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Spanish An Essential Grammar

343 Pages · 2004 · 2.49 MB · English

  • Spanish An Essential Grammar

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    4 Spanish


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    7 An Essential Grammar


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    12111 Spanish: An Essential Grammar is a concise and user-friendly reference


    3 guide to the most important aspects of Spanish.


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    It presents a fresh and accessible description of the language as it is spoken


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    both in Europe and Latin America. The book sets out the complexities of


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    Spanish in short, readable sections, and explanations are clear and free


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    from jargon.


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    9 The Grammar is the ideal reference source for the learner and user of


    20111 Spanish. It is suitable for either independent study or for students in


    1 schools, colleges, universities and adult classes of all types.


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    Features include:


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    • Clear distinctions between the essential and basic aspects of Spanish


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    grammar and those that are more complex


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    • Full use of authentic examples


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    • Simple explanations of areas that customarily pose problems for


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    English speakers


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    • Detailed contents list and index for easy access to information


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    Peter T. Bradley is Emeritus Professor of Latin American History and Ian


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    Mackenzie is Senior Lecturer in Spanish, both at Newcastle University.


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    41111 Routledge Essential Grammars 1111


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    Essential Grammars are available for the following languages: 3


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    Chinese 5


    Danish 6


    Dutch 7


    English 8


    Finnish 9


    Greek 1011


    Hungarian 1


    Modern Hebrew 12111


    Norwegian 3


    Polish 4


    Portuguese 5


    Spanish 6


    Swedish 7


    Thai 8


    Urdu 9


    20111


    Other titles of related interest published by Routledge: 1


    2


    Modern Spanish Grammar: A Practical Guide, Second Edition 3


    By Juan Kattán-Ibarra and Christopher J. Pountain 4


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    Modern Spanish Grammar Workbook, Second Edition 6


    By Juan Kattán-Ibarra and Irene Wilkie 7


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    Colloquial Spanish 9


    By Untza Otaola Alday 30111


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    Colloquial Spanish 2 2


    By Untza Otaola Alday 3


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    4 Spanish


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    An Essential Grammar


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    12111


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    5 Peter T. Bradley and


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    7 Ian Mackenzie


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    1011


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    First published 2004 12111


    by Routledge


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    11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE


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    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada


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    by Routledge


    29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 6


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    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group


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    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2004.


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    © 2004 Peter T. Bradley and Ian Mackenzie


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    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced 1


    or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means,


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    now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording,


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    or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in


    writing from the publishers. 4


    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data 5


    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library 6


    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 7


    Bradley, Peter T., 1943– 8


    Spanish: an essential grammar/Peter T. Bradley and Ian Mackenzie.


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    p. cm. – (Routledge Essential grammars)


    Includes index. 30111


    1. Spanish language–Grammar. I. Mackenzie, I.E., 1965– II. Title. 1


    III. Series: Essential grammar.


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    PC4112.B63 2004


    468.2′421–dc22 2003020645 3


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    ISBN 0-203-49729-5 Master e-book ISBN 5


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    ISBN 0-203-57133-9 (Adobe eReader Format)


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    ISBN 0–415–28642–5 (hbk)


    ISBN 0–415–28643–3 (pbk) 9


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    41111 1111


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    Contents


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    12111 Preface xiii


    3 Acknowledgement xv


    4 Symbols xvi


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    6 Chapter 1 The alphabet, pronunciation, stress,


    7 spelling and punctuation 1


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    1.1 The alphabet 1


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    1.2 Pronunciation 2


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    1.3 Stress and written accents 6


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    1.4 Spelling – capital letters 9


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    1.5 Punctuation 11


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    Chapter 2 Nouns 13


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    6 2.1 Plural forms of nouns 13


    7 2.2 Gender 18


    8 2.3 Collective nouns and agreement 26


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    Chapter 3 Definite and indefinite articles 27


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    3.1 Forms of the articles 27


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    3.2 The definite article 29


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    3.3 The indefinite article 36


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    3.4 The neuter article lo 40


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    6 Chapter 4 Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns 43


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    4.1 Demonstrative adjectives 43


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    4.2 Masculine and feminine demonstrative pronouns 45


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    4.3 Neuter demonstrative pronouns 46


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    41111 v Chapter 5 Possessive adjectives 47 1111


    Contents


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    5.1 Possessive adjectives before the noun 47


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    5.2 Possessive adjectives after the noun 48


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    5.3 Definite and neuter articles with possessives 49


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    5.4 Avoidance of ambiguity with su/sus and suyo/a/os/as 49


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    5.5 Parts of the body and personal effects 50


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    5.6 Possessive adjectives with adverbs and prepositions 50


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    Chapter 6 Adjectives 52 9


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    6.1 Gender 52


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    6.2 Singular and plural of adjectives 55


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    6.3 Shortening of adjectives 56


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    6.4 Position of adjectives 57


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    6.5 Translating English ‘un-’ + adjective 61


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    6.6 Verb + adjective sequences 62


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    Chapter 7 Adverbs 63 7


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    7.1 Adverbs ending in -mente 63


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    7.2 Adverbs not ending in -mente 65


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    7.3 Adverbial phrases 68


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    7.4 Adjectives used as adverbs 69


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    Chapter 8 Personal pronouns 70


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    8.1 Subject pronouns 72 5


