Rebuilding West Africa's Food Potential - Food and Agriculture

593 Pages · 2013 · 7.01 MB · English

  • Rebuilding West Africa's Food Potential - Food and Agriculture


    West Africa’s food potential:

    Policies and market incentives for

    smallholder-inclusive food value chains

    Edited by

    Aziz Elbehri

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United nations and

    The International Fund for Agriculture Development

    Rome, 2013 The designations employed and the presentation of material in this

    information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever

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    ISBN 978-92-5-107530-2 (print)

    E-ISBN 978-92-5-107531-9 (PDF)

    © FAO 2013

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    Table of Contents

    Foreword  V

    Editor’s note and acknowledgments  VII

    List of tables, figures and boxes  IX

    List of acronyms and abbreviations  XIX

    Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential: Synthesis and recommendations


    General introduction and book content




    Chapter 1. West Africa food systems: An overview of trends and indicators

    of demand, supply, and trade 1

    Aziz ELBEHRI, Jonathan KAMINSKI, Suffyan KOROMA, Massimo IAFRATE, and Marwan BENALI

    Chapter 2. A historical comparative analysis of commodity development models

    in West Africa and implications for staple food value chains

    Aziz ELBEHRI and Marwan BENALI 43

    Chapter 3. Analytical review of national investment strategies and agricultural

    policies for the promotion of staple food value chains in West Africa

    Bio Goura SOULE  83

    Chapter 4. Review and analysis of national investment strategies

    for agricultural policies in Central Africa: The Case of Cameroon

    Valantine ACHANCHO 115

    Chapter 5. Impact of Mali’s food and agricultural policies: an assessment

    of public expenditure and incentives to production from 2005 to 2010

    Alban MAS APARISI, Jean BALIE, Fatoumata DIALLO, Joanna KOMOROWSKA and Naman KEITA 151

    Chapter 6. The role of the private sector and the engagement of smallholder farmers

    in food value chains: initiatives and successful cases from Nigeria, Senegal, and Ghana

    Ndidi NWUNELI, Arona DIAW, Festus KWADZOKPO, and Aziz ELBEHRI  187

    Chapter 7. GAIN methodology to enhance producer organizations’ capacity

    for market integration: Applications to West Africa

    Aziz ELBEHRI, Maria LEE, Carina HIRSCH, and Marwan BENALI 211 IV Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential


    Chapter 8. Cocoa and cotton commodity chains in West Africa: Policy and

    institutional roles for smallholder market participation

    Philip ABBOTT 251

    Chapter 9. Constraints to smallholder participation in high-value agriculture

    in West Africa

    Johan SWINNEN, Liesbeth COLEN, and Miet MAERTENS 287

    Chapter 10. Comparative analysis of mango value chain models in Benin,

    Burkina Faso and Ghana

    Cathelijne VAN MELLE and Sönke BUSCHMANN 315

    Chapter 11. Oil palm industry growth in Africa: A value chain and smallholders’

    study for Ghana

    K. OFOSU-BUDU and Daniel SARPONG 349

    Chapter 12. Smallholder participation in value chains: The case of domestic

    rice in Senegal

    Liesbeth COLEN, Matty DEMONT and Johan SWINNEN 391

    Chapter 13. Rice in Mali: Enhancing competitiveness and promoting policies

    for inclusive value chain development

    Adam-Yeboua N’KRUMAH, Aziz ELBEHRI, and Bogui LEGRET  417

    Chapter 14. An analysis of maize value chain and competitiveness

    in Burkina Faso: Implications for smallholder-inclusive policies and initiatives

    Jonathan KAMINSKI, Aziz ELBEHRI and Jean-Baptiste ZOMA 451

    Chapter 15. An assessment of sorghum and millet in Mali and implications

    for competitive and inclusive value chains

    Jonathan KAMINSKI, Aziz ELBEHRI, and Michel SAMAKE 479

    Chapter 16. Enhancing cassava marketing and processing in Cameroon:

    Drivers, constraints, and prospects of the value chain

    Tolly Lolo EMMANUEL 503 Foreword V


    The price hike on international food markets in 2007-2008 was a turning point in world agriculture.

    Despite the surge in food prices, the expected supply response for most smallholder farmers, particularly

    in Africa, did not occur. The crisis triggered a broad consensus calling for substantial investments in

    agricultural and rural development to reduce both food insecurity and poverty affecting chiefly rural

    areas.  The price hike also confirmed the urgent necessity of making markets work for and inclusive of

    smallholder farmers.

