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Social Studies/History & Geography

216 Pages · 2013 · 3.65 MB · French

  • Social Studies/History & Geography

    REVISED


    2 0 1 3


    The Ontario Curriculum


    Social Studies


    Grades 1 to 6


    History and Geography


    Grades 7 and 8 The Ontario Public Service endeavours to demonstrate leadership with respect to accessibility


    in Ontario. Our goal is to ensure that Ontario government services, products, and facilities are


    accessible to all our employees and to all members of the public we serve. This document, or


    the information that it contains, is available, on request, in alternative formats. Please forward


    all requests for alternative formats to ServiceOntario at 1-800-668-9938 (TTY: 1-800-268-7095). CONTENTS


    PREFACE 3


    Elementary Schools for the Twenty-First Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


    Supporting Students’ Well-Being and Ability to Learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


    INTRODUCTION 6


    The Vision and Goals of the Social Studies, History, and Geography Curriculum . . . . . . . 6


    The Importance of Social Studies, History, and Geography in the Curriculum . . . . . . . . . 9


    Citizenship Education Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


    Social Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


    History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


    Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12


    Concepts Underlying the Social Studies, History, and Geography Curriculum . . . . . . . . 12


    Roles and Responsibilities in Social Studies, History, and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


    THE PROGRAM IN SOCIAL STUDIES, HISTORY, AND GEOGRAPHY 18


    Curriculum Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


    The Strands in the Social Studies, History, and Geography Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


    The Inquiry Process in Social Studies, History, and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22


    Spatial Skills: Using Maps, Globes, and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24


    ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT 26


    Basic Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26


    The Achievement Chart for Social Studies, History, and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


    SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN SOCIAL STUDIES,


    HISTORY, AND GEOGRAPHY 34


    Instructional Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34


    Cross-Curricular and Integrated Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


    Planning Social Studies, History, and Geography Programs for Students


    with Special Education Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


    Program Considerations for English Language Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40


    Environmental Education in Social Studies, History, and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43


    Healthy Relationships and Social Studies, History, and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44


    Une publication équivalente est disponible en français sous le titre


    suivant : Le curriculum de l’Ontario – Études sociales, de la 1re à la


    6e année – Histoire et géographie, 7e et 8e année, 2013.


    This publication is available on the Ministry of Education website,


    at www.ontario.ca/edu. Equity and Inclusive Education in Social Studies, History, and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . 45


    Financial Literacy in Social Studies, History, and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46


    Literacy, Mathematical Literacy, and Inquiry in Social Studies, History,


    and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48


    Critical Thinking and Critical Literacy in Social Studies, History, and Geography . . . . . . 50


    The Role of the School Library in Social Studies, History, and Geography Programs . . . 52


    The Role of Information and Communications Technology in Social Studies,


    History, and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53


    Education and Career/Life Planning through the Social Studies, History,


    and Geography Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


    Health and Safety in Social Studies, History, and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55


    SOCIAL STUDIES, GRADES 1 TO 6 57


    The Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58


    The Concepts of Social Studies Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58


    The Social Studies Inquiry Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


    Grade 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63


    Grade 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73


    Grade 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83


    Grade 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95


    Grade 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105


    Grade 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117


    HISTORY, GRADES 7 AND 8 129


    The Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130


    The Concepts of Historical Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130


    The Historical Inquiry Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132


    History, Grade 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135


    History, Grade 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145


    GEOGRAPHY, GRADES 7 AND 8 157


    The Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158


    The Concepts of Geographic Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158


    The Geographic Inquiry Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160


    Geography, Grade 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163


    Geography, Grade 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175


    APPENDICES


    A . The Goals of the Additional Subjects in Canadian and World Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187


    B . The Citizenship Education Framework (table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189


    C . Map, Globe, and Graphing Skills – A Continuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191


    GLOSSARY 199


    2 PREFACE


    This document replaces The Ontario Curriculum: Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6; History and


    Geography, Grades 7 and 8, 2004. Beginning in September 2014 all social studies, history,


    and geography programs for Grades 1 to 8 will be based on the expectations outlined in


    this document.


    ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY


    Ontario elementary schools strive to support high-quality learning while giving every


    student the opportunity to learn in the way that is best suited to his or her individual


    strengths and needs. The Ontario curriculum is designed to help every student reach


    his or her full potential through a program of learning that is coherent, relevant, and


    age appropriate. It recognizes that, today and in the future, students need to be critically


    literate in order to synthesize information, make informed decisions, communicate


    effectively, and thrive in an ever-changing global community. It is important that students


    be connected to the curriculum, that they see themselves in what is taught, how it is taught,


    and how it applies to the world at large. The curriculum recognizes that the needs of


    learners are diverse and helps all learners develop the knowledge, skills, and perspectives


    they need to become informed, productive, caring, responsible, and active citizens in


    their own communities and in the world.


