Sturgeon biodiversity and conservation

Sturgeon biodiversity and conservation

Sturgeon biodiversity and conservation

445 Pages ·2002·10.96 MB ·English

Sturgeon biodiversity and conservation

Sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation Developments in environmental biology of fishes 17


SeriesEditor


EUGENE K. BALON Sturgeon biodiversity and conservation


Editors:


VADIMJ. BIRSTEIN,JOHNR. WALDMAN &WILLIAM E. BEMIS


Reprinted from Environmental biology of fishes, Volume 48 (1–4), 1997


withadditionofspeciesandsubjectindex


KLUWERACADEMICPUBLISHERS


NEW YORK / BOSTON / DORDRECHT /LONDON / MOSCOW eBookISBN: 0-306-46854-9


Print ISBN: 0-792-34517-7


©2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers


New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow


Print ©1997 Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers


New York


All rights reserved


No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,


mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without written consent from the Publisher


Created in the United States of America


Visit Kluwer Online at: http://kluweronline.com


and Kluwer's eBookstore at: http://ebooks.kluweronline.com Contents


Preludeto sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation


byE.K.Balon 9-11


Sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation: anintroduction


byW.E.Bemis,V.J.Birstein&J.R.Waldman 13-14


LeoSemenovichBerg andthebiology ofAcipenseriformes:adedication


byV.J.Birstein&W.E.Bemis 15-22


Part1:Diversityandevolutionofsturgeonsandpaddlefishes


Anoverview of Acipenseriformes


byW.E.Bemis,E.K.Findeis&L.Grande 25-71


Osteology andphylogeneticinterrelationships of sturgeons (Acipenseridae)


byE.K. Findeis 73-126


Phylogenyof the Acipenseriformes:cytogeneticandmolecular approaches


byV.J.Birstein,R. Hanner&R. DeSalle 127-155


Howmany speciesarethere within thegenusAcipenser?


byV.J.Birstein & W.E.Bemis 157-163


Part2:Biologyandstatusreportsonsturgeonsandpaddlefishes


Sturgeonrivers: anintroductiontoacipenseriformbiogeographyandlifehistory


byW.E.Bemis&B.Kynard 167-183


Pastandcurrentstatusofsturgeons intheupperandmiddleDanubeRiver


by K. Hensel&J. Holc^ik 185-200


Endangeredmigratory sturgeonsofthelower DanubeRiverandits delta


byN. Bacalbasa-Dobrovici 20 1 -207


Presentstatus ofcommercial stocksofsturgeons in theCaspianSeabasin


by R.P. Khodorevskaya, G.F. Dovgopol, O.L. Zhuravleva & A.D. Vlasenko 209-219


Speciesstructure,contemporarydistributionandstatusoftheSiberiansturgeon,


Acipenser baerii


by G.I. Ruban 221-230


EndemicsturgeonsoftheAmurRiver: kaluga,Husodauricus,andAmursturgeon,


Acipenser schrenckii


by M.L. Krykhtin & V.G. Svirskii 231-239


Biology,fisheries,and conservation ofsturgeonsandpaddlefishinChina


byQ.Wei,F.Ke,J.Zhang,P.Zhuang,J.Luo,R.Zhou &W.Yang 241-255


Biology and life history of Dabry’s sturgeon, Acipenser dabryanus, in the Yangtze River


byP.Zhuang,F.Ke,Q.Wei,X.He&Y.Cen 257-264


Observations on the reproductive cycle of cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus


by S.I. Doroshov, G.P. Moberg & J.P. Van Eenennaam 265-278


Contemporary status of the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula


byK. Graham 279-289


Lifehistoryandstatusoftheshovelnosesturgeon,Scaphirhynchusplatorynchus


byK.D. Keenlyne 291-298


The status anddistribution oflake sturgeon,Acipenserfulvescens,inthe Canadianprovinces


ofManitoba,OntarioandQuebec: ageneticperspective


byM.M.Ferguson&G.A.Duckworth 299 309


— 6


LakesturgeonmanagementintheMenomineeRiver,aWisconsin-Michiganboundarywater


by T.F. Thuemler 311-317


Lifehistory,latitudinalpatterns,andstatusoftheshortnosesturgeon,Acipenserbrevirostrum