    In West Africa, this episode triggered a stronger commitment to a food security policy geared toward

    improving the performance of the agricultural sector. There were renewed commitments to create the

    enabling environment for greater investment in staple food commodities, long neglected in favor of a

    few export commodities.  The episode also gave a new impetus to the CAADP (Comprehensive Africa

    Agriculture Development Programme) process which shaped  the national agricultural development

    strategies and the related investment programmes.

    The present book focusing on West Africa embodies a thorough analysis of past and present policies

    pertaining to food value chains without overlooking export commodities. It examines detailed value

    chain case studies conducted in several countries, covering both staple food commodities (rice, maize,

    sorghum, millet and cassava) and export crops (cocoa, cotton, oil palm, mangoes and horticultural

    products). It reviews public and private initiatives and includes thematic analyses on not only the private

    sector but also farmers’ organizations seen as market agents.

    This book aims to contribute to filling an existing gap in the literature on food value chains in West

    Africa. It identifies good practices in value chain development and provides policy guidance to

    agricultural and rural development stakeholders. It is intended to be a sourcebook  for decision makers,

    especially at a time when many countries in the region have embarked on implementing their national

    agricultural strategies derived from the CAADP process.

    The book recommends several priority areas for action. Key among these are: (a) Policy support to

    agriculture to achieve food security and poverty reduction must place greater emphasis on staple food

    crops and build stronger market incentives for smallholders’ inclusiveness, with particular focus on

    women’s access to inputs, credit, better organization and market/business capabilities; (b) Investment

    strategies aligned with CAADP must ensure greater policy coordination between public and private actors

    and enhance market opportunities, especially through domestic marketing and intra-regional trade; (c)

    Policy support should focus on developing market-based input delivery services, enhancing capacity for

    producers’ organizations to self-reliably access information, inputs, credit and forge credible business

    linkages with other value chain actors.

    David Hallam Ides de Willebois

    Director Director

    Trade and Markets Division West and Central Africa Division

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations International Food and Agriculture Development Editor’s note and acknowledgements VII

    Editor’s note and acknowledgements

    This book addresses the central question of how to rebuild West Africa’s food potential in light of the

    heightened concern over food security in the region, especially in the aftermath of the food crisis of

    2007-2008. The book has a regional focus, namely the ECOWAS region (15 West African countries)

    plus Cameroun and Chad (part of the Central Africa region). Also the book places a particular focus

    on staple food value chains even though export commodities are also covered. The primary concern

    of the book was to identify and delineate the key features of a new development model suitable for

    competitive and smallholder-inclusive staple food value chains.

    Several studies reported in this book were carried out by FAO Trade and Markets (EST) Division as part

    of the All-ACP Program on Basic Commodities (2008-2011) funded by the European Commission.

    Other studies were commissioned by EST as part of the program of work on small holder market

    integration. Finally, additional studies were also made possible with funding from IFAD under a small

    grant agreement with FAO to co-sponsor workshops on the topic and to produce a consolidated

    publication (this book). Under the IFAD grant, two workshops were organized; the first workshop was

    held in Rome in November 2011 and focused on the conceptualisation of an appropriate model for

    staple food value chains. The second workshop, with a more policy focus was held in Accra, Ghana in

    July 2012 to which a large number of stakeholders from West Africa participated.

    Evidently, a large number of people have contributed to this book. Aside from the authors, whose

    names are listed under each chapter, several consultants from West Africa contributed indirectly as

    part of their participation in the All-ACP program through their assistance in organising and facilitating

    stakeholder workshops and roundtables. Special acknowledgements go to: Salif Foulani Sissoko,

    Ibrahima Coulibaly, and Fatoumatou Diallo Sireballa (Mali); Idrissa Wade, Abdoulaye Fall, and Papa

    Dieye (Senegal), Jean-Baptiste Zoma and Ouédraogo Salifou (Burkina Faso),  Martin Tseunkeu, Norbert

    Monkam and Christine Andela (Cameroun).

    Participants to the first FAO-IFAD workshop held in Rome (November 2011) also helped shape the

    argument for an appropriate model for staple food value chains, in particular: David Hallam, David

    Neven, Siobhan Kelly (FAO), Ides Willebois, Steven Schonberger (IFAD); Michael Morris, John Baffes

    (World Bank); Michael Weber (Michigan State University); Ethel del Pozo-Vergnes (IIED), Michel Benoit-

    Cattin (CIRAD), Tanguy Bernard (IFPRI), and Jonathan Coulter, UK.

