Solid Waste Management and Recycling

Solid Waste Management and Recycling

Solid Waste Management and Recycling

318 Pages ·2004·1.83 MB ·English

Solid Waste Management and Recycling

Solid Waste Management and Recycling The GeoJournal Library


Volume 76


Managing Editor: Max Barlow, Concordia University,


Montreal, Canada


Founding Series Editor:


Wolf Tietze, Helmstedt, Germany


Editorial Board: Paul Claval, France


Yehuda Gradus, Israel


Risto Laulajainen, Sweden


Sam Ock Park, South Korea


Herman van der Wusten, The Netherlands


The titles published in this series are listed at the end of this volume. Solid Waste Management


and Recycling


Actors, Partnerships and Policies in


Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya


edited by


ISA BAUD


University of Amsterdam,


The Netherlands


JOHAN POST


University of Amsterdam,


The Netherlands


and


CHRISTINE FUREDY


York University,


Toronto, Canada


KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS


NEW YORK,BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW eBookISBN: 1-4020-2529-7


Print ISBN: 1-4020-1975-0


©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers


NewYork, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow


Print ©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers


Dordrecht


All rights reserved


No part of this eBook maybe reproducedortransmitted inanyform or byanymeans,electronic,


mechanical, recording, or otherwise,withoutwritten consent from the Publisher


Createdin the United States of America


Visit Kluwer Online at: http://kluweronline.com


and Kluwer's eBookstoreat: http://ebooks.kluweronline.com TABLE OF CONTENTS


Foreword and acknowledgements vii


Chapter 1


Markets, partnerships and sustainable development in solid waste management;


raisingthequestions 1


Isa Baud


Part I


Collection, transportation and disposal of urban solid waste


Chapter 2


Evolving partnerships in the collection ofurban solid waste in the developing


world 21


Johan Post


Chapter 3


Collection, transportation and disposal of urban solid waste in Hyderabad 37


S. Galab, S. Sudhakar Reddy and Johan Post


Chapter 4


Collection, transportation anddisposalof urban solid waste in Nairobi 61


Moses M. Ikiara, Anne M. Karanja and Theo C. Davies


Chapter 5


Trial and error in privatisation; the case of Hyderabad’s solid waste


management 93


Jaap Broekema


Part II


Reuse, recovery and recycling of urban inorganic solid waste


Chapter 6


Reuse, recovery and recycling of urban inorganic solid waste; modalities,


commodity chains and sustainable development 115


Isa Baud vi TABLEOFCONTENTS


Chapter 7


Reuse, recovery and recycling ofurban inorganic solid waste in Hyderabad 133


S.Galab, S. Sudhakar Reddy and Isa Baud


Chapter 8


Reuse, recovery and recycling ofurbaninorganic solid waste in Nairobi 161


Anne M. Karanja, Moses M. Ikiara and Theo C. Davies


Part III: Reuse of urban organic solid waste


Chapter 9


Urban organic solid waste: reusepractices and issues for solid waste


managementindevelopingcountries 197


Christine Furedy


Chapter 10


Urban organic solid waste: practicesinHyderabad 213


S. Galab, S. Sudhakar Reddy and Isa Baud


Chapter 11


Demand for compost from urbanorganicsolid wastes in Hyderabad 229


Christine Furedy and Raakhee Kulkarni


Chapter 12


Urban organic solid waste: practices in Nairobi 241


Theo C. Davies, Moses M. Ikiara, Anne M. Karanja and Christine Furedy


Part IV: Conclusions


Chapter 13


Government, market and community in urban solid waste management;


problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development 259


Johan Post and Isa Baud


Methodological appendix 283


Bibliography 289 FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The project on which this book is based, results from the interest within the group of


staff and junior researchers at the University of Amsterdam on how urban environ-


mental management could be made more sustainable. Earlier studies in India and Peru


had given us knowledge on how widespread small enterprises recycling waste mate-


rials for profit and people picking waste were in many cities in the South. It also led


to a realisation of how important the contribution of such activities was to reducing


waste flows, despite the fact that such activities occurred in semi-illegal contexts and


received no recognition from governments or middle-class residents.