by B. Kynard 319-334


StatusandmanagementofAtlantic sturgeon,Acipenseroxyrinchus,inNorthAmerica


by T.I.J. Smith & J.P. Clugston 335-346


Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons of the Hudson River: common and divergent life history


attributes


byM.B. Bain 347-358


Biological characteristics of the European Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser sturio, as the basis for


a restoration program in France


byP.Williot,E.Rochard,G. Castelnaud,T.Rouault,R. Brun,M.Lepage&P.Elie 359-370


Part3: Controversies,conservationandsummary


Sturgeons and the Aral Sea ecological catastrophe


by I. Zholdasova 373-380


Threatened fishes of the world Pseudoscaphirhynchusspp. (Acipenseridae)


byV.J.Birstein 381-383


Molecular analysis in the conservation of sturgeons and paddlefish


byI.I.Wirgin,J.E.Stabile&J.R.Waldman 385-398


Sensitivity of North American sturgeons and paddlefish to fishing mortality


byJ. Boreman 399-405


Alternatives for the protection and restoration of sturgeons and their habitat


byR.C.P.Beamesderfer&R.A.Farr 407-417


Threatenedfishesoftheworld: Scaphirhynchus suttkusiWilliams&Clemmer,1991,


(Acipenseridae)


byR.L.Mayden&B.R.Kuhajda 418-419


Threatened fishesof the world:Scaphirhynchusalbus(Forbes& Richardson,1905)


(Acipenseridae)


byR.L.Mayden&B.R.Kuhajda 420-421


Sturgeon poaching and black market caviar: a case study


by A. Cohen 423-426


Thethreatenedstatusofacipenseriformfishes: asummary


by V.J. Birstein, W.E. Bemis & J.R.Waldman 427-435


Speciesandsubjectindex,byAliceG.Klingener 437-444


Thisvolumeisdedicatedtothememoryof Leo SemenovichBerg


LogodesignbyWilliamE.Bemisinspiredbytheholarcticdistributionofsturgeonsandpaddlefishes


Numaeis Anishnabe for sturgeon, a painting by the Chippewas ofNawash artist Adrian Nadjiwon of Cape Croker,


LakeHuron:“InthepaintingIwantedtodepictthebalancethatoneexistedbetweenmyancestorsandthesturgeon


(thesturgeonbeingsymbolicofallthefishspeciesthattheOldPeoplesubsistedon)withthefishinglinesymbolising


aspirituallinkandbalancingpointbetweenthemanandthesturgeon”(1992). Portraits of three juvenile sturgeons which originated from the Black Sea stock bred at the Propa-Gen International Aquaculture Produc-


tion R & D and Trading, Komadi, Hungary: the top photograph shows a 71 cm armored form of the Russian sturgeon, Acipenser guelden-


staedtii: the middle photograph shows a 77 cm naked form of A. gueldenstaedtii (note its smooth skin and absence of scutes): and the


bottom photograph is of a 54 cm A. persicus Photographs by Paul Vecei. May 1996. Environmental Biology of Fishes48:9-12, 1997.


© 1997KluwerAcademic Publishers. Printed inthe Netherlands.


Prelude to sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation


Soaring Eagle, you have angered Great Sturgeon, and he has taken your son because you


took too manyfishfromthe lake.


Joe McLellan (1993)


in‘Nanabosho, SoaringEagleandtheGreatSturgeon’,PammicanPublications,Winnipeg.


Itgavemegreatpleasuretohelpwiththe publicationofthisvolume.Theelusivebeastsitdealswithsustainedmyenthusi-


asm in the early days ofwork on the Danube River. Already then, 40 years ago. sturgeons were so rare1 in the middle


Danube (Figure1),thatIhadtoshiftmyattentiontothewildcarp2.3whichhavefollowedsincemanyofthesturgeonsinto



oblivion.


Figure1.SpecimenofAcipensergueldenstaedtii 35cmlongcaughton30.7.1967 intheDanubeRiver near Radvan^(river km 1749).


Originaldrawingby Miriam Baradlai1.


