Scarcity and surfeit : the ecology of Africa's conflicts - Disasters and

Scarcity and surfeit : the ecology of Africa's conflicts - Disasters and

Scarcity and surfeit : the ecology of Africa's conflicts - Disasters and

398 Pages ·2004·6.92 MB ·English

Scarcity and surfeit : the ecology of Africa's conflicts - Disasters and

Scarcity and Surfeit


The ecology of Africa's conflicts


EDITED BY


Jeremy Lind and Kathryn Sturman


African Centre for Technology Studies


and


Institute for Security Studies


Funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation,


the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)


and the Governments of Sweden and Switzerland Published by the lnstitute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2002


Block C, 301 Brooklyn Court, Bronkhorst Street, New Muckleneuk, Pretoria


First published in 2002 by the Institute for Security Studies


All rights reserved by the publisher.


Cover photographs: Upper front cover picture copyright: FotoStock SA.


Lower front cover picture copyright: SA History Online


Maps: Department of Public Information, Cartographic Section, United Nations


Cover design: A1 Graphics/Andre Snyders


Language editing: Denise Fourie and Kathryn Sturman


Copyright in this volume and its individual chapters is vested in the Institute for Security Studies


and the African Centre for Technology Studies. No chapter may be reproduced in whole or in


part without the express permission, in writing, of the publisher. it should be noted that any


opinions expressed are the responsibility of the individual authors and not the ISS nor ACTS.


The publisher cannot be held legally accountable for facts and opinions expressed in this


volume.


ISBN: 1-919913-18-1 Preface  vi


Disclaimer  viii


ix


Contributors


1.  Contemporary Conflict Analysis in Perspective  1


1060 Gomes Porto


Introduction


Developing Theories of Conflict Analysis


'Greed versus Grievance': Tautological Debate or


Two Sides of the Same Coin?


The Multi-Level Nature and Dynamic Life Cycles of Armed


Conflicts: Towards an Analytical Framework


Ecological Sources of Conflict


2.  Land Scarcity, Distribution and Conflict in Rwanda


Jean Bigaga~C~ar olyne Abong and Cede Mukarubuga


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Key Factors


Key Actors


Conflict Management Strategies


Overview of the Environment


Land as a Source of Conflict


Conclusion


3.  Conflict and Coffee in Burundi


Johnstone Summit Oketch and Tam POker


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Pre-colonial Burundi


Colonial Rule


Post-independence


Key Factors in the Conflict


Conflict Resolution


Overview of the Environment


Land use: Blighted History and Natural (Mis)fortunes


Conclusion 4.  Coltan exploitation in the Eastern Democratic


Republic of Congo


Celine Moyroud and John Katunga


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Key Factors in the Conflict


Other Causes of Conflict


Peace Initiatives


Overview of the Environment


Coltan Exploitation in the Eastern DRC


Conclusion


5.  Oil and Water in Sudan


Paul Goldsmith, Lydia A Abura and Jason Switzer


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Overview of the environment


Case Study 1: The Jonglei Canal


Case Study 2: Nuer-Dinka Violence


Case Study 3: Private Sector Participation in Oil Production


in Sudan


Conclusion


6.  Spilling Blood over Water? The Case of Ethiopia


Fiona Flintan and lmeru Tamrat


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Underlying Causes of Conflict


Overview of the Environment


Agriculture


Climate and Water Resources


Management of Water Resources


Case Study 1: The Awash River Basin


Case Study 2: The Nile Basin


Conclusion 7.  Deegaan, Politics and War in Somalia


Ibrahim Farah, Abdirashid Hussein and Jeremy Lind


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Peace and Reconciliation Initiatives


Overview of the Environment


Deegaan and Conflict in Jubbaland


Conclusion


8.  Conclusion - Where to from Here?


Richard Cornwall


Bibliography This book is a product of international and regional co-operation. Many


scholars, government officials, non-governmental agencies and programme


officers from various donor agencies have contributed to its conception and


development. It forms part of the growing efforts of the African Centre for


Technology Studies (ACTS) and the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) to


explore and promote understanding of the complex dimensions and causes of


political conflicts in Africa.


ACTS is an international inter-governmental policy research and training


organization located in Nairobi, Kenya. The Centre's activities focus on the


implementation of Agenda 21 and related conventions on biological diversity,


climate change and desertification.


