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Research Methods in Clinical Psychology

304 Pages · 2006 · 2.91 MB · English

  • Research Methods in Clinical Psychology

    RESEARCH METHODS


    IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY


    An Introduction for Students and Practitioners


    Second Edition


    Chris Barker and Nancy Pistrang


    University College London, UK


    Robert Elliott


    University of Toledo, Ohio, USA


    JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD RESEARCH METHODS


    IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY


    Second Edition RESEARCH METHODS


    IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY


    An Introduction for Students and Practitioners


    Second Edition


    Chris Barker and Nancy Pistrang


    University College London, UK


    Robert Elliott


    University of Toledo, Ohio, USA


    JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD Copyright#2002JohnWiley&Sons,Ltd,


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    LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData


    Barker,Chris,1948–


    Researchmethodsinclinicalpsychology:anintroductionforstudentsandpractitioners


    /ChrisBarkerandNancyPistrangandRobertElliott.–2nded.


    p.cm.


    Firsted.publishedundertitle:Researchmethodsinclinicalandcounselling


    psychology.Chichester:Wiley,1994.


    Includesbiblographicalreferencesandindex.


    ISBN0-471-49087-3(cased)–ISBN0-471-49089-X(pbk.)


    1.Clinicalpsychology–Research–Methodology.2.


    Counselling–Research–Methodology.3.Psychotherapy–Research–Methodology.I.


    Pistrang,Nancy.II.Elliott,Robert,1950–III.Barker,Chris,1948–.Researchmethodsin


    clinicalandcounsellingpsychology.IV.Title.


    RC467.8.B372002


    616.89’0072–dc21 2002069167


    BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationData


    AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrary


    ISBN0-471-49087-3(hbk)


    ISBN0-471-49089-X(pbk)


    Typesetin10/12ptPalatinobyDobbieTypesettingLimited,Tavistock,Devon


    PrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyTJInternationalLtd,Padstow,Cornwall


    Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaperresponsiblymanufacturedfromsustainableforestry


    inwhichatleasttwotreesareplantedforeachoneusedforpaperproduction. TABLE OF CONTENTS


    ABOUT THE AUTHORS .............................................. x


    PREFACE ............................................................ xi


    PREFACE FROM THE FIRST EDITION .............................. xiii


    Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION: THE RESEARCH PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . 1


    The Research Process..................................... 4


    Chapter 2 PERSPECTIVES ON RESEARCH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


    Philosophical Issues........................................ 7


    What is Research? ....................................... 7


    What is Science?........................................ 13


    Social and Political Issues................................ 19


    Professional Issues........................................ 20


    The Intuitive Practitioner ................................ 20


    The Scientist-Practitioner ................................ 21


    The Applied Scientist ................................... 22


    The Local Clinical Scientist............................... 22


    The Evidence-based Practitioner.......................... 23


    The Clinical Scientist.................................... 24


    Comparison of Models .................................. 24


    Current Developments .................................. 25


    Personal Issues ........................................... 25


    Why do Clinical Psychologists do Research?............... 26


    Why don’t Clinical Psychologists do Research?............. 27


    Summary .............................................. 28


    Chapter Summary ........................................ 29


    Further Reading .......................................... 29


    Chapter 3 DOING THE GROUNDWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30


    Formulating the Research Questions ........................ 31


    Choosing the Topic ..................................... 32


    Developing the Questions................................ 32


    Hypothesis-testing versus Exploratory Research


    Questions ............................................ 33


    Some Types of Research Questions ....................... 35


    Literature Review....................................... 38


    The Proposal........................................... 40 vi CONTENTS


    Consultations........................................... 42


    Piloting................................................ 42


    Funding ............................................... 43


    The Politics of Research in Applied Settings ................. 44


    Access................................................. 44


    Responding to Doubts................................... 45


    Authorship............................................. 47


    Chapter Summary ........................................ 47


    Further Reading .......................................... 48


    Chapter 4 FOUNDATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT . . 49


    The Process of Measurement............................... 51


    Domains of Variables.................................... 51


    Measuring Psychological Constructs ...................... 51


    Measurement Sources and Approaches.................... 53


    Foundations of Quantitative Methods....................... 54


    Positivism.............................................. 55


    Psychometric Theory...................................... 57


    Definitions............................................. 58


    Reliability.............................................. 59


    Reliability Statistics ..................................... 62


    Validity................................................ 65


    Generalizability Theory.................................. 67


    Item Response Theory................................... 68


    Utility ................................................. 69


    Standards for Reliability and Validity ..................... 69


    Chapter Summary and Conclusions......................... 70


    Further Reading .......................................... 71


    Chapter 5 FOUNDATIONS OF QUALITATIVE METHODS . . . . . . . . 72


    Historical Background................................... 74


    Phenomenological Approaches ............................. 76


    Types of Phenomenological Research ..................... 78


    Social Constructionist Approaches.......................... 81


    Background to Social Constructionism .................... 82


    Types of Social Constructionist Research .................. 86


    Ways of Evaluating Qualitative Studies ..................... 89


    Conclusions.............................................. 91


    How do you choose between a Qualitative and a


    Quantitative Approach?................................. 91


    Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.......... 92


    Chapter Summary ........................................ 92


    Further Reading .......................................... 93


    Chapter 6 SELF-REPORT METHODS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94


    Mode of Administration................................. 97


    Open-ended and Closed-ended Questions ................. 98 vi CONTENTS


    Consultations........................................... 42


    Piloting................................................ 42


    Funding ............................................... 43


    The Politics of Research in Applied Settings ................. 44


    Access................................................. 44


    Responding to Doubts................................... 45


    Authorship............................................. 47


    Chapter Summary ........................................ 47


    Further Reading .......................................... 48


    Chapter 4 FOUNDATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT . . 49


    The Process of Measurement............................... 51


    Domains of Variables.................................... 51


    Measuring Psychological Constructs ...................... 51


    Measurement Sources and Approaches.................... 53


    Foundations of Quantitative Methods....................... 54


    Positivism.............................................. 55


    Psychometric Theory...................................... 57


    Definitions............................................. 58


    Reliability.............................................. 59


    Reliability Statistics ..................................... 62


    Validity................................................ 65


    Generalizability Theory.................................. 67


    Item Response Theory................................... 68


    Utility ................................................. 69


    Standards for Reliability and Validity ..................... 69


    Chapter Summary and Conclusions......................... 70


    Further Reading .......................................... 71


    Chapter 5 FOUNDATIONS OF QUALITATIVE METHODS . . . . . . . . 72


    Historical Background................................... 74


    Phenomenological Approaches ............................. 76


    Types of Phenomenological Research ..................... 78


    Social Constructionist Approaches.......................... 81


    Background to Social Constructionism .................... 82


    Types of Social Constructionist Research .................. 86


    Ways of Evaluating Qualitative Studies ..................... 89


    Conclusions.............................................. 91


    How do you choose between a Qualitative and a


    Quantitative Approach?................................. 91


    Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.......... 92


    Chapter Summary ........................................ 92


    Further Reading .......................................... 93


    Chapter 6 SELF-REPORT METHODS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94


    Mode of Administration................................. 97


    Open-ended and Closed-ended Questions ................. 98


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