OftenIwasstandingontheshore,where about100years ago,theViennese courthadtheirmilitaryfirecannonballsat


giant beluga, Huso huso, and other sturgeon species ascending the river to spawn4. I was dreaming of arresting the present


destruction5.6 and ofrebuilding the past (Figure 2).I envied Marsilius7 whowas able to witness here the processing of


caviar (Figure 3) which I was privileged to spoon up in Russia only 30 years, no, 270 years later, and became addicted to.


1Balon, E.K. 1968. D∨alší nález mlade Acipenser güldenstaedti colchicus Marti, 1940 v c^eskoslovenskom úsekuDunaja(Afurtherdiscov-


eryofajuvenile RussiansturgeonintheCzechoslovakpartoftheDanube).Ac. Rer.Natur.Mus.Nat.Slov. (Bratislava)14:95-100.


2Balon.E.K.1974.Domesticationofthecarp CyprinuscarpioL.Royal OntarioMus.LifeSci.Misc.Publ.,Toronto.37pp.


3Balon.E.K.1995.Thecommoncarp,Cyprinuscarpio:itswildorigin,domesticationinaquaculture,andselectionascolorednishikigoi.


GuelphIchthyologyReviews3:1-55.


4Hensel, K. & J. Holc∨ik. 1997. Past and current status of sturgeons in the upper and middle Danube River. Env. Biol. Fish. 48 (this


volume).


5Balon,E.K.1967.VývojichtyofaunyDunaja,jejsúc∨asnýstavapokusoprognózuód’alšichzmienpovýstavbevodnýchdiel (Evolution of


the Danube ichthyofauna. its recent state and an attempt to predict further changes after the construction of the planned hydro-electric


power stations and diversion schemes). Biologické práce 13: 1-121 + 24 plates.


6Balon, E.K. 1968. Einfluß des Fischfangsaufdie Fischgemeinschaften der Donau. Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl. Donauforschung3) 34:


228–249.


7 Marsilius. A.F.C. 1726. Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus, observationibus geographicis, astronomicis, hydrographicis, historicis, physicis


perlustratus et in sexTomos digestus. Hagae Comitum, Amstelodami.


Sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation Developments in environmental biology of fishes 17


SeriesEditor


EUGENE K. BALON Sturgeon biodiversity and conservation


Editors:


VADIMJ. BIRSTEIN,JOHNR. WALDMAN &WILLIAM E. BEMIS


Reprinted from Environmental biology of fishes, Volume 48 (1–4), 1997


withadditionofspeciesandsubjectindex


KLUWERACADEMICPUBLISHERS


NEW YORK / BOSTON / DORDRECHT /LONDON / MOSCOW eBookISBN: 0-306-46854-9


Print ISBN: 0-792-34517-7


©2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers


New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow


Print ©1997 Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers


New York


All rights reserved


No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,


mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without written consent from the Publisher


Created in the United States of America


Visit Kluwer Online at: http://kluweronline.com


and Kluwer's eBookstore at: http://ebooks.kluweronline.com Contents


Preludeto sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation


byE.K.Balon 9-11


Sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation: anintroduction


byW.E.Bemis,V.J.Birstein&J.R.Waldman 13-14


LeoSemenovichBerg andthebiology ofAcipenseriformes:adedication


byV.J.Birstein&W.E.Bemis 15-22


Part1:Diversityandevolutionofsturgeonsandpaddlefishes


Anoverview of Acipenseriformes


byW.E.Bemis,E.K.Findeis&L.Grande 25-71


Osteology andphylogeneticinterrelationships of sturgeons (Acipenseridae)


byE.K. Findeis 73-126


Phylogenyof the Acipenseriformes:cytogeneticandmolecular approaches


byV.J.Birstein,R. Hanner&R. DeSalle 127-155


Howmany speciesarethere within thegenusAcipenser?