The ISS is a regional applied policy research institute with offices in Pretoria


and Cape Town with a mission to conceptualise, inform and enhance the secu-


rity debate in Africa. The Institute undertakes research and analysis; supports


policy formulation; awareness-raising; collecting, interpreting and disseminat-


ing information on national, regional and international levels; and capacity-


building.


The publishers would like to thank Jeremy Lind and Raymond Kitevu for


taking the overall lead in this study, the country study researchers for their tire-


less efforts in gathering information and Adronico Aduogo Adede for compiling


and editing the reports. We would also like to recognize the invaluable inputs


of several staff members at the ACTS, particularly John Mugabe, the former


Executive Director, Patricia Kameri-Mbote, the Director for Policy Research and


Outreach, and Elvin Nyukuri who patiently worked on this project as an assis-


tant to the researchers.


At the ISS we would like to thank senior researchers Richard Cornwell and


Jo2o Gomes Porto of  the African Security Analysis Programme. Kathryn


Sturman, senior researcher at the Institute, was responsible for the editing of


the various chapters into a single coherent volume. Thanks also to ISS pub-


lications manager Andre Snyders and librarian Mmaditshipi Seageng.


Different chapters contained in this volume were first discussed as a draft at


a Consultative Session and Regional Conference on 'the Ecological Sources of


Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa' in March 2002. We thank all those who partic-


ipated in that conference for their very useful intellectual contributions. Their


ideas have been "guide posts" in the long process of editing this volume.


Given the fluidity of events in the Great Lakes and Greater Horn regions,


it is important to note that most of the work for this book was completed in


2001, although it has been updated where appropriate. vii


Finally, we would like to thank the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur


Foundation, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)


and the Governments of Sweden and Switzerland for providing the financial


resources for the project. We acknowledge both intellectual and adminisua-


tive support from Walter Knausenberger and Ned Greeley and many others at


USAID, who participated in this project in one way or the other.


It should be recognized that the contents of this book are wholly attributa-


ble to the authors and do not in any way represent the views of the individu-


als and institutions acknowledged.


Judi Wakhungnu and Jakkie Cilliers


ACTS and ISS


Nairobi and Pretoria


August 2002 viii


The production of this hook was sponsored by the John D. and Catherine T.


Mac-Arthur  Foundation,  the  United  States  Agency  for  International


[Development's  Regional  Economic  Development  and  Services  Office


(USAID/REDSO, Nairobi, Kenya)] and the Governments of  Sweden and


Switzerland. However, the contents are wholly attributable to the authors.


No part of the content reflects the opinions of the donors or any institution


related to ACTS or the ISS. Contributors


Abdirashid Hussein is a consultant with the World Food Programme (WFP)


in Somalia.


Carolyne Abong is currently working with the standing committee for human


rights in Kenya. At the time of undertaking this research she was a research


fellow at the Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR) in Kenya.


Cecile Mukarubuga is a regional representative, Great Lakes Agency for


Cooperation and Development (ACORD).


Celine Moymud works as a member of the Conflict Prevention Network of


the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Poiitik (SWP).


F~OMF lintan is the center manager at the International Famine Centre (IFC)


in Ireland.


Ibrahim Farah is an officer on the Somalia desk with the United States


Embassy in Nairobi. At the time of undertaking this research he was a poiit-


ical assistant/PhD student at the University of Nairobi in Kenya.


Imeru Tarnrat is a food rights campaign coordinator at Action Aid, Ethiopia.


Jakkie Cilliem is the Executive Director of the Institute for Security Studies


(ISS), South Africa.


Jason Switzer is a project manager, environment and environment policy at


International Institute for Sustainable Development (ISSD) in Geneva.


Jean Bigagazo is a lecturer, Environmental Technologies at Kigali Institute of


Science Technology and Management (KIST), Rwanda.


Jeremy Lind is a PhD student. At the time of undertaking this research he


was a research fellow at the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS),


Kenya.


J&  Gomes Porto is a senior researcher within the African Security Analysis


Program, Institute for Security Studies (ISS), South Africa.


John Katunga is a programmes coordinator with the Nairobi Peace Initiative


(NPI).


Johnstone Summit Oketch is a consultant/researcher with United Nations


Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN/OCHA) in Nairobi.


