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Rebuilding West Africa's Food Potential - Food and Agriculture

593 Pages · 2013 · 7.01 MB · English

  • Rebuilding West Africa's Food Potential - Food and Agriculture

    Rebuilding


    West Africa’s food potential:


    Policies and market incentives for


    smallholder-inclusive food value chains


    Edited by


    Aziz Elbehri




    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United nations and


    The International Fund for Agriculture Development


    Rome, 2013 The designations employed and the presentation of material in this


    information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever


    on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


    (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city


    or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or


    boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers,


    whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have


    been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar


    nature that are not mentioned.


    The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and


    do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO.


    ISBN 978-92-5-107530-2 (print)


    E-ISBN 978-92-5-107531-9 (PDF)


    © FAO 2013


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    Photo credits: FAO Mediabase III


    Table of Contents


    Foreword  V


    Editor’s note and acknowledgments  VII


    List of tables, figures and boxes  IX


    List of acronyms and abbreviations  XIX


    Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential: Synthesis and recommendations


    Aziz ELBEHRI  XXVII


    General introduction and book content


    Aziz ELBEHRI  XLVII


    PART 1: POLICIES, PRIVATE INITIATIVES AND ROLE OF PRODUCER ORGANISATIONS IN FOOD


    CHAIN STRATEGIES


    Chapter 1. West Africa food systems: An overview of trends and indicators


    of demand, supply, and trade 1


    Aziz ELBEHRI, Jonathan KAMINSKI, Suffyan KOROMA, Massimo IAFRATE, and Marwan BENALI


    Chapter 2. A historical comparative analysis of commodity development models


    in West Africa and implications for staple food value chains


    Aziz ELBEHRI and Marwan BENALI 43


    Chapter 3. Analytical review of national investment strategies and agricultural


    policies for the promotion of staple food value chains in West Africa


    Bio Goura SOULE  83


    Chapter 4. Review and analysis of national investment strategies


    for agricultural policies in Central Africa: The Case of Cameroon


    Valantine ACHANCHO 115


    Chapter 5. Impact of Mali’s food and agricultural policies: an assessment


    of public expenditure and incentives to production from 2005 to 2010


    Alban MAS APARISI, Jean BALIE, Fatoumata DIALLO, Joanna KOMOROWSKA and Naman KEITA 151


    Chapter 6. The role of the private sector and the engagement of smallholder farmers


    in food value chains: initiatives and successful cases from Nigeria, Senegal, and Ghana


    Ndidi NWUNELI, Arona DIAW, Festus KWADZOKPO, and Aziz ELBEHRI  187


    Chapter 7. GAIN methodology to enhance producer organizations’ capacity


    for market integration: Applications to West Africa


    Aziz ELBEHRI, Maria LEE, Carina HIRSCH, and Marwan BENALI 211 IV Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential


    PART II: FOOD VALUE CHAIN COUNTRY CASE STUDIES


    Chapter 8. Cocoa and cotton commodity chains in West Africa: Policy and


    institutional roles for smallholder market participation


    Philip ABBOTT 251


    Chapter 9. Constraints to smallholder participation in high-value agriculture


    in West Africa


    Johan SWINNEN, Liesbeth COLEN, and Miet MAERTENS 287


    Chapter 10. Comparative analysis of mango value chain models in Benin,


    Burkina Faso and Ghana


    Cathelijne VAN MELLE and Sönke BUSCHMANN 315


    Chapter 11. Oil palm industry growth in Africa: A value chain and smallholders’


    study for Ghana


    K. OFOSU-BUDU and Daniel SARPONG 349


    Chapter 12. Smallholder participation in value chains: The case of domestic


    rice in Senegal


    Liesbeth COLEN, Matty DEMONT and Johan SWINNEN 391


    Chapter 13. Rice in Mali: Enhancing competitiveness and promoting policies


    for inclusive value chain development


    Adam-Yeboua N’KRUMAH, Aziz ELBEHRI, and Bogui LEGRET  417


    Chapter 14. An analysis of maize value chain and competitiveness


    in Burkina Faso: Implications for smallholder-inclusive policies and initiatives


    Jonathan KAMINSKI, Aziz ELBEHRI and Jean-Baptiste ZOMA 451


    Chapter 15. An assessment of sorghum and millet in Mali and implications


    for competitive and inclusive value chains


    Jonathan KAMINSKI, Aziz ELBEHRI, and Michel SAMAKE 479


    Chapter 16. Enhancing cassava marketing and processing in Cameroon:


    Drivers, constraints, and prospects of the value chain


    Tolly Lolo EMMANUEL 503 Foreword V


    Foreword


    The price hike on international food markets in 2007-2008 was a turning point in world agriculture.