byV.J.Birstein & W.E.Bemis 157-163


Part2:Biologyandstatusreportsonsturgeonsandpaddlefishes


Sturgeonrivers: anintroductiontoacipenseriformbiogeographyandlifehistory


byW.E.Bemis&B.Kynard 167-183


Pastandcurrentstatusofsturgeons intheupperandmiddleDanubeRiver


by K. Hensel&J. Holc^ik 185-200


Endangeredmigratory sturgeonsofthelower DanubeRiverandits delta


byN. Bacalbasa-Dobrovici 20 1 -207


Presentstatus ofcommercial stocksofsturgeons in theCaspianSeabasin


by R.P. Khodorevskaya, G.F. Dovgopol, O.L. Zhuravleva & A.D. Vlasenko 209-219


Speciesstructure,contemporarydistributionandstatusoftheSiberiansturgeon,


Acipenser baerii


by G.I. Ruban 221-230


EndemicsturgeonsoftheAmurRiver: kaluga,Husodauricus,andAmursturgeon,


Acipenser schrenckii


by M.L. Krykhtin & V.G. Svirskii 231-239


Biology,fisheries,and conservation ofsturgeonsandpaddlefishinChina


byQ.Wei,F.Ke,J.Zhang,P.Zhuang,J.Luo,R.Zhou &W.Yang 241-255


Biology and life history of Dabry’s sturgeon, Acipenser dabryanus, in the Yangtze River


byP.Zhuang,F.Ke,Q.Wei,X.He&Y.Cen 257-264


Observations on the reproductive cycle of cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus


by S.I. Doroshov, G.P. Moberg & J.P. Van Eenennaam 265-278


Contemporary status of the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula


byK. Graham 279-289


Lifehistoryandstatusoftheshovelnosesturgeon,Scaphirhynchusplatorynchus


byK.D. Keenlyne 291-298


The status anddistribution oflake sturgeon,Acipenserfulvescens,inthe Canadianprovinces


ofManitoba,OntarioandQuebec: ageneticperspective


byM.M.Ferguson&G.A.Duckworth 299 309


— 6


LakesturgeonmanagementintheMenomineeRiver,aWisconsin-Michiganboundarywater


by T.F. Thuemler 311-317


Lifehistory,latitudinalpatterns,andstatusoftheshortnosesturgeon,Acipenserbrevirostrum


by B. Kynard 319-334


StatusandmanagementofAtlantic sturgeon,Acipenseroxyrinchus,inNorthAmerica


by T.I.J. Smith & J.P. Clugston 335-346


Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons of the Hudson River: common and divergent life history


attributes


byM.B. Bain 347-358


Biological characteristics of the European Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser sturio, as the basis for


a restoration program in France


byP.Williot,E.Rochard,G. Castelnaud,T.Rouault,R. Brun,M.Lepage&P.Elie 359-370


Part3: Controversies,conservationandsummary


Sturgeons and the Aral Sea ecological catastrophe


by I. Zholdasova 373-380


Threatened fishes of the world Pseudoscaphirhynchusspp. (Acipenseridae)


byV.J.Birstein 381-383


Molecular analysis in the conservation of sturgeons and paddlefish


byI.I.Wirgin,J.E.Stabile&J.R.Waldman 385-398


Sensitivity of North American sturgeons and paddlefish to fishing mortality


byJ. Boreman 399-405


Alternatives for the protection and restoration of sturgeons and their habitat


byR.C.P.Beamesderfer&R.A.Farr 407-417


Threatenedfishesoftheworld: Scaphirhynchus suttkusiWilliams&Clemmer,1991,


(Acipenseridae)


byR.L.Mayden&B.R.Kuhajda 418-419


Threatened fishesof the world:Scaphirhynchusalbus(Forbes& Richardson,1905)


(Acipenseridae)


byR.L.Mayden&B.R.Kuhajda 420-421


Sturgeon poaching and black market caviar: a case study


by A. Cohen 423-426


Thethreatenedstatusofacipenseriformfishes: asummary


by V.J. Birstein, W.E. Bemis & J.R.Waldman 427-435


Speciesandsubjectindex,byAliceG.Klingener 437-444


Thisvolumeisdedicatedtothememoryof Leo SemenovichBerg


LogodesignbyWilliamE.Bemisinspiredbytheholarcticdistributionofsturgeonsandpaddlefishes


