Sustainable Agriculture and Food

Sustainable Agriculture and Food

Sustainable Agriculture and Food

1949 Pages ·2007·15.55 MB ·English

Sustainable Agriculture and Food

spine 49mm


R


EARTHSCAN


sustainable


‘Jules Pretty brings together the most E REFERENCE


agriculture COLLECTIONS EARTHSCAN REFERENCE COLLECTIONS


comprehensive and carefully selected collection


of writings available about sustainable and food


F


agriculture. Together with an excellent overview


This 4-volume set, edited by the world’s


chapter, the collected works provide the best aS


leading expert on agricultural E


available source for an enlightened analysis and


u


sustainability, brings together the most n


debate about sustainability in agriculture. The


influential and time-tested international


four volumes will serve both as an excellent R s


scholarship across the fields of agriculture d Sustainable


reader for students and a unique reference for all t


and food production with an overview


with an interest in the pursuit of sustainability in


and individual volume introductions that a


the food system.’ E F


make sense of a diverse and complex


Professor Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Cornell University, i


field. o


former Chair of CGIAR Science Council and n


N Agriculture


World Food Prize Laureate, 2001 Volume I o


a


covers the history of agriculture from its


‘This is the single most comprehensive overview


ancient origins through successive db


of sustainable agriculture, from ancient


beginnings to the most topical modern issues. revolutions to the present. C l


Volume II


Jules Pretty e and Food


has assembled a marvellous collection of the examines the relationship between



most seminal papers that are driving sustainable agriculture and the environment. E A


agriculture in all parts of the world.’ Volume III


g


Jeffrey A. McNeely, Chief Scientist, provides coverage of the modern


IUCN–The World Conservation Union industrialized global food system, r


C


including poverty, hunger and


‘Showing that, after all, humans can learn from i


international successes and failures.


experience, Jules Pretty has woven together the c


Volume IV VOLUME I


best of the old with the best of what is new and O


visionary. He gives us a solid, knowledge-based addresses how we think about land and u


foundation for a badly needed new paradigm – our relationship to it, governance and


l


that of an agriculture which sustains all life into stewardship, supportive and perverse t HISTORY OF


agricultural subsidies and policies thLat


the longer term. The impressive list of contributors


ensures that all relevant areas have been shape agriculture. u


AGRICULTURE AND FOOD


competently assessed… A unique reference work L


r


for teachers, students and practitioners.’ JULES PRETTYOBE


is Professor of Environment and Society at


Hans R. Herren, World Food Prize Laureate, 1995 the University of Essex, UK, and Chief EEditor e –––––––––––––––––––



‘An ambitious and deeply insightful series of the International Journal of Agricultural


that unites the great minds not just of the Sustainability. His works include The EaCrth VOLUME I EDITED BY


Only Endures(2007), The Earthscan Reader


agricultural, nutrition and environmental Jules Pretty


in Sustainable Agriculture(2005), The HISTORY OF


sciences, but also history, culture, economics,


Pesticide Detox(2005), Agri-Culture(2002), AGRICULTURE


technology, learning and communications,


The Living Land(1998), RegeneratingT AND FOOD


policy, regulatory and institutional approaches. It


Agriculture(1995), The Hidden Harvest


will be


(1992) and Unwelcome Harvest(1991).


a major reference work for all interested in the ear thscan I EDITED BY


future of humanity and sustainable food and Jules


O


agricultural systems.’ publishing for a sustainable future


Pretty


Parviz Koohafkan, Director, Environment, Climate


www.earthscan.co.u


Change and Bioenergy Division, FAO, Italy


ISBN 978-1-84407-408-2


N


‘This work presents a body of knowledge that ,!7IB8E4-aheaic!


ear thscan


has come of age. It takes into account not only


earthscan


the science but also human behaviour,


institutions and politics. It will be an invaluable


S


AGRICULTURE/FOOD



How to go to your page:




This eBook contains four volumes. Each volume of the original hardcopy set is numbered


separately. In order to avoid duplicate pagination in this eBook, we have included volume


numbers within the page numbers.