    Despite the surge in food prices, the expected supply response for most smallholder farmers, particularly


    in Africa, did not occur. The crisis triggered a broad consensus calling for substantial investments in


    agricultural and rural development to reduce both food insecurity and poverty affecting chiefly rural


    areas.  The price hike also confirmed the urgent necessity of making markets work for and inclusive of


    smallholder farmers.


    In West Africa, this episode triggered a stronger commitment to a food security policy geared toward


    improving the performance of the agricultural sector. There were renewed commitments to create the


    enabling environment for greater investment in staple food commodities, long neglected in favor of a


    few export commodities.  The episode also gave a new impetus to the CAADP (Comprehensive Africa


    Agriculture Development Programme) process which shaped  the national agricultural development


    strategies and the related investment programmes.


    The present book focusing on West Africa embodies a thorough analysis of past and present policies


    pertaining to food value chains without overlooking export commodities. It examines detailed value


    chain case studies conducted in several countries, covering both staple food commodities (rice, maize,


    sorghum, millet and cassava) and export crops (cocoa, cotton, oil palm, mangoes and horticultural


    products). It reviews public and private initiatives and includes thematic analyses on not only the private


    sector but also farmers’ organizations seen as market agents.


    This book aims to contribute to filling an existing gap in the literature on food value chains in West


    Africa. It identifies good practices in value chain development and provides policy guidance to


    agricultural and rural development stakeholders. It is intended to be a sourcebook  for decision makers,


    especially at a time when many countries in the region have embarked on implementing their national


    agricultural strategies derived from the CAADP process.


    The book recommends several priority areas for action. Key among these are: (a) Policy support to


    agriculture to achieve food security and poverty reduction must place greater emphasis on staple food


    crops and build stronger market incentives for smallholders’ inclusiveness, with particular focus on


    women’s access to inputs, credit, better organization and market/business capabilities; (b) Investment


    strategies aligned with CAADP must ensure greater policy coordination between public and private actors


    and enhance market opportunities, especially through domestic marketing and intra-regional trade; (c)


    Policy support should focus on developing market-based input delivery services, enhancing capacity for


    producers’ organizations to self-reliably access information, inputs, credit and forge credible business


    linkages with other value chain actors.


    David Hallam Ides de Willebois


    Director Director


    Trade and Markets Division West and Central Africa Division


    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations International Food and Agriculture Development Editor’s note and acknowledgements VII


    Editor’s note and acknowledgements


    This book addresses the central question of how to rebuild West Africa’s food potential in light of the


    heightened concern over food security in the region, especially in the aftermath of the food crisis of


    2007-2008. The book has a regional focus, namely the ECOWAS region (15 West African countries)


    plus Cameroun and Chad (part of the Central Africa region). Also the book places a particular focus


    on staple food value chains even though export commodities are also covered. The primary concern


    of the book was to identify and delineate the key features of a new development model suitable for


    competitive and smallholder-inclusive staple food value chains.


    Several studies reported in this book were carried out by FAO Trade and Markets (EST) Division as part


    of the All-ACP Program on Basic Commodities (2008-2011) funded by the European Commission.


    Other studies were commissioned by EST as part of the program of work on small holder market


    integration. Finally, additional studies were also made possible with funding from IFAD under a small


    grant agreement with FAO to co-sponsor workshops on the topic and to produce a consolidated


    publication (this book). Under the IFAD grant, two workshops were organized; the first workshop was


    held in Rome in November 2011 and focused on the conceptualisation of an appropriate model for


    staple food value chains. The second workshop, with a more policy focus was held in Accra, Ghana in


    July 2012 to which a large number of stakeholders from West Africa participated.


    Evidently, a large number of people have contributed to this book. Aside from the authors, whose


    names are listed under each chapter, several consultants from West Africa contributed indirectly as


    part of their participation in the All-ACP program through their assistance in organising and facilitating


    stakeholder workshops and roundtables. Special acknowledgements go to: Salif Foulani Sissoko,


    Ibrahima Coulibaly, and Fatoumatou Diallo Sireballa (Mali); Idrissa Wade, Abdoulaye Fall, and Papa


    Dieye (Senegal), Jean-Baptiste Zoma and Ouédraogo Salifou (Burkina Faso),  Martin Tseunkeu, Norbert


    Monkam and Christine Andela (Cameroun).


    Participants to the first FAO-IFAD workshop held in Rome (November 2011) also helped shape the


    argument for an appropriate model for staple food value chains, in particular: David Hallam, David


    Neven, Siobhan Kelly (FAO), Ides Willebois, Steven Schonberger (IFAD); Michael Morris, John Baffes


    (World Bank); Michael Weber (Michigan State University); Ethel del Pozo-Vergnes (IIED), Michel Benoit-


    Cattin (CIRAD), Tanguy Bernard (IFPRI), and Jonathan Coulter, UK.


