Showing that, after all, humans can learn from i

    international successes and failures.

    experience, Jules Pretty has woven together the c

    Volume IV VOLUME I

    best of the old with the best of what is new and O

    visionary. He gives us a solid, knowledge-based addresses how we think about land and u

    foundation for a badly needed new paradigm – our relationship to it, governance and


    that of an agriculture which sustains all life into stewardship, supportive and perverse t HISTORY OF

    agricultural subsidies and policies thLat

    the longer term. The impressive list of contributors

    ensures that all relevant areas have been shape agriculture. u


    competently assessed… A unique reference work L


    for teachers, students and practitioners.’ JULES PRETTYOBE

    is Professor of Environment and Society at

    Hans R. Herren, World Food Prize Laureate, 1995 the University of Essex, UK, and Chief EEditor e –––––––––––––––––––

    ‘An ambitious and deeply insightful series of the International Journal of Agricultural

    that unites the great minds not just of the Sustainability. His works include The EaCrth VOLUME I EDITED BY

    Only Endures(2007), The Earthscan Reader

    agricultural, nutrition and environmental Jules Pretty

    in Sustainable Agriculture(2005), The HISTORY OF

    sciences, but also history, culture, economics,

    Pesticide Detox(2005), Agri-Culture(2002), AGRICULTURE

    technology, learning and communications,

    The Living Land(1998), RegeneratingT AND FOOD

    policy, regulatory and institutional approaches. It

    Agriculture(1995), The Hidden Harvest

    will be

    (1992) and Unwelcome Harvest(1991).

    a major reference work for all interested in the ear thscan I EDITED BY

    future of humanity and sustainable food and Jules


    agricultural systems.’ publishing for a sustainable future


    Parviz Koohafkan, Director, Environment, Climate


    Change and Bioenergy Division, FAO, Italy

    ISBN 978-1-84407-408-2


    ‘This work presents a body of knowledge that ,!7IB8E4-aheaic!

    ear thscan

    has come of age. It takes into account not only


    the science but also human behaviour,

    institutions and politics. It will be an invaluable



    How to go to your page:

    This eBook contains four volumes. Each volume of the original hardcopy set is numbered

    separately. In order to avoid duplicate pagination in this eBook, we have included volume

    numbers within the page numbers.

    For example, to go to page 5 of the first volume, enter I-5 in the “page #” box at the top

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    Sustainable Agriculture and Food


    Sustainable Agriculture and Food

    Volume I

    Edited by

    Jules Pretty

    London (cid:127) Sterling, VA First published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2008

    Copyright © Jules Pretty, 2008

    All rights reserved

    ISBN-13: 978-1-84407-408-2

    Typeset by Composition and Design Services

    Printed and bound in the UK by Biddles Ltd, King’s Lynn, Norfolk

    Cover design by Andrew Corbett

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    22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA

    Earthscan publishes in association with the International Institute for Environment and Develop-


    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for

    The paper used for this book is FSC-certified and

    elemental chlorine-free. FSC (the Forest Stewardship

    Council) is an international network to promote

    responsible management of the world’s forests. Contents



    List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii

    Overview to Four Volumes: Sustainable Agriculture and Food xv

    Editorial introduction to Volume I 1

    Part I Before Agriculture

    1 What Hunters Do for a Living, or, How to Make Out on Scarce Resources 17

    R. B. Lee

    2 Foragers and Others 41

    R. B. Lee and R. Daly

    3 Mind 73

    H. Brody

    4 Environmental and Health Benefits of Hunting Lifestyles and Diets

    for the Innu of Labrador 107

    C. Samson and J. Pretty

    5 Language: A Resource for Nature 136

    L. Maffi

    Part II Early Agriculture

    6 Our Vanishing Genetic Resources 159

    J. R. Harlan

    7 Oriental Despotism 168

    K. Wittfogel

    8 Marcus Cato on Agriculture 197

    Marcus Porcius Cato

    Marcus Terentius Varro on Agriculture 202

    Marcus Terentius Varro

    9 Agroecological Farming Systems in China 208

    Li Wenhua vi Sustainable Agriculture and Food

    10 Farmers of Forty Centuries 222

    F. H. King

    Part III Agricultural Revolutions and Change

    11 Agricultural Sustainability and Open-field Farming in England,

    c 1650–1830 233

    M. Turner, J. Beckett and B. Afton

    12 Farmers’ Extension Practice and Technology Adaptation:

    Agricultural Revolution in 17th–19th-Century Britain 258

    J. Pretty

    13 Past Successes 290

    G. R. Conway

    14 Soviet Collectivization, Capitalist Dreams 308

    J. C. Scott

    15 Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn: Challenges and Approaches of