Judy  Wakhungu is the Executive Director  of  the African  Centre  for


Technology Studies (ACTS), Kenya.


Scarcity and Surfeit


The ecology of Africa's conflicts


EDITED BY


Jeremy Lind and Kathryn Sturman


African Centre for Technology Studies


and


Institute for Security Studies


Funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation,


the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)


and the Governments of Sweden and Switzerland Published by the lnstitute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2002


Block C, 301 Brooklyn Court, Bronkhorst Street, New Muckleneuk, Pretoria


First published in 2002 by the Institute for Security Studies


All rights reserved by the publisher.


Cover photographs: Upper front cover picture copyright: FotoStock SA.


Lower front cover picture copyright: SA History Online


Maps: Department of Public Information, Cartographic Section, United Nations


Cover design: A1 Graphics/Andre Snyders


Language editing: Denise Fourie and Kathryn Sturman


Copyright in this volume and its individual chapters is vested in the Institute for Security Studies


and the African Centre for Technology Studies. No chapter may be reproduced in whole or in


part without the express permission, in writing, of the publisher. it should be noted that any


opinions expressed are the responsibility of the individual authors and not the ISS nor ACTS.


The publisher cannot be held legally accountable for facts and opinions expressed in this


volume.


ISBN: 1-919913-18-1 Preface  vi


Disclaimer  viii


ix


Contributors


1.  Contemporary Conflict Analysis in Perspective  1


1060 Gomes Porto


Introduction


Developing Theories of Conflict Analysis


'Greed versus Grievance': Tautological Debate or


Two Sides of the Same Coin?


The Multi-Level Nature and Dynamic Life Cycles of Armed


Conflicts: Towards an Analytical Framework


Ecological Sources of Conflict


2.  Land Scarcity, Distribution and Conflict in Rwanda


Jean Bigaga~C~ar olyne Abong and Cede Mukarubuga


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Key Factors


Key Actors


Conflict Management Strategies


Overview of the Environment


Land as a Source of Conflict


Conclusion


3.  Conflict and Coffee in Burundi


Johnstone Summit Oketch and Tam POker


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Pre-colonial Burundi


Colonial Rule


Post-independence


Key Factors in the Conflict


Conflict Resolution


Overview of the Environment


Land use: Blighted History and Natural (Mis)fortunes


Conclusion 4.  Coltan exploitation in the Eastern Democratic


Republic of Congo


Celine Moyroud and John Katunga


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Key Factors in the Conflict


Other Causes of Conflict


Peace Initiatives


Overview of the Environment


Coltan Exploitation in the Eastern DRC


Conclusion


5.  Oil and Water in Sudan


Paul Goldsmith, Lydia A Abura and Jason Switzer


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Overview of the environment


Case Study 1: The Jonglei Canal


Case Study 2: Nuer-Dinka Violence


Case Study 3: Private Sector Participation in Oil Production


in Sudan


Conclusion


6.  Spilling Blood over Water? The Case of Ethiopia


Fiona Flintan and lmeru Tamrat


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Underlying Causes of Conflict


Overview of the Environment


Agriculture


Climate and Water Resources


Management of Water Resources


Case Study 1: The Awash River Basin


Case Study 2: The Nile Basin


Conclusion 7.  Deegaan, Politics and War in Somalia


Ibrahim Farah, Abdirashid Hussein and Jeremy Lind


Introduction


Background to the Conflict


Peace and Reconciliation Initiatives


Overview of the Environment


Deegaan and Conflict in Jubbaland


Conclusion


8.  Conclusion - Where to from Here?


Richard Cornwall


Bibliography This book is a product of international and regional co-operation. Many


scholars, government officials, non-governmental agencies and programme


officers from various donor agencies have contributed to its conception and


development. It forms part of the growing efforts of the African Centre for


Technology Studies (ACTS) and the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) to


explore and promote understanding of the complex dimensions and causes of


political conflicts in Africa.


ACTS is an international inter-governmental policy research and training


organization located in Nairobi, Kenya. The Centre's activities focus on the


implementation of Agenda 21 and related conventions on biological diversity,


climate change and desertification.