Numaeis Anishnabe for sturgeon, a painting by the Chippewas ofNawash artist Adrian Nadjiwon of Cape Croker,


LakeHuron:“InthepaintingIwantedtodepictthebalancethatoneexistedbetweenmyancestorsandthesturgeon


(thesturgeonbeingsymbolicofallthefishspeciesthattheOldPeoplesubsistedon)withthefishinglinesymbolising


aspirituallinkandbalancingpointbetweenthemanandthesturgeon”(1992). Portraits of three juvenile sturgeons which originated from the Black Sea stock bred at the Propa-Gen International Aquaculture Produc-


tion R & D and Trading, Komadi, Hungary: the top photograph shows a 71 cm armored form of the Russian sturgeon, Acipenser guelden-


staedtii: the middle photograph shows a 77 cm naked form of A. gueldenstaedtii (note its smooth skin and absence of scutes): and the


bottom photograph is of a 54 cm A. persicus Photographs by Paul Vecei. May 1996. Environmental Biology of Fishes48:9-12, 1997.


© 1997KluwerAcademic Publishers. Printed inthe Netherlands.


Prelude to sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation


Soaring Eagle, you have angered Great Sturgeon, and he has taken your son because you


took too manyfishfromthe lake.


Joe McLellan (1993)


in‘Nanabosho, SoaringEagleandtheGreatSturgeon’,PammicanPublications,Winnipeg.


Itgavemegreatpleasuretohelpwiththe publicationofthisvolume.Theelusivebeastsitdealswithsustainedmyenthusi-


asm in the early days ofwork on the Danube River. Already then, 40 years ago. sturgeons were so rare1 in the middle


Danube (Figure1),thatIhadtoshiftmyattentiontothewildcarp2.3whichhavefollowedsincemanyofthesturgeonsinto



oblivion.


Figure1.SpecimenofAcipensergueldenstaedtii 35cmlongcaughton30.7.1967 intheDanubeRiver near Radvan^(river km 1749).


Originaldrawingby Miriam Baradlai1.


OftenIwasstandingontheshore,where about100years ago,theViennese courthadtheirmilitaryfirecannonballsat


giant beluga, Huso huso, and other sturgeon species ascending the river to spawn4. I was dreaming of arresting the present


destruction5.6 and ofrebuilding the past (Figure 2).I envied Marsilius7 whowas able to witness here the processing of


caviar (Figure 3) which I was privileged to spoon up in Russia only 30 years, no, 270 years later, and became addicted to.


1Balon, E.K. 1968. D∨alší nález mlade Acipenser güldenstaedti colchicus Marti, 1940 v c^eskoslovenskom úsekuDunaja(Afurtherdiscov-


eryofajuvenile RussiansturgeonintheCzechoslovakpartoftheDanube).Ac. Rer.Natur.Mus.Nat.Slov. (Bratislava)14:95-100.


2Balon.E.K.1974.Domesticationofthecarp CyprinuscarpioL.Royal OntarioMus.LifeSci.Misc.Publ.,Toronto.37pp.


3Balon.E.K.1995.Thecommoncarp,Cyprinuscarpio:itswildorigin,domesticationinaquaculture,andselectionascolorednishikigoi.


GuelphIchthyologyReviews3:1-55.


4Hensel, K. & J. Holc∨ik. 1997. Past and current status of sturgeons in the upper and middle Danube River. Env. Biol. Fish. 48 (this


volume).


5Balon,E.K.1967.VývojichtyofaunyDunaja,jejsúc∨asnýstavapokusoprognózuód’alšichzmienpovýstavbevodnýchdiel (Evolution of


the Danube ichthyofauna. its recent state and an attempt to predict further changes after the construction of the planned hydro-electric


power stations and diversion schemes). Biologické práce 13: 1-121 + 24 plates.


6Balon, E.K. 1968. Einfluß des Fischfangsaufdie Fischgemeinschaften der Donau. Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl. Donauforschung3) 34:


228–249.


7 Marsilius. A.F.C. 1726. Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus, observationibus geographicis, astronomicis, hydrographicis, historicis, physicis


perlustratus et in sexTomos digestus. Hagae Comitum, Amstelodami.


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