Solid Waste Management and Recycling

318 Pages · 2004 · 1.83 MB · English

  • Solid Waste Management and Recycling

    Solid Waste Management and Recycling The GeoJournal Library

    Volume 76

    Managing Editor: Max Barlow, Concordia University,

    Montreal, Canada

    Founding Series Editor:

    Wolf Tietze, Helmstedt, Germany

    Editorial Board: Paul Claval, France

    Yehuda Gradus, Israel

    Risto Laulajainen, Sweden

    Sam Ock Park, South Korea

    Herman van der Wusten, The Netherlands

    The titles published in this series are listed at the end of this volume. Solid Waste Management

    and Recycling

    Actors, Partnerships and Policies in

    Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya

    edited by


    University of Amsterdam,

    The Netherlands


    University of Amsterdam,

    The Netherlands



    York University,

    Toronto, Canada



    Print ISBN: 1-4020-1975-0

    ©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers

    NewYork, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow

    Print ©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers


    All rights reserved

    No part of this eBook maybe reproducedortransmitted inanyform or byanymeans,electronic,

    mechanical, recording, or otherwise,withoutwritten consent from the Publisher

    Createdin the United States of America

    Visit Kluwer Online at: http://kluweronline.com

    and Kluwer's eBookstoreat: http://ebooks.kluweronline.com TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Foreword and acknowledgements vii

    Chapter 1

    Markets, partnerships and sustainable development in solid waste management;

    raisingthequestions 1

    Isa Baud

    Part I

    Collection, transportation and disposal of urban solid waste

    Chapter 2

    Evolving partnerships in the collection ofurban solid waste in the developing

    world 21

    Johan Post

    Chapter 3

    Collection, transportation and disposal of urban solid waste in Hyderabad 37

    S. Galab, S. Sudhakar Reddy and Johan Post

    Chapter 4

    Collection, transportation anddisposalof urban solid waste in Nairobi 61

    Moses M. Ikiara, Anne M. Karanja and Theo C. Davies

    Chapter 5

    Trial and error in privatisation; the case of Hyderabad’s solid waste

    management 93

    Jaap Broekema

    Part II

    Reuse, recovery and recycling of urban inorganic solid waste

    Chapter 6

    Reuse, recovery and recycling of urban inorganic solid waste; modalities,

    commodity chains and sustainable development 115


    Chapter 7

    Reuse, recovery and recycling ofurban inorganic solid waste in Hyderabad 133

    S.Galab, S. Sudhakar Reddy and Isa Baud

    Chapter 8

    Reuse, recovery and recycling ofurbaninorganic solid waste in Nairobi 161

    Anne M. Karanja, Moses M. Ikiara and Theo C. Davies

    Part III: Reuse of urban organic solid waste

    Chapter 9

    Urban organic solid waste: reusepractices and issues for solid waste

    managementindevelopingcountries 197

    Christine Furedy

    Chapter 10

    Urban organic solid waste: practicesinHyderabad 213

    S. Galab, S. Sudhakar Reddy and Isa Baud

    Chapter 11

    Demand for compost from urbanorganicsolid wastes in Hyderabad 229

    Christine Furedy and Raakhee Kulkarni

    Chapter 12

    Urban organic solid waste: practices in Nairobi 241

    Theo C. Davies, Moses M. Ikiara, Anne M. Karanja and Christine Furedy

    Part IV: Conclusions

    Chapter 13

    Government, market and community in urban solid waste management;

    problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development 259

    Johan Post and Isa Baud

    Methodological appendix 283


    The project on which this book is based, results from the interest within the group of

    staff and junior researchers at the University of Amsterdam on how urban environ-

    mental management could be made more sustainable. Earlier studies in India and Peru

    had given us knowledge on how widespread small enterprises recycling waste mate-

    rials for profit and people picking waste were in many cities in the South. It also led

    to a realisation of how important the contribution of such activities was to reducing

    waste flows, despite the fact that such activities occurred in semi-illegal contexts and

    received no recognition from governments or middle-class residents.

    The debate on how to combine ecological sustainability with socio-economic

    improvements in the lives of many urban citizens, led to the formulation of the project

    that lies behind this book. It aimed at improving our understanding of the factors that

    underlie the dynamics of the provision of a particular urban environmental service

    (solid waste management), and also at providing policymakers and city managers with

    ideas about how they can tackle the problems of improving the quality of the urban

    environment they are dealing with daily.

    This project could not have been carried out without the help of a great many people.

    Our grateful thanks goes first of all to the EU INCO-DC Programme, which provided

    a generous grant for the research project on Enabling Strategies for Urban Environ-

    mental Management in Mega-cities (ERBIC18CT970152). The Consortium formed

    for the project consisted of researchers from the Amsterdam Global Issues and Devel-

    opment Studies Institute (AGIDS), Department of Human Geography, University of

    Amsterdam as coordinator under my guidance, the International Institute of Environ-

    ment and Development (IIED) in London, under the guidance of Dr. D. Satterthwaite,

    the Centre for Economic and Social Studies in Hyderabad, India under guidance of Dr.

