Sustainability and National Security

Sustainability and National Security

Sustainability and National Security

508 Pages ·2012·4.6 MB ·English

Sustainability and National Security

Sustainability and


National Security Sustainability and


National Security


Center for Strategic Leadership


United States Army War College


Carlisle, Pennsylvania


January 2012 The editors wish to thank Ms. Jennifer Nevil, desktop publisher,


for her fine work word processing the manuscript and Mr. Todd


Wheeler; COL David DeVoy, USAR; COL Ben Prescott, USAR;


and LTC Rob Farneth for reviewing various book chapters


The views expressed in this book are those of the authors and


do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the


United States Military Academy, the United States Army War


College, the Department of Defense, the Department of State,


USAID, or any other Department or Agency within the United


States Government. Further, these views do not reflect uniform


agreement among authors. This book is cleared for public release;


distribution is limited.


For additional copies of this book please contact Mr. Brent Bankus,


(717) 245-3716 or brent.c.bankus@us.army.mil.


ISBN: 978-0-9835110-1-4


iv TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction ...................................................................vii


1. Sustainability and National Security .....................1


Jim Hartman


2. Sustainability: A Lens for National Security ......29


Kent Butts and Brent C. Bankus


3. The Department of Defense offers a Strong


Offense for Promoting Sustainability..................57


Kristan Cockerill



4. Sustainable Security and Fragile States...............85


Steve Hearne, Jeremey Alcorn, and


William Goran


5. Sustainability and Environmental Security......127


Odelia Funk


6. Building Resiliency into the National Military


Strategy ....................................................................177


David Carstens


7. The Consequential Challenges of Climate


Change ......................................................................201


Corry Juedeman


8. Sustainability and States: Climate Change and


Sovereignty..............................................................233


Rymn J. Parsons


9. Pursuing the Delta: Maximizing Opportunities


to Integrate Sustainability in the Funding


Process... ...................................................................263


Kimberly A. O’Keefe


v 10. U.S. Nuclear Energy: National Security and


Sustainability ........................................................305


James J. Raftery, Jr.


11. Sustainability National Security Military Lands


Management: The Ecological Foundation of


Sustainability .......................................................367


William W. Doe III


12. Promoting a Sustainability Ethic in Future Army


Leaders at West Point ..........................................393


Marie C. Johnson and Mark A. Smith


13. Army National Guard Launches Sustainability


Initiatives ...............................................................417


Joseph Knott and Monica Slade


14. Building Green ....................................................447


William Goran, Thomas Napier,


Richard Schneider and Annette Stumpf


About the Authors .....................................................483


vi INTRODUCTION


In a world that has finite resources and is increasingly


experiencing high competition for these resources, the


military has embraced sustainability as both a vital strate-


gic security element and as a mission enabler. This book


addresses how security organizations throughout the


world are or could be approaching sustainability. Mili-


tary forces must have the land, air, water, and energy/fuel


to train and operate today, and into the future. How can


these resources be assured, how can conflict over scarce


resources be avoided and when can cooperation over re-


sources issues be used to promote peace? Sustainability


is a powerful concept being readily applied by both the


business and international affairs communities. Many of


the sustainable practices the military is either currently


applying or seeking to institutionalize are modeled after


a growing number of corporations that aim for continual


improvement, to gain a competitive edge in globalized


markets, and ultimately long term success. Sustainability


is further providing a platform for multi-state coopera-


tion on transnational resource issues.


Mission accomplishment is the true determinant of


military success or failure. Corollary benefits of sustain-


ability include: reducing risk to our war fighters; readi-


ness enhancement and sustainment; increased efficiency;


reduced operational and total life cycle costs; a reduction


in environmental and logistics footprints; and, enhancing


the quality of life for soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines,


families, and surrounding communities.


This book explores the sustainability concept at the


strategic, operational and tactical levels. At the strategic


level the book explores the importance of focusing inter-


national and national priorities on identifying and pre-


serving the resource base necessary to maintain security


and stability and discusses the importance of proactively


mitigating threats to these resources. At the operational


level it examines the great savings that can be achieved


vii by applying sustainable principles and practices through-


out military installations, systems, and operations; Op-


erational Energy is a fine example. At the tactical level


sustainability is reducing risks to military war fighters by


reducing the logistic burden of transporting fuel and wa-


ter to the tip of the fighting spear, and by minimizing the


overall logistics footprint at base camps. In the field, the


military is additionally a catalyst for the enhancement of


sustainable communities through its application of green


technologies and human capacity building.


Sustainability is simply a management approach ap-


plying a systematic framework with a focus on the wise


use of resources (economic and natural) while acting so-


cially responsible. Through the application of sustain-


able practices and principles demonstrated in this book


by various organizations the military is not only getting


stronger, but playing a vital role in driving new innova-


tion and technologies critical to the military’s future suc-


cess.


