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Sustainable Agriculture and Food

1949 Pages · 2007 · 15.55 MB · English

  • Sustainable Agriculture and Food

    spine 49mm


    R


    EARTHSCAN


    sustainable


    ‘Jules Pretty brings together the most E REFERENCE


    agriculture COLLECTIONS EARTHSCAN REFERENCE COLLECTIONS


    comprehensive and carefully selected collection


    of writings available about sustainable and food


    F


    agriculture. Together with an excellent overview


    This 4-volume set, edited by the world’s


    chapter, the collected works provide the best aS


    leading expert on agricultural E


    available source for an enlightened analysis and


    u


    sustainability, brings together the most n


    debate about sustainability in agriculture. The


    influential and time-tested international


    four volumes will serve both as an excellent R s


    scholarship across the fields of agriculture d Sustainable


    reader for students and a unique reference for all t


    and food production with an overview


    with an interest in the pursuit of sustainability in


    and individual volume introductions that a


    the food system.’ E F


    make sense of a diverse and complex


    Professor Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Cornell University, i


    field. o


    former Chair of CGIAR Science Council and n


    N Agriculture


    World Food Prize Laureate, 2001 Volume I o


    a


    covers the history of agriculture from its


    ‘This is the single most comprehensive overview


    ancient origins through successive db


    of sustainable agriculture, from ancient


    beginnings to the most topical modern issues. revolutions to the present. C l


    Volume II


    Jules Pretty e and Food


    has assembled a marvellous collection of the examines the relationship between



    most seminal papers that are driving sustainable agriculture and the environment. E A


    agriculture in all parts of the world.’ Volume III


    g


    Jeffrey A. McNeely, Chief Scientist, provides coverage of the modern


    IUCN–The World Conservation Union industrialized global food system, r


    C


    including poverty, hunger and


    ‘Showing that, after all, humans can learn from i


    international successes and failures.


    experience, Jules Pretty has woven together the c


    Volume IV VOLUME I


    best of the old with the best of what is new and O


    visionary. He gives us a solid, knowledge-based addresses how we think about land and u


    foundation for a badly needed new paradigm – our relationship to it, governance and


    l


    that of an agriculture which sustains all life into stewardship, supportive and perverse t HISTORY OF


    agricultural subsidies and policies thLat


    the longer term. The impressive list of contributors


    ensures that all relevant areas have been shape agriculture. u


    AGRICULTURE AND FOOD


    competently assessed… A unique reference work L


    r


    for teachers, students and practitioners.’ JULES PRETTYOBE


    is Professor of Environment and Society at


    Hans R. Herren, World Food Prize Laureate, 1995 the University of Essex, UK, and Chief EEditor e –––––––––––––––––––



    ‘An ambitious and deeply insightful series of the International Journal of Agricultural


    that unites the great minds not just of the Sustainability. His works include The EaCrth VOLUME I EDITED BY


    Only Endures(2007), The Earthscan Reader


    agricultural, nutrition and environmental Jules Pretty


    in Sustainable Agriculture(2005), The HISTORY OF


    sciences, but also history, culture, economics,


    Pesticide Detox(2005), Agri-Culture(2002), AGRICULTURE


    technology, learning and communications,


    The Living Land(1998), RegeneratingT AND FOOD


    policy, regulatory and institutional approaches. It


    Agriculture(1995), The Hidden Harvest


    will be


    (1992) and Unwelcome Harvest(1991).


    a major reference work for all interested in the ear thscan I EDITED BY


    future of humanity and sustainable food and Jules


    O


    agricultural systems.’ publishing for a sustainable future


    Pretty


    Parviz Koohafkan, Director, Environment, Climate


    www.earthscan.co.u


    Change and Bioenergy Division, FAO, Italy


    ISBN 978-1-84407-408-2


    N


    ‘This work presents a body of knowledge that ,!7IB8E4-aheaic!


    ear thscan


    has come of age. It takes into account not only


    earthscan


    the science but also human behaviour,


    institutions and politics. It will be an invaluable


    S


    AGRICULTURE/FOOD



    How to go to your page:




    This eBook contains four volumes. Each volume of the original hardcopy set is numbered


    separately. In order to avoid duplicate pagination in this eBook, we have included volume


    numbers within the page numbers.



    For example, to go to page 5 of the first volume, enter I-5 in the “page #” box at the top


    of the screen and click “Go”. To go to page 100 of the second volume enter II-100. To go


    to page xiv of the third volume enter III-xiv, and so on.


    Sustainable Agriculture and Food


    Volume I EARTHSCAN REFERENCE COLLECTION


    Sustainable Agriculture and Food


    Volume I


    Edited by


    Jules Pretty


    London (cid:127) Sterling, VA First published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2008


    Copyright © Jules Pretty, 2008


    All rights reserved


    ISBN-13: 978-1-84407-408-2


    Typeset by Composition and Design Services


    Printed and bound in the UK by Biddles Ltd, King’s Lynn, Norfolk


    Cover design by Andrew Corbett


    For a full list of publications please contact:


    Earthscan


    8–12 Camden High Street


    London, NW1 0JH, UK


    Tel: +44 (0)20 7387 8558


    Fax: +44 (0)20 7387 8998


    Email: earthinfo@earthscan.co.uk


    Web: www.earthscan.co.uk


    22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA


    Earthscan publishes in association with the International Institute for Environment and Develop-


    ment


    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for


    The paper used for this book is FSC-certified and


    elemental chlorine-free. FSC (the Forest Stewardship


    Council) is an international network to promote


    responsible management of the world’s forests. Contents


    VOLUME I HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE


    AND FOOD


    List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii


    Overview to Four Volumes: Sustainable Agriculture and Food xv


    Editorial introduction to Volume I 1


    Part I Before Agriculture


    1 What Hunters Do for a Living, or, How to Make Out on Scarce Resources 17


    R. B. Lee


    2 Foragers and Others 41


    R. B. Lee and R. Daly


    3 Mind 73


    H. Brody


    4 Environmental and Health Benefits of Hunting Lifestyles and Diets


    for the Innu of Labrador 107


    C. Samson and J. Pretty


    5 Language: A Resource for Nature 136


    L. Maffi


    Part II Early Agriculture


    6 Our Vanishing Genetic Resources 159


    J. R. Harlan


    7 Oriental Despotism 168


    K. Wittfogel


    8 Marcus Cato on Agriculture 197


    Marcus Porcius Cato


    Marcus Terentius Varro on Agriculture 202


    Marcus Terentius Varro


    9 Agroecological Farming Systems in China 208


    Li Wenhua vi Sustainable Agriculture and Food


    10 Farmers of Forty Centuries 222


    F. H. King


    Part III Agricultural Revolutions and Change


    11 Agricultural Sustainability and Open-field Farming in England,


    c 1650–1830 233


    M. Turner, J. Beckett and B. Afton


    12 Farmers’ Extension Practice and Technology Adaptation:


    Agricultural Revolution in 17th–19th-Century Britain 258


    J. Pretty


    13 Past Successes 290


    G. R. Conway


    14 Soviet Collectivization, Capitalist Dreams 308


    J. C. Scott


    15 Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn: Challenges and Approaches of


    an International Consortium 339


    P. A. Sanchez, C. A. Palm, S. A. Vosti, T. P. Tomich and J. Kasyoki


    Part IV Modern Agricultural Reforms


    16 Making Soil and Water Conservation Sustainable: From Coercion and


    Control to Partnerships and Participation 375


    J. Pretty and P. Shah


    17 Rethinking Agriculture for New Opportunities 403


    E. Fernandes, A. Pell and N. Uphoff


    18 Integrated Farming Systems at Different Scales 423


    Li Wenhua


    19 Agricultural Biotechnology in Southern Africa: A Regional Synthesis 475


    D. Mnyulwa and J. Mugwagwa


    20 Sustaining Cultivation 501


    M. Bell


    Index 519 Contents vii


    VOLUME II AGRICULTURE AND THE


    ENVIRONMENT


    List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii


    Editorial introduction to Volume II 1


    Part I Agricultural Harm to the Environment


    1 A Fable for Tomorrow 15


    R. Carson


    2 Reality Cheques 22


    J. Pretty


    3 External Costs of Agricultural Production in the United States 53


    E. M. Tegtmeier and M. D. Duffy


    4 From Pesticides to People: Improving Ecosystem Health


    in the Northern Andes 82


    S. Sherwood, D. Cole, C. Crissman and M. Paredes


    5 Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Female and


    Male Cotton Growers in India 97


    F. Mancini, A. H. C. van Bruggen, J. L. S. Jiggins, A. C. Ambatipud


    and H. Murphy


    Part II Agroecology and Sustainability


    6 The Properties of Agroecosytems 119


    G. R. Conway


    7 Interdependent Social-Ecological Systems and Adaptive Governance for


    Ecosystem Services 139


    C. Folke, J. Colding, P. Olsson and T. Hahn


    8 Agroecology and Agroecosystems 166


    S. R. Gliessman


    9 Ecological Basis for Low-Toxicity Integrated Pest Management (IPM)


    in Rice and Vegetables 178


    K. Gallagher, P. Ooi, T. Mew, E. Borromeo, P. Kenmore and J.-W. Ketelaar


    10 The Farm as Natural Habitat 201


    D. L. Jackson viii Sustainable Agriculture and Food


    Part III Communities and Social Capital


    11 Feminism and Environmental Ethics: A Materialist Perspective 217


    M. Mellor


    12 Gender and Social Capital: The Importance of Gender Differences for the


    Maturity and Effectiveness of Natural Resource Management Groups 234


    O. Westermann, J. Ashby and J. Pretty


    13 Social Capital and the Collective Management of Resources 257


    J. Pretty


    14 Still Going: Recent Debates on the Goldschmidt Hypothesis 263


    L. M. Lobao, M. D. Schulman and L. E. Swanson


    15 Social Connectedness in Marginal Rural China: The Case of Farmer


    Innovation Circles in Zhidan, North Shaanxi 274


    W. Bin and J. Pretty


    Part IV Ecological Restoration and Design


    16 Ecological Design and Education 293


    D. W. Orr


    17 Multi-function Agricultural Biodiversity: Pest Management and


    Other Benefits 318


    G. M. Gurr, S. D. Wratten amd J. M. Luna


    18 Generating Community Change 333


    C. B. Flora and J. L. Flora


    19 Issues for More Sustainable Soil System Management 357


    N. Uphoff, A. S. Ball, E. C. M. Fernandes, H. Herren, O. Husson,


    C. Palm, J. Pretty, N. Sanginga and J. E. Thies


    20 Farming With the Wild: Foreword and Introduction 372


    F. Kirschenmann and D. Imhoff


    Index 388


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