The debate on how to combine ecological sustainability with socio-economic


improvements in the lives of many urban citizens, led to the formulation of the project


that lies behind this book. It aimed at improving our understanding of the factors that


underlie the dynamics of the provision of a particular urban environmental service


(solid waste management), and also at providing policymakers and city managers with


ideas about how they can tackle the problems of improving the quality of the urban


environment they are dealing with daily.


This project could not have been carried out without the help of a great many people.


Our grateful thanks goes first of all to the EU INCO-DC Programme, which provided


a generous grant for the research project on Enabling Strategies for Urban Environ-


mental Management in Mega-cities (ERBIC18CT970152). The Consortium formed


for the project consisted of researchers from the Amsterdam Global Issues and Devel-


opment Studies Institute (AGIDS), Department of Human Geography, University of


Amsterdam as coordinator under my guidance, the International Institute of Environ-


ment and Development (IIED) in London, under the guidance of Dr. D. Satterthwaite,


the Centre for Economic and Social Studies in Hyderabad, India under guidance of Dr.


S.Galab, and the School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya,


under guidance of Prof. Dr. Th. Davies.


The teams put together from each contributing institute consisted of dedicated


researchers, from different disciplinary backgrounds who were willing to listen to


each others’ language and start to identify a common language. Furthermore, the


project could benefit from the synergy arising from joining expertise on various


aspects of the solid waste sector. We had experts on the privatisation of solid waste


collection, on the organisation of the recycling business, on the role of local commu-


nities and their organisations in waste management, on the use of organic waste matter


in (peri-)urban agriculture, and on the environmental hazards connected to waste. viii FOREWORDAND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


At IIED, Dr. David Satterthwaite and Dr. Cecilia Tacoli provided generous hospitality


for two workshops and incisive comments on discussions and earlier versions of the


manuscript, the latter contributing a background paper on rural-urban interactions.


They also generously provided for the time contributed by Chris Furedy to the


research project. The Centre for Economic and Social Studies, under the guidance of


Dr. Mahendra Dev, provided for the time spent by Dr.S. Galab and Dr. S. Sudahkar


Reddy on the field studies done inside and around Hyderabad with their teams, and


their reports to the project team. The team in Kenya consisted of people from the


School of Environmental Studies, Moi University and researchers already working


with staff from AGIDS at the University of Amsterdam. Despite the changing compo-


sition of the team, Prof. Theo Davies as coordinator and Anne Karanja and Dr. Moses


Ikiara completed the fieldstudies with dedication, formed an integral part of the


discussions at the workshops throughout the project, and contributed the chapters


found here.


Several contributions were also made by others to the project: Dr. M. Put contributed


an interesting commissioned paper on the use of different types of organic manure –


including urban solid waste – by farmers in areas around Hyderabad, India, broad-


ening our understanding of the ways in which urban-rural links develop and wane.


Anne Karanja wrote a working paper on the informal recycling sector in Nairobi, on


the basis of her fieldwork studies for her Ph.D., which illustrated the differences in


depth and complexity of the Kenyan and Indian situations. Erwin Koster of the


University of Amsterdam carried out a field study on urban farmers in Nairobi,


complementary to the work in India, in order to improve our understanding of the


ways in which farmers use organic manure and waste materials in their farming strat-


egies. Finally, Dr. Johan Berkhout carried out a transect study in Nairobi, pinpointing


geographically areas of activities in SWM within the urban system, laid down in a


CD-Rom. R. Dhanalakshmi checked recent elements concerning community-based


initiatives in Hyderabad for finalization of the manuscript.