    SUPPORTING STUDENTS’ WELL-BEING AND ABILITY TO LEARN


    Promoting the healthy development of all students, as well as enabling all students to


    reach their full potential, is a priority for educators across Ontario. Students’ health and


    well-being contribute to their ability to learn in all disciplines, including social studies,


    history, and geography, and that learning in turn contributes to their overall well-being.


    Educators play an important role in promoting children and youth’s well-being by


    creating, fostering, and sustaining a learning environment that is healthy, caring, safe,


    inclusive, and accepting. A learning environment of this kind will support not only


    students’ cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development but also their mental


    health, their resilience, and their overall state of well-being. All this will help them


    achieve their full potential in school and in life.


    A variety of factors, known as the “determinants of health”, have been shown to affect


    a person’s overall state of well-being. Some of these are income, education and literacy,


    gender and culture, physical and social environment, personal health practices and coping


    skills, and availability of health services. Together, such factors influence not only whether


    a person is physically healthy but also the extent to which he or she will have the physical,


    social, and personal resources needed to cope and to identify and achieve personal


    3 aspirations. These factors also have an impact on student learning, and it is important


    to be aware of them as factors contributing to a student’s performance.


    An educator’s awareness of and responsiveness to students’ cognitive, emotional, social,


    and physical development is critical to their success in school. A number of research-


    based frameworks, including those described in Early Learning for Every Child Today:


    A Framework for Ontario Early Childhood Settings (2007) and Stepping Stones: A Resource


    on Youth Development (2012),1 identify developmental stages that are common to the


    majority of students from Kindergarten to Grade 12. At the same time, these frameworks


    recognize that individual differences, as well as differences in life experiences and exposure


    to opportunities, can affect development, and that developmental events are not specifically


    age-dependent.


    The framework described in Stepping Stones is based on a model that illustrates the


    complexity of human development. Its components – the cognitive, emotional, physical,


    and social domains – are interrelated and interdependent, and all are subject to the


    influence of a person’s environment or context. At the centre is an “enduring (yet changing)


    core” – a sense of self, or spirit – that connects the different aspects of development and


    experience (p. 17).


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    a Source: Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development, p. 17.


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    Hi Educators who have an awareness of a student’s development take each component into


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    o account, with an understanding of and focus on the following elements:


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    NT 1. Best Start Expert Panel on Early Learning, Early Learning for Every Child Today: A Framework for Ontario Early


    O Childhood Settings (2007) is available at http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/earlychildhood/


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    H early_learning_for_every_child_today.aspx, and Government of Ontario, Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth


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    Development (2012), is available at http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/


    youthopportunities/steppingstones/youth_policy.aspx.


    44 The Role of Mental Health


    Mental health touches all components of development. Mental health is much more


    than the absence of mental illness. Well-being is influenced not only by the absence of


    problems and risks but by the presence of factors that contribute to healthy growth and


    development. By nurturing and supporting students’ strengths and assets, educators


    help promote positive mental health in the classroom. At the same time, they can identify


    students who need additional support and connect them with the appropriate services.2


    What happens at school can have a significant influence on a student’s well-being. With


    a broader awareness of mental health, educators can plan instructional strategies that


    contribute to a supportive classroom climate for learning in all subject areas, build


    awareness of mental health, and reduce stigma associated with mental illness. Taking


    students’ well-being, including their mental health, into account when planning


    instructional approaches helps establish a strong foundation for learning.


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    2. The Ministry of Education is making materials available to Ontario schools and school boards to support C


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    educators in this regard.


    5 INTRODUCTION


    THE VISION AND GOALS OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES, HISTORY,


    AND GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM


    The Grade 1 to 8 social studies, history, and geography curriculum shares a common


    vision with the Grade 9 to 12 Canadian and world studies curriculum. That vision and


    the goals of the elementary and secondary program are as follows:


    Vision and Goals for Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6; History and Geography, Grades 7 and 8; and


    Canadian and World Studies, Grades 9 to 12


    Vision


    The social studies, history, geography, and Canadian and world studies programs will enable students


    to become responsible, active citizens within the diverse communities to which they belong . As well as


    becoming critically thoughtful and informed citizens who value an inclusive society, students will have


    the skills they need to solve problems and communicate ideas and decisions about significant developments,


    events, and issues .


