2

Sociology

258 Pages · 2000 · 2.04 MB · English

  • Sociology

    8615-7 FM.F 6/23/00 9:56 AM Page i


    CLIFFSQuICKREVIEWTM


    Sociology


    By George D. Zgourides,Psy. D.,and


    ChristieS.Zgourides,M.A.


    IDG Books Worldwide,Inc.


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    from International Data Group, Inc. CONTENTS


    CHAPTER 1:THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE . . . .1


    Sociological Imagination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


    Sociology and Common Sense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


    The Founders of Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


    Auguste Comte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


    Herbert Spencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


    Karl Marx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


    Emile Durkheim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


    Max Weber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


    Sociology in America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


    Jane Addams and Hull House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


    Both an applied and a basic science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


    Three Major Perspectives in Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8


    The symbolic interactionist perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


    The functionalist perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


    The conflict perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


    Other Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


    The cross-species perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


    The cross-cultural perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


    The statistical perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


    The historical perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


    The religious perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


    The feminist perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


    An Integrated Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16


    CHAPTER 2:SOCIOLOGICAL


    RESEARCH METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17


    Scientific Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


    Basic Concepts in Social Science Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


    Research Designs and Methods in Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


    Case study research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


    Survey research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


    Observational research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


    Correlational research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


    Experimental research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22


    SOCIOLOGY


    iii CONTENTS


    Cross-cultural research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


    Research with existing data,or secondary analysis . . . . . . 23


    Research Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


    Evaluating Sociological Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


    CHAPTER 3:CULTURE AND SOCIETIES . . . . . . . . . . . .27


    A Biological or Social Basis for Human Culture? . . . . . . . . . 28


    Material and Non-Material Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


    Symbols and Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30


    Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31


    Norms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32


    Cultural Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


    Subcultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


    Countercultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34


    Assimilation and multiculturalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34


    Ethnocentrism and cultural relativism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34


    Toward a Global Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


    Types of Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36


    Hunting and gathering societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36


    Pastoral societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


    Horticultural societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


    Agricultural societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


    Feudal societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38


    Industrial societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39


    Postindustrial societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40


    CHAPTER 4:SOCIALIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41


    “Unsocialized”Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


    Piaget’s Model of Cognitive Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42


    Cognitive Development in Infancy,


    Toddlerhood,and Early Childhood (0–6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44


    Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood (7–11) . . . . . . 45


    Cognitive Development in Adolescence (12+) . . . . . . . . . . . . 46


    Social and Personality Development in Infancy


    and Toddlerhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46


    Family relationships in infancy and toddlerhood . . . . . . . . 49


    CLIFFSQUICKREVIEW


    iv CONTENTS


    Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49


    Parenting in infancy and toddlerhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50


    Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood . . . . 51


    Parenting in early childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52


    Siblings in early childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53


    Friends and playmates in early childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53


    Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood . . 54


    Self-concept in middle childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


    Social cognition in middle childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


    Family relationships in middle childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55


    Friends and playmates in middle childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


    Social and Personality Development in Adolescence . . . . . . . 57


    CHAPTER 5:SOCIAL GROUPS


    AND ORGANIZATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59


    Social Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59


    In-groups,out-groups,and reference groups . . . . . . . . . . . 59


    Primary and secondary groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


    Small groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


    Leadership and conformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62


    Social Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63


    Organizational Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64


    Bureaucratic organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65


    Collectivist organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66


    The Realities of Bureaucracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66


    Pros of bureaucracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66


    Cons of bureaucracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67


    CHAPTER 6:DEVIANCE,CRIME,


    AND SOCIAL CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69


    Theories of Deviance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69


    Differential-association theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70


    Anomie theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70


    Control theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71


    Labeling theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72


    SOCIOLOGY


    v CONTENTS


    Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73


    Limitations of criminal statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74


    Types of crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74


    Crimes against People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75


    Murder or homicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75


    Rape and personal assault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76


    Child abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78


    Sexual harassment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80


    Crimes against Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81


    Computer crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


    Victimless crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


    Organized crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83


    Formal Social Control of Deviance:


    The Criminal Justice System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84


    CHAPTER 7:SOCIAL AND GLOBAL


    STRATIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87


    The Basis of Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87


    Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87


    Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88


    Prestige . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89


    Types of Social Classes of People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90


    The lower class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90


    The working class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91


    The middle class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91


    The upper class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91


    Social Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92


    Patterns of social mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93


    Structural mobility and individual mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . 93


    Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94


    Causes of poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94


    The effects of poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95


    Feminist perspective on poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97


    CLIFFSQUICKREVIEW


    vi CONTENTS


    CHAPTER 8:RACE AND ETHNICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99


    Minorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100


    Prejudice and Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101


    The sources of prejudice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101


    Solutions to prejudice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103


    Ethnic and Racial Minorities in the United States . . . . . . . . 105


    Native Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105


    African Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106


    The Civil Rights Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107


    Affirmative action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108


    Blacks today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109


    Hispanic Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109


    Mexican Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


    Puerto Ricans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


    Cubans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111


    Asian Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111


    CHAPTER 9:SEX AND GENDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113


    Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113


    Gender Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114


    Biological influences on gender identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114


    Psychological and social influences


    on gender identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115


    Gender Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116


    Gender Stereotypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117


    Social Stratification and Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118


    Sexism in Higher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119


    Sexism in the Workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120


    Sexism in Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122


    Gender and Homosexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123


    Prevalence of Homosexuality and Bisexuality . . . . . . . . . . . 124


    Social Stratification and Homosexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125


    SOCIOLOGY


    vii CONTENTS


    CHAPTER 10:ECONOMICS AND POLITICS . . . . . . . .127


    Historical Overview of Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127


    Predominant Economic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


    Capitalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


    Socialism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130


    Democratic socialism and state capitalism . . . . . . . . . . . . 131


    Modern Corporations and Multinationals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131


    Labor Unions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133


    Politics and the Major Forms of Political Structure . . . . . . . 134


    Totalitarianism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134


    Authoritarianism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135


    Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135


    Politics in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136


    The two-party system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137


    Lobbyists and Political Action Committees (PACs) . . . . . 138


    The Pluralist and Power-Elite Models of politics . . . . . . . 139


    CHAPTER 11:EDUCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141


    The Development and Function of Universal Education . . . 141


    Horace Mann and tax-supported education . . . . . . . . . . . 142


    The rise of the credential society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142


    Theories of Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144


    The functionalist theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144


    The conflict theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146


    The symbolic interactionist theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148


    Reform of Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149


    The Global Perspective on Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150


    Current Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151


    Discipline and security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151


    Race,ethnicity,and equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152


    Mainstreaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154


    Public versus private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154


    CLIFFSQUICKREVIEW


    viii


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