    an International Consortium 339

    P. A. Sanchez, C. A. Palm, S. A. Vosti, T. P. Tomich and J. Kasyoki

    Part IV Modern Agricultural Reforms

    16 Making Soil and Water Conservation Sustainable: From Coercion and

    Control to Partnerships and Participation 375

    J. Pretty and P. Shah

    17 Rethinking Agriculture for New Opportunities 403

    E. Fernandes, A. Pell and N. Uphoff

    18 Integrated Farming Systems at Different Scales 423

    Li Wenhua

    19 Agricultural Biotechnology in Southern Africa: A Regional Synthesis 475

    D. Mnyulwa and J. Mugwagwa

    20 Sustaining Cultivation 501

    M. Bell

    Index 519 Contents vii



    List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii

    Editorial introduction to Volume II 1

    Part I Agricultural Harm to the Environment

    1 A Fable for Tomorrow 15

    R. Carson

    2 Reality Cheques 22

    J. Pretty

    3 External Costs of Agricultural Production in the United States 53

    E. M. Tegtmeier and M. D. Duffy

    4 From Pesticides to People: Improving Ecosystem Health

    in the Northern Andes 82

    S. Sherwood, D. Cole, C. Crissman and M. Paredes

    5 Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Female and

    Male Cotton Growers in India 97

    F. Mancini, A. H. C. van Bruggen, J. L. S. Jiggins, A. C. Ambatipud

    and H. Murphy

    Part II Agroecology and Sustainability

    6 The Properties of Agroecosytems 119

    G. R. Conway

    7 Interdependent Social-Ecological Systems and Adaptive Governance for

    Ecosystem Services 139

    C. Folke, J. Colding, P. Olsson and T. Hahn

    8 Agroecology and Agroecosystems 166

    S. R. Gliessman

    9 Ecological Basis for Low-Toxicity Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    in Rice and Vegetables 178

    K. Gallagher, P. Ooi, T. Mew, E. Borromeo, P. Kenmore and J.-W. Ketelaar

    10 The Farm as Natural Habitat 201

    D. L. Jackson viii Sustainable Agriculture and Food

    Part III Communities and Social Capital

    11 Feminism and Environmental Ethics: A Materialist Perspective 217

    M. Mellor

    12 Gender and Social Capital: The Importance of Gender Differences for the

    Maturity and Effectiveness of Natural Resource Management Groups 234

    O. Westermann, J. Ashby and J. Pretty

    13 Social Capital and the Collective Management of Resources 257

    J. Pretty

    14 Still Going: Recent Debates on the Goldschmidt Hypothesis 263

    L. M. Lobao, M. D. Schulman and L. E. Swanson

    15 Social Connectedness in Marginal Rural China: The Case of Farmer

    Innovation Circles in Zhidan, North Shaanxi 274

    W. Bin and J. Pretty

    Part IV Ecological Restoration and Design

    16 Ecological Design and Education 293

    D. W. Orr

    17 Multi-function Agricultural Biodiversity: Pest Management and

    Other Benefits 318

    G. M. Gurr, S. D. Wratten amd J. M. Luna

    18 Generating Community Change 333

    C. B. Flora and J. L. Flora

    19 Issues for More Sustainable Soil System Management 357

    N. Uphoff, A. S. Ball, E. C. M. Fernandes, H. Herren, O. Husson,

    C. Palm, J. Pretty, N. Sanginga and J. E. Thies

    20 Farming With the Wild: Foreword and Introduction 372

    F. Kirschenmann and D. Imhoff

    Index 388

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