For example, to go to page 5 of the first volume, enter I-5 in the “page #” box at the top


of the screen and click “Go”. To go to page 100 of the second volume enter II-100. To go


to page xiv of the third volume enter III-xiv, and so on.


Sustainable Agriculture and Food


Volume I EARTHSCAN REFERENCE COLLECTION


Sustainable Agriculture and Food


Volume I


Edited by


Jules Pretty


London (cid:127) Sterling, VA First published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2008


Copyright © Jules Pretty, 2008


All rights reserved


ISBN-13: 978-1-84407-408-2


Typeset by Composition and Design Services


Printed and bound in the UK by Biddles Ltd, King’s Lynn, Norfolk


Cover design by Andrew Corbett


For a full list of publications please contact:


Earthscan


8–12 Camden High Street


London, NW1 0JH, UK


Tel: +44 (0)20 7387 8558


Fax: +44 (0)20 7387 8998


Email: earthinfo@earthscan.co.uk


Web: www.earthscan.co.uk


22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA


Earthscan publishes in association with the International Institute for Environment and Develop-


ment


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for


The paper used for this book is FSC-certified and


elemental chlorine-free. FSC (the Forest Stewardship


Council) is an international network to promote


responsible management of the world’s forests. Contents


VOLUME I HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE


AND FOOD


List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii


Overview to Four Volumes: Sustainable Agriculture and Food xv


Editorial introduction to Volume I 1


Part I Before Agriculture


1 What Hunters Do for a Living, or, How to Make Out on Scarce Resources 17


R. B. Lee


2 Foragers and Others 41


R. B. Lee and R. Daly


3 Mind 73


H. Brody


4 Environmental and Health Benefits of Hunting Lifestyles and Diets


for the Innu of Labrador 107


C. Samson and J. Pretty


5 Language: A Resource for Nature 136


L. Maffi


Part II Early Agriculture


6 Our Vanishing Genetic Resources 159


J. R. Harlan


7 Oriental Despotism 168


K. Wittfogel


8 Marcus Cato on Agriculture 197


Marcus Porcius Cato


Marcus Terentius Varro on Agriculture 202


Marcus Terentius Varro


9 Agroecological Farming Systems in China 208


Li Wenhua vi Sustainable Agriculture and Food


10 Farmers of Forty Centuries 222


F. H. King


Part III Agricultural Revolutions and Change


11 Agricultural Sustainability and Open-field Farming in England,


c 1650–1830 233


M. Turner, J. Beckett and B. Afton


12 Farmers’ Extension Practice and Technology Adaptation:


Agricultural Revolution in 17th–19th-Century Britain 258


J. Pretty


13 Past Successes 290


G. R. Conway


14 Soviet Collectivization, Capitalist Dreams 308


J. C. Scott


15 Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn: Challenges and Approaches of