    The second FAO-IFAD workshop, held in Accra, Ghana in July 2012, brought together a large number

    of Government officials, country CAADP focal points, private industry, producer organisations and

    academic. The rich deliberations at that workshop were incorporated into the book in various ways.

    This successful workshop benefitted from a close coordination between FAO-HQ, FAO-Ghana office

    and the IFAD regional office in Accra under the leadership of Han Ulaç Demirag.

    Bringing the various studies to fruition and shepherding through the book preparation process required

    dedication from a large team of professional and administrative staff at the Trade and Markets Division.

    Emily Carroll and Sugi Yoo ably provided the required administrative support during the All-ACP program

    phase (2008- 2011). Daniela Piergentili provided support for the organisation of the Rome workshop

    (November 2011); Patricia Arquero, Antonia Caggiani (FAO-HQ), and Henrietta Appiah (FAO-Ghana)

    provided the superb logistic support to the regional workshop in Accra, Ghana (July 2012); Patricia

    Taylor, Nadia Laouini and Rita Ashton (FAO-EST), Francesca DEmidio (FAO-TCSR), and Michelle Calcatelli

    (IFAD), ensured a smooth administrative support for the present book. Marwan Benali assisted with VIII Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential

    the organisation of the Rome and Accra workshops, and provided editorial assistance to several draft


    Since the book was prepared simultaneously in English and French, all chapters had to be translated to

    one or the other language. Special thanks go to Brett Shapiro for his high quality English style editing

    and to Eric Juillard for translating documents into French and for proof reading the French version of

    the book. Additional translations were carried out by Chantal Zanettin, Illia Rosenthal, while Fergus

    Mulligan performed a final proof read for the English manuscript. The formatting and design of the

    book was ably carried out by Ana Filipa Amaro Costa who demonstrated skill and patience shepherding

    through the simultaneous formatting of two large volumes.

    The final manuscript was reviewed by David Hallam, Director of FAO Trade and Markets Division, and

    individual chapters were cross checked by Suffyan Koroma, Felix Baquedano, Concepcion “Concha”

    Calpe, Peter Thoenes, ElMamoun Amrouk, and Jamie Morrison. IFAD staff from the West and Central

    Division, under the coordination of Barry Abdoul, also provided feedback on the manuscript and their

    input was incorporated into the synthesis chapter. List of tables, figures and boxes  IX

    List of tables, figures and boxes

    Chapter 1


    Table 1. Caloric consumption (in Kcal/day/inhabitant) in West Africa in 2003 6

    Table 2. Indirect and invisible costs as percentages of firms’ sales 13

    Table 3. Top 20 food crops in West Africa ranked in terms of production volume,

    value and acreage (average 2005-2010) 18

    Table 4. Palm oil and groundnuts production and consumption trends in West Africa 1990-2010 23

    Table 5. Trade flows for six strategic commodities in six key ECOWAS countries 30


    Figure 1. Population growth in millions for West Africa (plus Cameroon and Chad) 4

    Figure 2. Rate of urbanization (in %) in West Africa from 1950-2010 5

    Figure 3. Staple crop utilization shares (in %) by top producers (2009) 9

    Figure 4. Share of paved roads(2004) 11

    Figure 5. Electric power consumption (kwh per capita) and energy use (kg oil equiv. per capita)  12

    Figure 6. Cost of electricity in some West African countries (CFAF/ Kwh) 13

    Figure 7. R&D share of total GDP for West Africa and other comparable regions and the world 14

    Figure 8. Trends in total factor productivity for sub-Saharan Africa and other developing regions 15

    Figure 9. Agricultural productivity (agricultural value added per worker) 16

    Figure 10. Available land per capita in West Africa and other regions (ha per capita) 17

    Figure 11. Geographical distribution of the major food crops in West Africa 17

    Figure 12. Top commodities produced in terms of volume (12A), acreage (12B) and value (12C) 19

    Figure 13. Nigeria’s share of staple crop production in West Africa (MT) 20

    Figure 14. Cereal production trends in West Africa since 1990 21

    Figure 15. Top West African cassava producers (x 1000 tonnes) 22

    Figure 16. Top 4 palm oil producers in West Africa (x 1000 tonnes) 23

    Figure 17. Fertilizer consumption in West Africa, 2007-2009 26

    Figure 18. Cereal yield trends in West Africa 27

    Figure 19. Cassava yield trends (tonne/ha) 29


    Box 1. The phenomenal surge of rice consumption in West Africa: A combination of population

    growth, urbanization, and import facilitation policies 7

    Box 2. Enhancing regional trade and value chains: the USAID Agribusiness and Trade

    Promotion project 34

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