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Scarcity and surfeit : the ecology of Africa's conflicts - Disasters and

398 Pages · 2004 · 6.92 MB · English

  • Scarcity and surfeit : the ecology of Africa's conflicts - Disasters and

    Scarcity and Surfeit


    The ecology of Africa's conflicts


    EDITED BY


    Jeremy Lind and Kathryn Sturman


    African Centre for Technology Studies


    and


    Institute for Security Studies


    Funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation,


    the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)


    and the Governments of Sweden and Switzerland Published by the lnstitute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2002


    Block C, 301 Brooklyn Court, Bronkhorst Street, New Muckleneuk, Pretoria


    First published in 2002 by the Institute for Security Studies


    All rights reserved by the publisher.


    Cover photographs: Upper front cover picture copyright: FotoStock SA.


    Lower front cover picture copyright: SA History Online


    Maps: Department of Public Information, Cartographic Section, United Nations


    Cover design: A1 Graphics/Andre Snyders


    Language editing: Denise Fourie and Kathryn Sturman


    Copyright in this volume and its individual chapters is vested in the Institute for Security Studies


    and the African Centre for Technology Studies. No chapter may be reproduced in whole or in


    part without the express permission, in writing, of the publisher. it should be noted that any


    opinions expressed are the responsibility of the individual authors and not the ISS nor ACTS.


    The publisher cannot be held legally accountable for facts and opinions expressed in this


    volume.


    ISBN: 1-919913-18-1 Preface  vi


    Disclaimer  viii


    ix


    Contributors


    1.  Contemporary Conflict Analysis in Perspective  1


    1060 Gomes Porto


    Introduction


    Developing Theories of Conflict Analysis


    'Greed versus Grievance': Tautological Debate or


    Two Sides of the Same Coin?


    The Multi-Level Nature and Dynamic Life Cycles of Armed


    Conflicts: Towards an Analytical Framework


    Ecological Sources of Conflict


    2.  Land Scarcity, Distribution and Conflict in Rwanda


    Jean Bigaga~C~ar olyne Abong and Cede Mukarubuga


    Introduction


    Background to the Conflict


    Key Factors


    Key Actors


    Conflict Management Strategies


    Overview of the Environment


    Land as a Source of Conflict


    Conclusion


    3.  Conflict and Coffee in Burundi


    Johnstone Summit Oketch and Tam POker


    Introduction


    Background to the Conflict


    Pre-colonial Burundi


    Colonial Rule


    Post-independence


    Key Factors in the Conflict


    Conflict Resolution


    Overview of the Environment


    Land use: Blighted History and Natural (Mis)fortunes


    Conclusion 4.  Coltan exploitation in the Eastern Democratic


    Republic of Congo


    Celine Moyroud and John Katunga


    Introduction


    Background to the Conflict


    Key Factors in the Conflict


    Other Causes of Conflict


    Peace Initiatives


    Overview of the Environment


    Coltan Exploitation in the Eastern DRC


    Conclusion


    5.  Oil and Water in Sudan


    Paul Goldsmith, Lydia A Abura and Jason Switzer


    Introduction


    Background to the Conflict


    Overview of the environment


    Case Study 1: The Jonglei Canal


    Case Study 2: Nuer-Dinka Violence


    Case Study 3: Private Sector Participation in Oil Production


    in Sudan


    Conclusion


    6.  Spilling Blood over Water? The Case of Ethiopia


    Fiona Flintan and lmeru Tamrat


    Introduction


    Background to the Conflict


    Underlying Causes of Conflict


    Overview of the Environment


    Agriculture


    Climate and Water Resources


    Management of Water Resources


    Case Study 1: The Awash River Basin


    Case Study 2: The Nile Basin


    Conclusion 7.  Deegaan, Politics and War in Somalia


    Ibrahim Farah, Abdirashid Hussein and Jeremy Lind


    Introduction


    Background to the Conflict


    Peace and Reconciliation Initiatives


    Overview of the Environment


    Deegaan and Conflict in Jubbaland


    Conclusion


    8.  Conclusion - Where to from Here?


    Richard Cornwall


    Bibliography This book is a product of international and regional co-operation. Many


    scholars, government officials, non-governmental agencies and programme


    officers from various donor agencies have contributed to its conception and


    development. It forms part of the growing efforts of the African Centre for


    Technology Studies (ACTS) and the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) to


    explore and promote understanding of the complex dimensions and causes of


    political conflicts in Africa.


    ACTS is an international inter-governmental policy research and training


    organization located in Nairobi, Kenya. The Centre's activities focus on the


    implementation of Agenda 21 and related conventions on biological diversity,


    climate change and desertification.