Editing the final manuscript is a process in itself, and I would like to thank my


co-editors for the generous amounts of time they made available to bring the manu-


script to completion. Particularly, I would like to thank Dr. Johan Post, who provided


the main liaison with the publisher and the layout-editor Anne van der Zwalmen


during this process. Finally, the assistance of the University of Amsterdam project


bureau was invaluable in guiding me through the maze of administrative and financial


reporting throughout the project period. Particular thanks goes to Harry van Kesteren,


who remained unruffled throughout and coordinated with his financial counterparts


from the other contributing institutions, and the desk officers from the European


Union, who provided backstopping for this project.


Isa Baud


Project Coordinator


July 2003 ISA BAUD


CHAPTER 1


MARKETS, PARTNERSHIPS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT; RAISING THE QUESTIONS


1.1. INTRODUCTION


The global economic crisis in the 1970s led to significant transformations in interna-


tional and national institutional arrangements. Major actors on the international stage


– countries such as the US and the UK, transnational corporations and the Bretton


Woods institutions – strongly advocated the primacy of the market and the retreat of


the state. Such neo-liberal ideas on market liberalisation and deregulation were


imposed on many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America under the aegis of struc-


tural adjustment programmes. One area governments in the South were strongly


advised to withdraw from was that of direct provision of basic services.


However, the results of these reform programmes were less successful than expected.


Although state governments reduced spending and economic growth occurred after an


initial period in some countries, the late 1980s were characterised by increasing


disparities between rich and poor. Within many southern states, urban poverty and


informalisation of employment and economic activities grew rapidly, presenting huge


problems for local authorities to deal with. In many cities, new forms of collective


organisation started to emerge among poor households together with a variety of


non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in order to counter poverty and promote


community and neighbourhood development.


In the 1990s, the limits of the free market approach were increasingly recognized by


even its most fervent advocates. Furthermore, the collapse of state communism and


the fall of the Berlin Wall had created an entirely new political climate, one favourable


to the democratic reform of state bureaucracies. The difficulties that many countries


in the south, but also in the former communist world, experienced in their transition


to a market economy also fuelled an interest in the (democratic) institutions that


underpin processes of development. Economists have expressed this interest by


looking at the role of meso-level institutions and how they influence economic


1


growth .


1


I. Baud et al. (eds.), Solid Waste Management and Recycling, 1-18.


© 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.


Solid Waste Management and Recycling The GeoJournal Library


Volume 76


Managing Editor: Max Barlow, Concordia University,


Montreal, Canada


Founding Series Editor:


Wolf Tietze, Helmstedt, Germany


Editorial Board: Paul Claval, France


Yehuda Gradus, Israel


Risto Laulajainen, Sweden


Sam Ock Park, South Korea


Herman van der Wusten, The Netherlands


The titles published in this series are listed at the end of this volume. Solid Waste Management


and Recycling


Actors, Partnerships and Policies in


Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya


edited by


ISA BAUD


University of Amsterdam,


The Netherlands


JOHAN POST


University of Amsterdam,


The Netherlands


and


CHRISTINE FUREDY


York University,


Toronto, Canada


KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS


NEW YORK,BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW eBookISBN: 1-4020-2529-7


Print ISBN: 1-4020-1975-0


©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers


NewYork, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow


Print ©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers


Dordrecht


All rights reserved


No part of this eBook maybe reproducedortransmitted inanyform or byanymeans,electronic,


mechanical, recording, or otherwise,withoutwritten consent from the Publisher


Createdin the United States of America


Visit Kluwer Online at: http://kluweronline.com


and Kluwer's eBookstoreat: http://ebooks.kluweronline.com TABLE OF CONTENTS


Foreword and acknowledgements vii


Chapter 1


Markets, partnerships and sustainable development in solid waste management;