an International Consortium 339


P. A. Sanchez, C. A. Palm, S. A. Vosti, T. P. Tomich and J. Kasyoki


Part IV Modern Agricultural Reforms


16 Making Soil and Water Conservation Sustainable: From Coercion and


Control to Partnerships and Participation 375


J. Pretty and P. Shah


17 Rethinking Agriculture for New Opportunities 403


E. Fernandes, A. Pell and N. Uphoff


18 Integrated Farming Systems at Different Scales 423


Li Wenhua


19 Agricultural Biotechnology in Southern Africa: A Regional Synthesis 475


D. Mnyulwa and J. Mugwagwa


20 Sustaining Cultivation 501


M. Bell


Index 519 Contents vii


VOLUME II AGRICULTURE AND THE


ENVIRONMENT


List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii


Editorial introduction to Volume II 1


Part I Agricultural Harm to the Environment


1 A Fable for Tomorrow 15


R. Carson


2 Reality Cheques 22


J. Pretty


3 External Costs of Agricultural Production in the United States 53


E. M. Tegtmeier and M. D. Duffy


4 From Pesticides to People: Improving Ecosystem Health


in the Northern Andes 82


S. Sherwood, D. Cole, C. Crissman and M. Paredes


5 Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Female and


Male Cotton Growers in India 97


F. Mancini, A. H. C. van Bruggen, J. L. S. Jiggins, A. C. Ambatipud


and H. Murphy


Part II Agroecology and Sustainability


6 The Properties of Agroecosytems 119


G. R. Conway


7 Interdependent Social-Ecological Systems and Adaptive Governance for


Ecosystem Services 139


C. Folke, J. Colding, P. Olsson and T. Hahn


8 Agroecology and Agroecosystems 166


S. R. Gliessman


9 Ecological Basis for Low-Toxicity Integrated Pest Management (IPM)


in Rice and Vegetables 178


K. Gallagher, P. Ooi, T. Mew, E. Borromeo, P. Kenmore and J.-W. Ketelaar


10 The Farm as Natural Habitat 201


D. L. Jackson viii Sustainable Agriculture and Food


Part III Communities and Social Capital


11 Feminism and Environmental Ethics: A Materialist Perspective 217


M. Mellor


12 Gender and Social Capital: The Importance of Gender Differences for the


Maturity and Effectiveness of Natural Resource Management Groups 234


O. Westermann, J. Ashby and J. Pretty


13 Social Capital and the Collective Management of Resources 257


J. Pretty


14 Still Going: Recent Debates on the Goldschmidt Hypothesis 263


L. M. Lobao, M. D. Schulman and L. E. Swanson


15 Social Connectedness in Marginal Rural China: The Case of Farmer


Innovation Circles in Zhidan, North Shaanxi 274


W. Bin and J. Pretty


Part IV Ecological Restoration and Design


16 Ecological Design and Education 293


D. W. Orr


17 Multi-function Agricultural Biodiversity: Pest Management and


Other Benefits 318


G. M. Gurr, S. D. Wratten amd J. M. Luna


18 Generating Community Change 333


C. B. Flora and J. L. Flora


19 Issues for More Sustainable Soil System Management 357


N. Uphoff, A. S. Ball, E. C. M. Fernandes, H. Herren, O. Husson,


C. Palm, J. Pretty, N. Sanginga and J. E. Thies


20 Farming With the Wild: Foreword and Introduction 372


F. Kirschenmann and D. Imhoff


Index 388


spine 49mm


R


EARTHSCAN


sustainable


‘Jules Pretty brings together the most E REFERENCE


agriculture COLLECTIONS EARTHSCAN REFERENCE COLLECTIONS


comprehensive and carefully selected collection


of writings available about sustainable and food


F


agriculture. Together with an excellent overview


This 4-volume set, edited by the world’s


chapter, the collected works provide the best aS


leading expert on agricultural E


available source for an enlightened analysis and


u


sustainability, brings together the most n


debate about sustainability in agriculture. The


influential and time-tested international


four volumes will serve both as an excellent R s


scholarship across the fields of agriculture d Sustainable


reader for students and a unique reference for all t


and food production with an overview


with an interest in the pursuit of sustainability in


and individual volume introductions that a


the food system.’ E F


make sense of a diverse and complex


Professor Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Cornell University, i


field. o


former Chair of CGIAR Science Council and n


N Agriculture


World Food Prize Laureate, 2001 Volume I o


a


covers the history of agriculture from its


‘This is the single most comprehensive overview


ancient origins through successive db


of sustainable agriculture, from ancient


beginnings to the most topical modern issues. revolutions to the present. C l


Volume II


Jules Pretty e and Food


has assembled a marvellous collection of the examines the relationship between



most seminal papers that are driving sustainable agriculture and the environment. E A


agriculture in all parts of the world.’ Volume III


g


Jeffrey A. McNeely, Chief Scientist, provides coverage of the modern


IUCN–The World Conservation Union industrialized global food system, r


C


including poverty, hunger and


‘Showing that, after all, humans can learn from i


international successes and failures.