    S.Galab, and the School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya,

    under guidance of Prof. Dr. Th. Davies.

    The teams put together from each contributing institute consisted of dedicated

    researchers, from different disciplinary backgrounds who were willing to listen to

    each others’ language and start to identify a common language. Furthermore, the

    project could benefit from the synergy arising from joining expertise on various

    aspects of the solid waste sector. We had experts on the privatisation of solid waste

    collection, on the organisation of the recycling business, on the role of local commu-

    nities and their organisations in waste management, on the use of organic waste matter

    in (peri-)urban agriculture, and on the environmental hazards connected to waste. viii FOREWORDAND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    At IIED, Dr. David Satterthwaite and Dr. Cecilia Tacoli provided generous hospitality

    for two workshops and incisive comments on discussions and earlier versions of the

    manuscript, the latter contributing a background paper on rural-urban interactions.

    They also generously provided for the time contributed by Chris Furedy to the

    research project. The Centre for Economic and Social Studies, under the guidance of

    Dr. Mahendra Dev, provided for the time spent by Dr.S. Galab and Dr. S. Sudahkar

    Reddy on the field studies done inside and around Hyderabad with their teams, and

    their reports to the project team. The team in Kenya consisted of people from the

    School of Environmental Studies, Moi University and researchers already working

    with staff from AGIDS at the University of Amsterdam. Despite the changing compo-

    sition of the team, Prof. Theo Davies as coordinator and Anne Karanja and Dr. Moses

    Ikiara completed the fieldstudies with dedication, formed an integral part of the

    discussions at the workshops throughout the project, and contributed the chapters

    found here.

    Several contributions were also made by others to the project: Dr. M. Put contributed

    an interesting commissioned paper on the use of different types of organic manure –

    including urban solid waste – by farmers in areas around Hyderabad, India, broad-

    ening our understanding of the ways in which urban-rural links develop and wane.

    Anne Karanja wrote a working paper on the informal recycling sector in Nairobi, on

    the basis of her fieldwork studies for her Ph.D., which illustrated the differences in

    depth and complexity of the Kenyan and Indian situations. Erwin Koster of the

    University of Amsterdam carried out a field study on urban farmers in Nairobi,

    complementary to the work in India, in order to improve our understanding of the

    ways in which farmers use organic manure and waste materials in their farming strat-

    egies. Finally, Dr. Johan Berkhout carried out a transect study in Nairobi, pinpointing

    geographically areas of activities in SWM within the urban system, laid down in a

    CD-Rom. R. Dhanalakshmi checked recent elements concerning community-based

    initiatives in Hyderabad for finalization of the manuscript.

    Editing the final manuscript is a process in itself, and I would like to thank my

    co-editors for the generous amounts of time they made available to bring the manu-

    script to completion. Particularly, I would like to thank Dr. Johan Post, who provided

    the main liaison with the publisher and the layout-editor Anne van der Zwalmen

    during this process. Finally, the assistance of the University of Amsterdam project

    bureau was invaluable in guiding me through the maze of administrative and financial

    reporting throughout the project period. Particular thanks goes to Harry van Kesteren,

    who remained unruffled throughout and coordinated with his financial counterparts

    from the other contributing institutions, and the desk officers from the European

    Union, who provided backstopping for this project.

    Isa Baud

    Project Coordinator

    July 2003 ISA BAUD





    The global economic crisis in the 1970s led to significant transformations in interna-

    tional and national institutional arrangements. Major actors on the international stage

    – countries such as the US and the UK, transnational corporations and the Bretton

    Woods institutions – strongly advocated the primacy of the market and the retreat of

    the state. Such neo-liberal ideas on market liberalisation and deregulation were

    imposed on many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America under the aegis of struc-

    tural adjustment programmes. One area governments in the South were strongly

    advised to withdraw from was that of direct provision of basic services.

    However, the results of these reform programmes were less successful than expected.

    Although state governments reduced spending and economic growth occurred after an

    initial period in some countries, the late 1980s were characterised by increasing

    disparities between rich and poor. Within many southern states, urban poverty and

    informalisation of employment and economic activities grew rapidly, presenting huge

    problems for local authorities to deal with. In many cities, new forms of collective

    organisation started to emerge among poor households together with a variety of

    non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in order to counter poverty and promote

    community and neighbourhood development.

    In the 1990s, the limits of the free market approach were increasingly recognized by

    even its most fervent advocates. Furthermore, the collapse of state communism and

    the fall of the Berlin Wall had created an entirely new political climate, one favourable

    to the democratic reform of state bureaucracies. The difficulties that many countries

    in the south, but also in the former communist world, experienced in their transition

    to a market economy also fuelled an interest in the (democratic) institutions that

    underpin processes of development. Economists have expressed this interest by

    looking at the role of meso-level institutions and how they influence economic


    growth .


    I. Baud et al. (eds.), Solid Waste Management and Recycling, 1-18.

    © 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

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