raisingthequestions 1


Isa Baud


Part I


Collection, transportation and disposal of urban solid waste


Chapter 2


Evolving partnerships in the collection ofurban solid waste in the developing


world 21


Johan Post


Chapter 3


Collection, transportation and disposal of urban solid waste in Hyderabad 37


S. Galab, S. Sudhakar Reddy and Johan Post


Chapter 4


Collection, transportation anddisposalof urban solid waste in Nairobi 61


Moses M. Ikiara, Anne M. Karanja and Theo C. Davies


Chapter 5


Trial and error in privatisation; the case of Hyderabad’s solid waste


management 93


Jaap Broekema


Part II


Reuse, recovery and recycling of urban inorganic solid waste


Chapter 6


Reuse, recovery and recycling of urban inorganic solid waste; modalities,


commodity chains and sustainable development 115


Isa Baud vi TABLEOFCONTENTS


Chapter 7


Reuse, recovery and recycling ofurban inorganic solid waste in Hyderabad 133


S.Galab, S. Sudhakar Reddy and Isa Baud


Chapter 8


Reuse, recovery and recycling ofurbaninorganic solid waste in Nairobi 161


Anne M. Karanja, Moses M. Ikiara and Theo C. Davies


Part III: Reuse of urban organic solid waste


Chapter 9


Urban organic solid waste: reusepractices and issues for solid waste


managementindevelopingcountries 197


Christine Furedy


Chapter 10


Urban organic solid waste: practicesinHyderabad 213


S. Galab, S. Sudhakar Reddy and Isa Baud


Chapter 11


Demand for compost from urbanorganicsolid wastes in Hyderabad 229


Christine Furedy and Raakhee Kulkarni


Chapter 12


Urban organic solid waste: practices in Nairobi 241


Theo C. Davies, Moses M. Ikiara, Anne M. Karanja and Christine Furedy


Part IV: Conclusions


Chapter 13


Government, market and community in urban solid waste management;


problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development 259


Johan Post and Isa Baud


Methodological appendix 283


Bibliography 289 FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The project on which this book is based, results from the interest within the group of


staff and junior researchers at the University of Amsterdam on how urban environ-


mental management could be made more sustainable. Earlier studies in India and Peru


had given us knowledge on how widespread small enterprises recycling waste mate-


rials for profit and people picking waste were in many cities in the South. It also led


to a realisation of how important the contribution of such activities was to reducing


waste flows, despite the fact that such activities occurred in semi-illegal contexts and


received no recognition from governments or middle-class residents.


The debate on how to combine ecological sustainability with socio-economic


improvements in the lives of many urban citizens, led to the formulation of the project


that lies behind this book. It aimed at improving our understanding of the factors that


underlie the dynamics of the provision of a particular urban environmental service


(solid waste management), and also at providing policymakers and city managers with


ideas about how they can tackle the problems of improving the quality of the urban


environment they are dealing with daily.


This project could not have been carried out without the help of a great many people.


Our grateful thanks goes first of all to the EU INCO-DC Programme, which provided


a generous grant for the research project on Enabling Strategies for Urban Environ-


mental Management in Mega-cities (ERBIC18CT970152). The Consortium formed


for the project consisted of researchers from the Amsterdam Global Issues and Devel-


opment Studies Institute (AGIDS), Department of Human Geography, University of


Amsterdam as coordinator under my guidance, the International Institute of Environ-


ment and Development (IIED) in London, under the guidance of Dr. D. Satterthwaite,


the Centre for Economic and Social Studies in Hyderabad, India under guidance of Dr.


S.Galab, and the School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya,


under guidance of Prof. Dr. Th. Davies.


The teams put together from each contributing institute consisted of dedicated


researchers, from different disciplinary backgrounds who were willing to listen to


each others’ language and start to identify a common language. Furthermore, the


project could benefit from the synergy arising from joining expertise on various


aspects of the solid waste sector. We had experts on the privatisation of solid waste


collection, on the organisation of the recycling business, on the role of local commu-


nities and their organisations in waste management, on the use of organic waste matter


in (peri-)urban agriculture, and on the environmental hazards connected to waste. viii FOREWORDAND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


At IIED, Dr. David Satterthwaite and Dr. Cecilia Tacoli provided generous hospitality


for two workshops and incisive comments on discussions and earlier versions of the


manuscript, the latter contributing a background paper on rural-urban interactions.