Unsustainable practices worldwide are increasingly


leading to adversely changing conditions in meteorology,


potable water availability, sea levels, crop and fish yields,


disease rates, and species survival rates. The aforemen-


tioned conditions have an aggregate effect of destabiliz-


ing weak nations. In essence unsustainable principles


and practices are a threat multiplier.


There are several examples throughout this book that


demonstrate the transformation of militaries to a sus-


tainability based approach has been a natural evolution


rather than a radical event. Doctrine, strategic planning,


decision making, acquisition and procurement processes,


building design and construction, facility and tactical


operations, and institutional behaviors are all aligning to


support sustainability. Although there is still much more


to do, it should be evident from this book that sustain-


ability offers a critical lens for examining national security


objectives at the strategic, operational and tactical levels.


viii Dr. Jim Hartman’s chapter, “Sustainability and Na-


tional Security,” examines the evolution of the Army’s


sustainability program and its contributions to the nation-


al strategic security objectives. The growing world popu-


lation and imbalance of natural resources are expected


to affect US, as well as Army, interests. Dr. Hartman as-


serts sustainability is the nexus to ensure future security,


which can only be achieved through the development and


implementation of sound business practices. Dr. Hart-


man opines the Army, as a large institution, is well suited


to lead a whole of government approach to sustainability.


Dr. Kent Butts and Brent Bankus’ chapter, “Sustain-


ability: A Lens for National Security,” postulates sustain-


ability begins at the local level, but has strong implica-


tions at the strategic level. Dr. Butts and Mr. Bankus


argue the ambiguity of China’s motives to secure natural


resources in Africa and the Middle East in order to obtain


‘soft power’ to directly and negatively affect U.S. inter-


ests around the globe. Dr. Butts and Mr. Bankus address


maintaining the Bretton Woods Agreement, as well as the


1987 UN Brundtlant report to meet present needs without


compromising the needs to future generations” in the in-


terest of a U.S. sustainability strategy. This chapter takes


a view of U.S. interests at the national, as well as regional,


level and the implications for the future if sustainability


issues are not examined through a wider aperture by U.S.


leadership.


Dr. Kristan Cockerill’s “The Department of Defense


promotes a Strong Offense for Promoting Sustainability”


addresses the Army’s historical role in preserving the en-


vironment. In 1890, President Benjamin Harrison direct-


ed the U.S. Cavalry to secure and protect the recently de-


veloped Yosemite National Park. The Army maintained


control of Yosemite for 26 years until the establishment of


the National Park Service in 1916 and preserved its vast


wealth of natural resources. She argues the Army has a


long history, both good and bad, when it comes to envi-


ix


Sustainability and


National Security Sustainability and


National Security


Center for Strategic Leadership


United States Army War College


Carlisle, Pennsylvania


January 2012 The editors wish to thank Ms. Jennifer Nevil, desktop publisher,


for her fine work word processing the manuscript and Mr. Todd


Wheeler; COL David DeVoy, USAR; COL Ben Prescott, USAR;


and LTC Rob Farneth for reviewing various book chapters


The views expressed in this book are those of the authors and


do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the


United States Military Academy, the United States Army War


College, the Department of Defense, the Department of State,


USAID, or any other Department or Agency within the United


States Government. Further, these views do not reflect uniform


agreement among authors. This book is cleared for public release;


distribution is limited.


For additional copies of this book please contact Mr. Brent Bankus,


(717) 245-3716 or brent.c.bankus@us.army.mil.


ISBN: 978-0-9835110-1-4


iv TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction ...................................................................vii


1. Sustainability and National Security .....................1


Jim Hartman


2. Sustainability: A Lens for National Security ......29


Kent Butts and Brent C. Bankus


3. The Department of Defense offers a Strong


Offense for Promoting Sustainability..................57


Kristan Cockerill



4. Sustainable Security and Fragile States...............85


Steve Hearne, Jeremey Alcorn, and


William Goran


5. Sustainability and Environmental Security......127


Odelia Funk


6. Building Resiliency into the National Military


Strategy ....................................................................177


David Carstens


7. The Consequential Challenges of Climate


Change ......................................................................201


Corry Juedeman


8. Sustainability and States: Climate Change and


Sovereignty..............................................................233


Rymn J. Parsons


9. Pursuing the Delta: Maximizing Opportunities


to Integrate Sustainability in the Funding


Process... ...................................................................263


Kimberly A. O’Keefe


v 10. U.S. Nuclear Energy: National Security and


Sustainability ........................................................305


James J. Raftery, Jr.