experience, Jules Pretty has woven together the c


Volume IV VOLUME I


best of the old with the best of what is new and O


visionary. He gives us a solid, knowledge-based addresses how we think about land and u


foundation for a badly needed new paradigm – our relationship to it, governance and


l


that of an agriculture which sustains all life into stewardship, supportive and perverse t HISTORY OF


agricultural subsidies and policies thLat


the longer term. The impressive list of contributors


ensures that all relevant areas have been shape agriculture. u


AGRICULTURE AND FOOD


competently assessed… A unique reference work L


r


for teachers, students and practitioners.’ JULES PRETTYOBE


is Professor of Environment and Society at


Hans R. Herren, World Food Prize Laureate, 1995 the University of Essex, UK, and Chief EEditor e –––––––––––––––––––



‘An ambitious and deeply insightful series of the International Journal of Agricultural


that unites the great minds not just of the Sustainability. His works include The EaCrth VOLUME I EDITED BY


Only Endures(2007), The Earthscan Reader


agricultural, nutrition and environmental Jules Pretty


in Sustainable Agriculture(2005), The HISTORY OF


sciences, but also history, culture, economics,


Pesticide Detox(2005), Agri-Culture(2002), AGRICULTURE


technology, learning and communications,


The Living Land(1998), RegeneratingT AND FOOD


policy, regulatory and institutional approaches. It


Agriculture(1995), The Hidden Harvest


will be


(1992) and Unwelcome Harvest(1991).


a major reference work for all interested in the ear thscan I EDITED BY


future of humanity and sustainable food and Jules


O


agricultural systems.’ publishing for a sustainable future


Pretty


Parviz Koohafkan, Director, Environment, Climate


www.earthscan.co.u


Change and Bioenergy Division, FAO, Italy


ISBN 978-1-84407-408-2


N


‘This work presents a body of knowledge that ,!7IB8E4-aheaic!


ear thscan


has come of age. It takes into account not only


earthscan


the science but also human behaviour,


institutions and politics. It will be an invaluable


S


AGRICULTURE/FOOD



How to go to your page:




This eBook contains four volumes. Each volume of the original hardcopy set is numbered


separately. In order to avoid duplicate pagination in this eBook, we have included volume


numbers within the page numbers.



For example, to go to page 5 of the first volume, enter I-5 in the “page #” box at the top


of the screen and click “Go”. To go to page 100 of the second volume enter II-100. To go


to page xiv of the third volume enter III-xiv, and so on.


Sustainable Agriculture and Food


Volume I EARTHSCAN REFERENCE COLLECTION


Sustainable Agriculture and Food


Volume I


Edited by


Jules Pretty


London (cid:127) Sterling, VA First published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2008


Copyright © Jules Pretty, 2008


All rights reserved


ISBN-13: 978-1-84407-408-2


Typeset by Composition and Design Services


Printed and bound in the UK by Biddles Ltd, King’s Lynn, Norfolk


Cover design by Andrew Corbett


For a full list of publications please contact:


Earthscan


8–12 Camden High Street


London, NW1 0JH, UK


Tel: +44 (0)20 7387 8558


Fax: +44 (0)20 7387 8998


Email: earthinfo@earthscan.co.uk


Web: www.earthscan.co.uk


22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA


Earthscan publishes in association with the International Institute for Environment and Develop-