They also generously provided for the time contributed by Chris Furedy to the


research project. The Centre for Economic and Social Studies, under the guidance of


Dr. Mahendra Dev, provided for the time spent by Dr.S. Galab and Dr. S. Sudahkar


Reddy on the field studies done inside and around Hyderabad with their teams, and


their reports to the project team. The team in Kenya consisted of people from the


School of Environmental Studies, Moi University and researchers already working


with staff from AGIDS at the University of Amsterdam. Despite the changing compo-


sition of the team, Prof. Theo Davies as coordinator and Anne Karanja and Dr. Moses


Ikiara completed the fieldstudies with dedication, formed an integral part of the


discussions at the workshops throughout the project, and contributed the chapters


found here.


Several contributions were also made by others to the project: Dr. M. Put contributed


an interesting commissioned paper on the use of different types of organic manure –


including urban solid waste – by farmers in areas around Hyderabad, India, broad-


ening our understanding of the ways in which urban-rural links develop and wane.


Anne Karanja wrote a working paper on the informal recycling sector in Nairobi, on


the basis of her fieldwork studies for her Ph.D., which illustrated the differences in


depth and complexity of the Kenyan and Indian situations. Erwin Koster of the


University of Amsterdam carried out a field study on urban farmers in Nairobi,


complementary to the work in India, in order to improve our understanding of the


ways in which farmers use organic manure and waste materials in their farming strat-


egies. Finally, Dr. Johan Berkhout carried out a transect study in Nairobi, pinpointing


geographically areas of activities in SWM within the urban system, laid down in a


CD-Rom. R. Dhanalakshmi checked recent elements concerning community-based


initiatives in Hyderabad for finalization of the manuscript.


Editing the final manuscript is a process in itself, and I would like to thank my


co-editors for the generous amounts of time they made available to bring the manu-


script to completion. Particularly, I would like to thank Dr. Johan Post, who provided


the main liaison with the publisher and the layout-editor Anne van der Zwalmen


during this process. Finally, the assistance of the University of Amsterdam project


bureau was invaluable in guiding me through the maze of administrative and financial


reporting throughout the project period. Particular thanks goes to Harry van Kesteren,


who remained unruffled throughout and coordinated with his financial counterparts


from the other contributing institutions, and the desk officers from the European


Union, who provided backstopping for this project.


Isa Baud


Project Coordinator


July 2003 ISA BAUD


CHAPTER 1


MARKETS, PARTNERSHIPS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT; RAISING THE QUESTIONS


1.1. INTRODUCTION


The global economic crisis in the 1970s led to significant transformations in interna-


tional and national institutional arrangements. Major actors on the international stage


– countries such as the US and the UK, transnational corporations and the Bretton


Woods institutions – strongly advocated the primacy of the market and the retreat of


the state. Such neo-liberal ideas on market liberalisation and deregulation were


imposed on many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America under the aegis of struc-


tural adjustment programmes. One area governments in the South were strongly


advised to withdraw from was that of direct provision of basic services.


However, the results of these reform programmes were less successful than expected.


Although state governments reduced spending and economic growth occurred after an


initial period in some countries, the late 1980s were characterised by increasing


disparities between rich and poor. Within many southern states, urban poverty and


informalisation of employment and economic activities grew rapidly, presenting huge


problems for local authorities to deal with. In many cities, new forms of collective


organisation started to emerge among poor households together with a variety of


non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in order to counter poverty and promote


community and neighbourhood development.


In the 1990s, the limits of the free market approach were increasingly recognized by


even its most fervent advocates. Furthermore, the collapse of state communism and


the fall of the Berlin Wall had created an entirely new political climate, one favourable


to the democratic reform of state bureaucracies. The difficulties that many countries


in the south, but also in the former communist world, experienced in their transition


to a market economy also fuelled an interest in the (democratic) institutions that


underpin processes of development. Economists have expressed this interest by


looking at the role of meso-level institutions and how they influence economic


1


growth .


1


I. Baud et al. (eds.), Solid Waste Management and Recycling, 1-18.


© 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.


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