    Goals


    In social studies, history, and geography, and all the subjects in Canadian and world studies, students


    realize the vision for the program as they:


    • develop the ability to use the “concepts of disciplinary thinking” to investigate issues, events, and


    developments;


    • develop the ability to determine and apply appropriate criteria to evaluate information and evidence


    and to make judgements;


    • develop skills and personal attributes that are needed for discipline-specific inquiry and that can be


    transferred to other areas in life;


    • build collaborative and cooperative working relationships;


    • use appropriate technology as a tool to help them gather and analyse information, solve problems,


    and communicate .


    The chart on the next page outlines how students will achieve the goals in the individual


    subjects of this elementary curriculum – social studies, history, and geography3 – and


    how these subjects will prepare them to realize the vision of the program.


    3. The goals for history and geography in the secondary Canadian and world studies curriculum are the


    same as those for history and geography in the elementary curriculum. The goals for the other subjects in


    Canadian and world studies can be found in Appendix A on page 187.


    6 Goals of Social Studies – Goals of History – Goals of Geography –


    Developing a sense of who I am, Developing a sense of time Developing a sense of place


    and who we are


    Who are we? Who came before us? What is where, why there, and


    Where have I come from? What How have we changed? why care?


    makes me belong? Where are we


    now? How can I contribute to society?


    Students will work towards: Students will work towards: Students will work towards:


    • developing an understanding • developing an understanding • developing an understanding


    of responsible citizenship; of past societies, developm ents, of the characteristics and


    • developing an understanding and events that enables them spatial diversity of natural and


    of the diversity within local, to interpret and analyse human environments and


    national, and global communi- historical, as well as current, communities, on a local to


    ties, both past and present; issues; a global scale;


    • developing an understanding • analysing how people from • analysing the connections


    of interrelationships within diverse groups have interacted within and between natural


    and between the natural and how they have changed and human environments


    environment and human over time; and communities;


    communities; • understanding the experiences • developing spatial skills


    • developing the knowledge, of and empathizing with through the use of spatial


    understanding, and skills that people in past societies; technologies and the


    lay the foundation for future • developing historical literacy interpretation, analysis, and


    studies in geography, history, skills by analysing and construction of various types


    economics, law, and politics; interpreting evidence from of maps, globes, and graphs;


    • developing the personal primary and secondary sources . • being responsible stewards of


    attributes that foster curiosity the Earth by developing an


    and the skills that enable them appreciation and respect for


    to investigate developments, both natural and human


    events, and issues . environments and communities .


    Tools and Strategies to Help Achieve the Vision of the Program


    The following tools and strategies have been incorporated into the curriculum as a


    necessary part of the learning to help students achieve the vision for learning in social


    studies, history, and geography in the elementary curriculum.


    • The citizenship education framework (see page 10): This framework brings


    together the main elements of citizenship education. The grade and subject


    overviews in the social studies, history, and geography curriculum highlight


    connections to specific topics and terms in the framework to enhance opportunities


    for citizenship education.


    • The concepts of disciplinary thinking (see page 12): These concepts provide a


    way for students to develop the ability to think critically about significant events,


    developments, and issues, both within the curriculum and in their lives outside


    the classroom.


    • The inquiry process (see page 22): Students use the components of the inquiry


    process to investigate, and to communicate their findings about, significant events,


    developments, and issues. By applying the inquiry process, students develop


    skills that they need in order to think critically, solve problems, make informed IN


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    judgements, and communicate ideas. O


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    7 • Big ideas (see page 14): The big ideas provide context for the overall expectations


    and the concepts of disciplinary thinking that are related to them. The big ideas


    reflect the enduring understandings that students retain from their learning,


    transfer to other subjects, and draw upon throughout their lives.


    • Framing questions (see the overview charts for each grade/subject): The framing


    questions are overarching questions related to the overall expectations and big


    ideas. They are intended to stimulate students’ critical thinking and to encourage


    them to consider the broader relevance of what they are studying.


    • Spatial skills (see page 24): Students use spatial skills and tools to analyse and


    construct various types of maps and graphs. By developing these skills, students


    will be able to understand and analyse visual data and information, contributing


    to their ability to solve problems.


    The figure below illustrates the interrelationship between these tools and strategies and


    the achievement of expectations in the social studies, history, and geography curriculum.


    Connecting the Pieces


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