    8.2 Direct and indirect object pronouns 74 6


    8.3 Prepositional object pronouns 77 7


    8.4 Reflexive pronouns 78 8


    8.5 The position and order of personal pronouns 80 9


    8.6 Use of le(s) in place of lo(s) and la(s) 82 30111


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    Chapter 9 Indefinite adjectives, pronouns and


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    adverbs 84


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    9.1 Algo 84 4


    9.2 Alguien 85 5


    9.3 Alguno 85 6


    9.4 Uno 86 7


    9.5 Mucho, poco 87 8


    9.6 Bastante, suficiente 88 9


    9.7 Varios 88 40


    vi 9.8 Demasiado 89 41111 1111 9.9 Todo 89


    Contents


    2 9.10 Cualquiera 92


    3 9.11 Ambos/as 93


    4 9.12 Cada 93


    5 9.13 Solo 94


    6 9.14 Demás 94


    7 9.15 Cierto 95


    8 9.16 Tal, semejante 95


    9 9.17 Otro 96


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    Chapter 10 Verb forms 97


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    12111 10.1 Present indicative and present subjunctive 98


    3 10.2 Imperative 112


    4 10.3 Imperfect tense 114


    5 10.4 Preterite tense 115


    6 10.5 Imperfect subjunctive 120


    7 10.6 Future and conditional tenses 121


    8 10.7 Future subjunctive 121


    9 10.8 Non-finite forms 122


    20111 10.9 Compound tenses 124


    1 10.10 Progressive or continuous tenses 126


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    3 Chapter 11 Uses of tenses 128


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    11.1 Simple tenses 128


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    11.2 Compound tenses 135


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    11.3 Progressive or continuous tenses 139


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    11.4 Expressions of time with hacer, desde and llevar 141


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    11.5 Verbs like gustar 143


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    30111 Chapter 12 The subjunctive mood 145


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    12.1 Subjunctive in subordinate queclauses 145


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    12.2 Subjunctive required by certain subordinating


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    conjunctions 153


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    12.3 Subjunctive in main clauses 157


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    12.4 The sequence of tenses – which subjunctive tense


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    to use 158


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    12.5 Additional uses of the -ra form of the imperfect


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    subjunctive 159


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    12.6 The future subjunctive 160


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    41111 vii Chapter 13 Conditional clauses 161 1111


    Contents


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    13.1 Use of the subjunctive after si 161


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    13.2 Indicative tenses after si 162


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    13.3 Conditional sentences without si 164


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    Chapter 14 Reflexive verbs 165 6


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    14.1 Formation of reflexive verbs 165


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    14.2 Reflexive verbs with a reflexive meaning 166


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    14.3 Reflexive verbs with a reciprocal meaning 166


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    14.4 Reflexive verbs with an indirect object pronoun 167


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    14.5 Se as an indefinite subject 168


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    14.6 Reflexive verbs ‘to get/have something done’ 168


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    14.7 Verbs reflexive in form but not in meaning 168


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    14.8 Transitive verbs used reflexively with intransitive


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    meaning 169


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    14.9 Verbs of becoming 171


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    14.10 Emphatic reflexive verbs 172


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    Chapter 15 Passive constructions 176 9


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    15.1 Serand estarwith the past participle 176


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    15.2 Alternatives to passive constructions 177


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    Chapter 16 Modal auxiliary verbs 182 3


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    16.1 Deber 182


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    16.2 Tener que 183


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    16.3 Haber 184


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    16.4 Querer 184


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    16.5 Poder 185


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    16.6 Saber 187


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    16.7 Soler 187


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    Chapter 17 Infinitive constructions 188 2


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    17.1 Finite verb + infinitive 188


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    17.2 Prepositions + infinitive 189


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    17.3 Infinitives in impersonal constructions 194


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    17.4 An infinitive as the subject of a verb 194


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    17.5 An infinitive with an explicit subject 195


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    17.6 The infinitive as a verbal noun 196


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    viii 41111 1111 Chapter 18 Uses of the gerund 197


    Contents


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    18.1 Basic use of the gerund 197


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    18.2 Gerund and main verb with different subjects 198


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    18.3 Gerund in place of a relative clause 198


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    18.4 Gerund with certain verbs 199


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    18.5 Cases where the gerund is not used 200


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    8 Chapter 19 Commands 202


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    19.1 Forms of the imperative 202


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    19.2 Commands which use the present subjunctive 205


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    19.3 Alternative ways of expressing commands 207


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    3 Chapter 20 Ser and estar 209


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    20.1 Situations which demand ser 209


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    20.2 Situations which demand estar 211


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    20.3 Ser and estar with adjectives 211


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    20.4 Ser and estar with past participles 214


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    20.5 Special uses of estar 214


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    20111 Chapter 21 Prepositions 215


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    21.1 A 215


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    21.2 Antes de, ante, delante de 220


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    21.3 Bajo, debajo de 220


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    21.4 Con 221


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    21.5 Contra, en contra de 222


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    21.6 De 222


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    21.7 Dentro de, fuera de 224


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    21.8 Desde 225


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    21.9 Detrás de, tras 225


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    21.10 En, encima de, sobre 226


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    21.11 Enfrente de, frente a 228


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    21.12 Entre 229


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    21.13 Hacia, hasta 229


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    21.14 Según 230


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    21.15 Sin 231


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    21.16 Combinations of prepositions 231


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    21.17 Cuando and donde used as prepositions 232


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    41111 ix


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