The ISS is a regional applied policy research institute with offices in Pretoria


and Cape Town with a mission to conceptualise, inform and enhance the secu-


rity debate in Africa. The Institute undertakes research and analysis; supports


policy formulation; awareness-raising; collecting, interpreting and disseminat-


ing information on national, regional and international levels; and capacity-


building.


The publishers would like to thank Jeremy Lind and Raymond Kitevu for


taking the overall lead in this study, the country study researchers for their tire-


less efforts in gathering information and Adronico Aduogo Adede for compiling


and editing the reports. We would also like to recognize the invaluable inputs


of several staff members at the ACTS, particularly John Mugabe, the former


Executive Director, Patricia Kameri-Mbote, the Director for Policy Research and


Outreach, and Elvin Nyukuri who patiently worked on this project as an assis-


tant to the researchers.


At the ISS we would like to thank senior researchers Richard Cornwell and


Jo2o Gomes Porto of  the African Security Analysis Programme. Kathryn


Sturman, senior researcher at the Institute, was responsible for the editing of


the various chapters into a single coherent volume. Thanks also to ISS pub-


lications manager Andre Snyders and librarian Mmaditshipi Seageng.


Different chapters contained in this volume were first discussed as a draft at


a Consultative Session and Regional Conference on 'the Ecological Sources of


Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa' in March 2002. We thank all those who partic-


ipated in that conference for their very useful intellectual contributions. Their


ideas have been "guide posts" in the long process of editing this volume.


Given the fluidity of events in the Great Lakes and Greater Horn regions,


it is important to note that most of the work for this book was completed in


2001, although it has been updated where appropriate. vii


Finally, we would like to thank the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur


Foundation, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)


and the Governments of Sweden and Switzerland for providing the financial


resources for the project. We acknowledge both intellectual and adminisua-


tive support from Walter Knausenberger and Ned Greeley and many others at


USAID, who participated in this project in one way or the other.


It should be recognized that the contents of this book are wholly attributa-


ble to the authors and do not in any way represent the views of the individu-


als and institutions acknowledged.


Judi Wakhungnu and Jakkie Cilliers


ACTS and ISS


Nairobi and Pretoria


August 2002 viii


The production of this hook was sponsored by the John D. and Catherine T.


Mac-Arthur  Foundation,  the  United  States  Agency  for  International


[Development's  Regional  Economic  Development  and  Services  Office


(USAID/REDSO, Nairobi, Kenya)] and the Governments of  Sweden and


Switzerland. However, the contents are wholly attributable to the authors.


No part of the content reflects the opinions of the donors or any institution


related to ACTS or the ISS. Contributors


Abdirashid Hussein is a consultant with the World Food Programme (WFP)


in Somalia.


Carolyne Abong is currently working with the standing committee for human


rights in Kenya. At the time of undertaking this research she was a research


fellow at the Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR) in Kenya.


Cecile Mukarubuga is a regional representative, Great Lakes Agency for


Cooperation and Development (ACORD).


Celine Moymud works as a member of the Conflict Prevention Network of


the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Poiitik (SWP).


F~OMF lintan is the center manager at the International Famine Centre (IFC)


in Ireland.


Ibrahim Farah is an officer on the Somalia desk with the United States


Embassy in Nairobi. At the time of undertaking this research he was a poiit-


ical assistant/PhD student at the University of Nairobi in Kenya.


Imeru Tarnrat is a food rights campaign coordinator at Action Aid, Ethiopia.


Jakkie Cilliem is the Executive Director of the Institute for Security Studies


(ISS), South Africa.


Jason Switzer is a project manager, environment and environment policy at


International Institute for Sustainable Development (ISSD) in Geneva.


Jean Bigagazo is a lecturer, Environmental Technologies at Kigali Institute of


Science Technology and Management (KIST), Rwanda.


Jeremy Lind is a PhD student. At the time of undertaking this research he


was a research fellow at the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS),


Kenya.


J&  Gomes Porto is a senior researcher within the African Security Analysis


Program, Institute for Security Studies (ISS), South Africa.


John Katunga is a programmes coordinator with the Nairobi Peace Initiative


(NPI).


Johnstone Summit Oketch is a consultant/researcher with United Nations


Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN/OCHA) in Nairobi.


Judy  Wakhungu is the Executive Director  of  the African  Centre  for


Technology Studies (ACTS), Kenya.


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