11. Sustainability National Security Military Lands


Management: The Ecological Foundation of


Sustainability .......................................................367


William W. Doe III


12. Promoting a Sustainability Ethic in Future Army


Leaders at West Point ..........................................393


Marie C. Johnson and Mark A. Smith


13. Army National Guard Launches Sustainability


Initiatives ...............................................................417


Joseph Knott and Monica Slade


14. Building Green ....................................................447


William Goran, Thomas Napier,


Richard Schneider and Annette Stumpf


About the Authors .....................................................483


vi INTRODUCTION


In a world that has finite resources and is increasingly


experiencing high competition for these resources, the


military has embraced sustainability as both a vital strate-


gic security element and as a mission enabler. This book


addresses how security organizations throughout the


world are or could be approaching sustainability. Mili-


tary forces must have the land, air, water, and energy/fuel


to train and operate today, and into the future. How can


these resources be assured, how can conflict over scarce


resources be avoided and when can cooperation over re-


sources issues be used to promote peace? Sustainability


is a powerful concept being readily applied by both the


business and international affairs communities. Many of


the sustainable practices the military is either currently


applying or seeking to institutionalize are modeled after


a growing number of corporations that aim for continual


improvement, to gain a competitive edge in globalized


markets, and ultimately long term success. Sustainability


is further providing a platform for multi-state coopera-


tion on transnational resource issues.


Mission accomplishment is the true determinant of


military success or failure. Corollary benefits of sustain-


ability include: reducing risk to our war fighters; readi-


ness enhancement and sustainment; increased efficiency;


reduced operational and total life cycle costs; a reduction


in environmental and logistics footprints; and, enhancing


the quality of life for soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines,


families, and surrounding communities.


This book explores the sustainability concept at the


strategic, operational and tactical levels. At the strategic


level the book explores the importance of focusing inter-


national and national priorities on identifying and pre-


serving the resource base necessary to maintain security


and stability and discusses the importance of proactively


mitigating threats to these resources. At the operational


level it examines the great savings that can be achieved


vii by applying sustainable principles and practices through-


out military installations, systems, and operations; Op-


erational Energy is a fine example. At the tactical level


sustainability is reducing risks to military war fighters by


reducing the logistic burden of transporting fuel and wa-


ter to the tip of the fighting spear, and by minimizing the


overall logistics footprint at base camps. In the field, the


military is additionally a catalyst for the enhancement of


sustainable communities through its application of green


technologies and human capacity building.


Sustainability is simply a management approach ap-


plying a systematic framework with a focus on the wise


use of resources (economic and natural) while acting so-


cially responsible. Through the application of sustain-


able practices and principles demonstrated in this book


by various organizations the military is not only getting


stronger, but playing a vital role in driving new innova-


tion and technologies critical to the military’s future suc-


cess.


Unsustainable practices worldwide are increasingly


leading to adversely changing conditions in meteorology,


potable water availability, sea levels, crop and fish yields,


disease rates, and species survival rates. The aforemen-


tioned conditions have an aggregate effect of destabiliz-


ing weak nations. In essence unsustainable principles


and practices are a threat multiplier.


There are several examples throughout this book that


demonstrate the transformation of militaries to a sus-


tainability based approach has been a natural evolution


rather than a radical event. Doctrine, strategic planning,


decision making, acquisition and procurement processes,


building design and construction, facility and tactical


operations, and institutional behaviors are all aligning to


support sustainability. Although there is still much more


to do, it should be evident from this book that sustain-


ability offers a critical lens for examining national security


objectives at the strategic, operational and tactical levels.


viii Dr. Jim Hartman’s chapter, “Sustainability and Na-


tional Security,” examines the evolution of the Army’s


sustainability program and its contributions to the nation-


al strategic security objectives. The growing world popu-


lation and imbalance of natural resources are expected


to affect US, as well as Army, interests. Dr. Hartman as-


serts sustainability is the nexus to ensure future security,


which can only be achieved through the development and


implementation of sound business practices. Dr. Hart-


man opines the Army, as a large institution, is well suited


to lead a whole of government approach to sustainability.


Dr. Kent Butts and Brent Bankus’ chapter, “Sustain-


ability: A Lens for National Security,” postulates sustain-


ability begins at the local level, but has strong implica-


tions at the strategic level. Dr. Butts and Mr. Bankus


argue the ambiguity of China’s motives to secure natural


resources in Africa and the Middle East in order to obtain


‘soft power’ to directly and negatively affect U.S. inter-


ests around the globe. Dr. Butts and Mr. Bankus address


maintaining the Bretton Woods Agreement, as well as the


1987 UN Brundtlant report to meet present needs without


compromising the needs to future generations” in the in-


terest of a U.S. sustainability strategy. This chapter takes


a view of U.S. interests at the national, as well as regional,


level and the implications for the future if sustainability


issues are not examined through a wider aperture by U.S.


leadership.


Dr. Kristan Cockerill’s “The Department of Defense


promotes a Strong Offense for Promoting Sustainability”


addresses the Army’s historical role in preserving the en-


vironment. In 1890, President Benjamin Harrison direct-


ed the U.S. Cavalry to secure and protect the recently de-


veloped Yosemite National Park. The Army maintained


control of Yosemite for 26 years until the establishment of


the National Park Service in 1916 and preserved its vast


wealth of natural resources. She argues the Army has a


long history, both good and bad, when it comes to envi-


ix


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