    The second FAO-IFAD workshop, held in Accra, Ghana in July 2012, brought together a large number


    of Government officials, country CAADP focal points, private industry, producer organisations and


    academic. The rich deliberations at that workshop were incorporated into the book in various ways.


    This successful workshop benefitted from a close coordination between FAO-HQ, FAO-Ghana office


    and the IFAD regional office in Accra under the leadership of Han Ulaç Demirag.


    Bringing the various studies to fruition and shepherding through the book preparation process required


    dedication from a large team of professional and administrative staff at the Trade and Markets Division.


    Emily Carroll and Sugi Yoo ably provided the required administrative support during the All-ACP program


    phase (2008- 2011). Daniela Piergentili provided support for the organisation of the Rome workshop


    (November 2011); Patricia Arquero, Antonia Caggiani (FAO-HQ), and Henrietta Appiah (FAO-Ghana)


    provided the superb logistic support to the regional workshop in Accra, Ghana (July 2012); Patricia


    Taylor, Nadia Laouini and Rita Ashton (FAO-EST), Francesca DEmidio (FAO-TCSR), and Michelle Calcatelli


    (IFAD), ensured a smooth administrative support for the present book. Marwan Benali assisted with VIII Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential


    the organisation of the Rome and Accra workshops, and provided editorial assistance to several draft


    chapters.


    Since the book was prepared simultaneously in English and French, all chapters had to be translated to


    one or the other language. Special thanks go to Brett Shapiro for his high quality English style editing


    and to Eric Juillard for translating documents into French and for proof reading the French version of


    the book. Additional translations were carried out by Chantal Zanettin, Illia Rosenthal, while Fergus


    Mulligan performed a final proof read for the English manuscript. The formatting and design of the


    book was ably carried out by Ana Filipa Amaro Costa who demonstrated skill and patience shepherding


    through the simultaneous formatting of two large volumes.


    The final manuscript was reviewed by David Hallam, Director of FAO Trade and Markets Division, and


    individual chapters were cross checked by Suffyan Koroma, Felix Baquedano, Concepcion “Concha”


    Calpe, Peter Thoenes, ElMamoun Amrouk, and Jamie Morrison. IFAD staff from the West and Central


    Division, under the coordination of Barry Abdoul, also provided feedback on the manuscript and their


    input was incorporated into the synthesis chapter. List of tables, figures and boxes  IX


    List of tables, figures and boxes


    Chapter 1


    Tables


    Table 1. Caloric consumption (in Kcal/day/inhabitant) in West Africa in 2003 6


    Table 2. Indirect and invisible costs as percentages of firms’ sales 13


    Table 3. Top 20 food crops in West Africa ranked in terms of production volume,


    value and acreage (average 2005-2010) 18


    Table 4. Palm oil and groundnuts production and consumption trends in West Africa 1990-2010 23


    Table 5. Trade flows for six strategic commodities in six key ECOWAS countries 30


    Figures


    Figure 1. Population growth in millions for West Africa (plus Cameroon and Chad) 4


    Figure 2. Rate of urbanization (in %) in West Africa from 1950-2010 5


    Figure 3. Staple crop utilization shares (in %) by top producers (2009) 9


    Figure 4. Share of paved roads(2004) 11


    Figure 5. Electric power consumption (kwh per capita) and energy use (kg oil equiv. per capita)  12


    Figure 6. Cost of electricity in some West African countries (CFAF/ Kwh) 13


    Figure 7. R&D share of total GDP for West Africa and other comparable regions and the world 14


    Figure 8. Trends in total factor productivity for sub-Saharan Africa and other developing regions 15


    Figure 9. Agricultural productivity (agricultural value added per worker) 16


    Figure 10. Available land per capita in West Africa and other regions (ha per capita) 17


    Figure 11. Geographical distribution of the major food crops in West Africa 17


    Figure 12. Top commodities produced in terms of volume (12A), acreage (12B) and value (12C) 19


    Figure 13. Nigeria’s share of staple crop production in West Africa (MT) 20


    Figure 14. Cereal production trends in West Africa since 1990 21


    Figure 15. Top West African cassava producers (x 1000 tonnes) 22


    Figure 16. Top 4 palm oil producers in West Africa (x 1000 tonnes) 23


    Figure 17. Fertilizer consumption in West Africa, 2007-2009 26


    Figure 18. Cereal yield trends in West Africa 27


    Figure 19. Cassava yield trends (tonne/ha) 29


    Boxes


    Box 1. The phenomenal surge of rice consumption in West Africa: A combination of population


    growth, urbanization, and import facilitation policies 7


    Box 2. Enhancing regional trade and value chains: the USAID Agribusiness and Trade


    Promotion project 34


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