    The ISS is a regional applied policy research institute with offices in Pretoria


    and Cape Town with a mission to conceptualise, inform and enhance the secu-


    rity debate in Africa. The Institute undertakes research and analysis; supports


    policy formulation; awareness-raising; collecting, interpreting and disseminat-


    ing information on national, regional and international levels; and capacity-


    building.


    The publishers would like to thank Jeremy Lind and Raymond Kitevu for


    taking the overall lead in this study, the country study researchers for their tire-


    less efforts in gathering information and Adronico Aduogo Adede for compiling


    and editing the reports. We would also like to recognize the invaluable inputs


    of several staff members at the ACTS, particularly John Mugabe, the former


    Executive Director, Patricia Kameri-Mbote, the Director for Policy Research and


    Outreach, and Elvin Nyukuri who patiently worked on this project as an assis-


    tant to the researchers.


    At the ISS we would like to thank senior researchers Richard Cornwell and


    Jo2o Gomes Porto of  the African Security Analysis Programme. Kathryn


    Sturman, senior researcher at the Institute, was responsible for the editing of


    the various chapters into a single coherent volume. Thanks also to ISS pub-


    lications manager Andre Snyders and librarian Mmaditshipi Seageng.


    Different chapters contained in this volume were first discussed as a draft at


    a Consultative Session and Regional Conference on 'the Ecological Sources of


    Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa' in March 2002. We thank all those who partic-


    ipated in that conference for their very useful intellectual contributions. Their


    ideas have been "guide posts" in the long process of editing this volume.


    Given the fluidity of events in the Great Lakes and Greater Horn regions,


    it is important to note that most of the work for this book was completed in


    2001, although it has been updated where appropriate. vii


    Finally, we would like to thank the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur


    Foundation, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)


    and the Governments of Sweden and Switzerland for providing the financial


    resources for the project. We acknowledge both intellectual and adminisua-


    tive support from Walter Knausenberger and Ned Greeley and many others at


    USAID, who participated in this project in one way or the other.


    It should be recognized that the contents of this book are wholly attributa-


    ble to the authors and do not in any way represent the views of the individu-


    als and institutions acknowledged.


    Judi Wakhungnu and Jakkie Cilliers


    ACTS and ISS


    Nairobi and Pretoria


    August 2002 viii


    The production of this hook was sponsored by the John D. and Catherine T.


    Mac-Arthur  Foundation,  the  United  States  Agency  for  International


    [Development's  Regional  Economic  Development  and  Services  Office


    (USAID/REDSO, Nairobi, Kenya)] and the Governments of  Sweden and


    Switzerland. However, the contents are wholly attributable to the authors.


    No part of the content reflects the opinions of the donors or any institution


    related to ACTS or the ISS. Contributors


    Abdirashid Hussein is a consultant with the World Food Programme (WFP)


    in Somalia.


    Carolyne Abong is currently working with the standing committee for human


    rights in Kenya. At the time of undertaking this research she was a research


    fellow at the Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR) in Kenya.


    Cecile Mukarubuga is a regional representative, Great Lakes Agency for


    Cooperation and Development (ACORD).


    Celine Moymud works as a member of the Conflict Prevention Network of


    the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Poiitik (SWP).


    F~OMF lintan is the center manager at the International Famine Centre (IFC)


    in Ireland.


    Ibrahim Farah is an officer on the Somalia desk with the United States


    Embassy in Nairobi. At the time of undertaking this research he was a poiit-


    ical assistant/PhD student at the University of Nairobi in Kenya.


    Imeru Tarnrat is a food rights campaign coordinator at Action Aid, Ethiopia.


    Jakkie Cilliem is the Executive Director of the Institute for Security Studies


    (ISS), South Africa.


    Jason Switzer is a project manager, environment and environment policy at


    International Institute for Sustainable Development (ISSD) in Geneva.


    Jean Bigagazo is a lecturer, Environmental Technologies at Kigali Institute of


    Science Technology and Management (KIST), Rwanda.


    Jeremy Lind is a PhD student. At the time of undertaking this research he


    was a research fellow at the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS),


    Kenya.


    J&  Gomes Porto is a senior researcher within the African Security Analysis


    Program, Institute for Security Studies (ISS), South Africa.


    John Katunga is a programmes coordinator with the Nairobi Peace Initiative


    (NPI).


    Johnstone Summit Oketch is a consultant/researcher with United Nations


    Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN/OCHA) in Nairobi.


    Judy  Wakhungu is the Executive Director  of  the African  Centre  for


    Technology Studies (ACTS), Kenya.


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