ment


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for


The paper used for this book is FSC-certified and


elemental chlorine-free. FSC (the Forest Stewardship


Council) is an international network to promote


responsible management of the world’s forests. Contents


VOLUME I HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE


AND FOOD


List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii


Overview to Four Volumes: Sustainable Agriculture and Food xv


Editorial introduction to Volume I 1


Part I Before Agriculture


1 What Hunters Do for a Living, or, How to Make Out on Scarce Resources 17


R. B. Lee


2 Foragers and Others 41


R. B. Lee and R. Daly


3 Mind 73


H. Brody


4 Environmental and Health Benefits of Hunting Lifestyles and Diets


for the Innu of Labrador 107


C. Samson and J. Pretty


5 Language: A Resource for Nature 136


L. Maffi


Part II Early Agriculture


6 Our Vanishing Genetic Resources 159


J. R. Harlan


7 Oriental Despotism 168


K. Wittfogel


8 Marcus Cato on Agriculture 197


Marcus Porcius Cato


Marcus Terentius Varro on Agriculture 202


Marcus Terentius Varro


9 Agroecological Farming Systems in China 208


Li Wenhua vi Sustainable Agriculture and Food


10 Farmers of Forty Centuries 222


F. H. King


Part III Agricultural Revolutions and Change


11 Agricultural Sustainability and Open-field Farming in England,


c 1650–1830 233


M. Turner, J. Beckett and B. Afton


12 Farmers’ Extension Practice and Technology Adaptation:


Agricultural Revolution in 17th–19th-Century Britain 258


J. Pretty


13 Past Successes 290


G. R. Conway


14 Soviet Collectivization, Capitalist Dreams 308


J. C. Scott


15 Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn: Challenges and Approaches of


an International Consortium 339


P. A. Sanchez, C. A. Palm, S. A. Vosti, T. P. Tomich and J. Kasyoki


Part IV Modern Agricultural Reforms


16 Making Soil and Water Conservation Sustainable: From Coercion and


Control to Partnerships and Participation 375


J. Pretty and P. Shah


17 Rethinking Agriculture for New Opportunities 403


E. Fernandes, A. Pell and N. Uphoff


18 Integrated Farming Systems at Different Scales 423


Li Wenhua


19 Agricultural Biotechnology in Southern Africa: A Regional Synthesis 475


D. Mnyulwa and J. Mugwagwa


20 Sustaining Cultivation 501


M. Bell


Index 519 Contents vii


VOLUME II AGRICULTURE AND THE


ENVIRONMENT


List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii


Editorial introduction to Volume II 1


Part I Agricultural Harm to the Environment


1 A Fable for Tomorrow 15


R. Carson


2 Reality Cheques 22


J. Pretty


3 External Costs of Agricultural Production in the United States 53


E. M. Tegtmeier and M. D. Duffy


4 From Pesticides to People: Improving Ecosystem Health


in the Northern Andes 82


S. Sherwood, D. Cole, C. Crissman and M. Paredes


5 Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Female and


Male Cotton Growers in India 97


F. Mancini, A. H. C. van Bruggen, J. L. S. Jiggins, A. C. Ambatipud


and H. Murphy


Part II Agroecology and Sustainability


6 The Properties of Agroecosytems 119


G. R. Conway


7 Interdependent Social-Ecological Systems and Adaptive Governance for


Ecosystem Services 139


C. Folke, J. Colding, P. Olsson and T. Hahn


8 Agroecology and Agroecosystems 166


S. R. Gliessman


9 Ecological Basis for Low-Toxicity Integrated Pest Management (IPM)


in Rice and Vegetables 178


K. Gallagher, P. Ooi, T. Mew, E. Borromeo, P. Kenmore and J.-W. Ketelaar


10 The Farm as Natural Habitat 201


D. L. Jackson viii Sustainable Agriculture and Food


Part III Communities and Social Capital


11 Feminism and Environmental Ethics: A Materialist Perspective 217


M. Mellor


12 Gender and Social Capital: The Importance of Gender Differences for the


Maturity and Effectiveness of Natural Resource Management Groups 234


O. Westermann, J. Ashby and J. Pretty


13 Social Capital and the Collective Management of Resources 257


J. Pretty


14 Still Going: Recent Debates on the Goldschmidt Hypothesis 263


L. M. Lobao, M. D. Schulman and L. E. Swanson


15 Social Connectedness in Marginal Rural China: The Case of Farmer


Innovation Circles in Zhidan, North Shaanxi 274


W. Bin and J. Pretty


Part IV Ecological Restoration and Design


16 Ecological Design and Education 293


D. W. Orr


17 Multi-function Agricultural Biodiversity: Pest Management and


Other Benefits 318


G. M. Gurr, S. D. Wratten amd J. M. Luna


18 Generating Community Change 333


C. B. Flora and J. L. Flora


19 Issues for More Sustainable Soil System Management 357


N. Uphoff, A. S. Ball, E. C. M. Fernandes, H. Herren, O. Husson,


C. Palm, J. Pretty, N. Sanginga and J. E. Thies


20 Farming With the Wild: Foreword and Introduction 372


F. Kirschenmann and D. Imhoff


Index 388


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