Rebuilding West Africa's Food Potential - Food and Agriculture

Rebuilding West Africa's Food Potential - Food and Agriculture

Rebuilding West Africa's Food Potential - Food and Agriculture

593 Pages ·2013·7.01 MB ·English

Rebuilding West Africa's Food Potential - Food and Agriculture

Rebuilding


West Africa’s food potential:


Policies and market incentives for


smallholder-inclusive food value chains


Edited by


Aziz Elbehri




The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United nations and


The International Fund for Agriculture Development


Rome, 2013 The designations employed and the presentation of material in this


information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever


on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


(FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city


or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or


boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers,


whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have


been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar


nature that are not mentioned.


The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and


do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO.


ISBN 978-92-5-107530-2 (print)


E-ISBN 978-92-5-107531-9 (PDF)


© FAO 2013


FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this


information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be


copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching


purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that


appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder is


given and that FAO’s endorsement of users’ views, products or services is not


implied in any way.


All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other


commercial use rights should be made via www.fao.org/contact-us/licence-


request or addressed to copyright@fao.org.


FAO information products are available on the FAO website (www.fao.org/


publications) and can be purchased through publications-sales@fao.org.


Photo credits: FAO Mediabase III


Table of Contents


Foreword  V


Editor’s note and acknowledgments  VII


List of tables, figures and boxes  IX


List of acronyms and abbreviations  XIX


Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential: Synthesis and recommendations


Aziz ELBEHRI  XXVII


General introduction and book content


Aziz ELBEHRI  XLVII


PART 1: POLICIES, PRIVATE INITIATIVES AND ROLE OF PRODUCER ORGANISATIONS IN FOOD


CHAIN STRATEGIES


Chapter 1. West Africa food systems: An overview of trends and indicators


of demand, supply, and trade 1


Aziz ELBEHRI, Jonathan KAMINSKI, Suffyan KOROMA, Massimo IAFRATE, and Marwan BENALI


Chapter 2. A historical comparative analysis of commodity development models


in West Africa and implications for staple food value chains


Aziz ELBEHRI and Marwan BENALI 43


Chapter 3. Analytical review of national investment strategies and agricultural


policies for the promotion of staple food value chains in West Africa


Bio Goura SOULE  83


Chapter 4. Review and analysis of national investment strategies


for agricultural policies in Central Africa: The Case of Cameroon


Valantine ACHANCHO 115


Chapter 5. Impact of Mali’s food and agricultural policies: an assessment


of public expenditure and incentives to production from 2005 to 2010


Alban MAS APARISI, Jean BALIE, Fatoumata DIALLO, Joanna KOMOROWSKA and Naman KEITA 151


Chapter 6. The role of the private sector and the engagement of smallholder farmers


in food value chains: initiatives and successful cases from Nigeria, Senegal, and Ghana


Ndidi NWUNELI, Arona DIAW, Festus KWADZOKPO, and Aziz ELBEHRI  187


Chapter 7. GAIN methodology to enhance producer organizations’ capacity


for market integration: Applications to West Africa


Aziz ELBEHRI, Maria LEE, Carina HIRSCH, and Marwan BENALI 211 IV Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential


PART II: FOOD VALUE CHAIN COUNTRY CASE STUDIES


Chapter 8. Cocoa and cotton commodity chains in West Africa: Policy and


institutional roles for smallholder market participation


Philip ABBOTT 251


Chapter 9. Constraints to smallholder participation in high-value agriculture


in West Africa


Johan SWINNEN, Liesbeth COLEN, and Miet MAERTENS 287


Chapter 10. Comparative analysis of mango value chain models in Benin,


Burkina Faso and Ghana


Cathelijne VAN MELLE and Sönke BUSCHMANN 315


Chapter 11. Oil palm industry growth in Africa: A value chain and smallholders’


study for Ghana


K. OFOSU-BUDU and Daniel SARPONG 349


Chapter 12. Smallholder participation in value chains: The case of domestic


rice in Senegal


Liesbeth COLEN, Matty DEMONT and Johan SWINNEN 391


Chapter 13. Rice in Mali: Enhancing competitiveness and promoting policies


for inclusive value chain development


Adam-Yeboua N’KRUMAH, Aziz ELBEHRI, and Bogui LEGRET  417


Chapter 14. An analysis of maize value chain and competitiveness


in Burkina Faso: Implications for smallholder-inclusive policies and initiatives


Jonathan KAMINSKI, Aziz ELBEHRI and Jean-Baptiste ZOMA 451


Chapter 15. An assessment of sorghum and millet in Mali and implications


for competitive and inclusive value chains


Jonathan KAMINSKI, Aziz ELBEHRI, and Michel SAMAKE 479


Chapter 16. Enhancing cassava marketing and processing in Cameroon:


Drivers, constraints, and prospects of the value chain


Tolly Lolo EMMANUEL 503 Foreword V


Foreword


The price hike on international food markets in 2007-2008 was a turning point in world agriculture.


Despite the surge in food prices, the expected supply response for most smallholder farmers, particularly


in Africa, did not occur. The crisis triggered a broad consensus calling for substantial investments in


agricultural and rural development to reduce both food insecurity and poverty affecting chiefly rural


areas.  The price hike also confirmed the urgent necessity of making markets work for and inclusive of


smallholder farmers.


In West Africa, this episode triggered a stronger commitment to a food security policy geared toward


improving the performance of the agricultural sector. There were renewed commitments to create the


enabling environment for greater investment in staple food commodities, long neglected in favor of a


few export commodities.  The episode also gave a new impetus to the CAADP (Comprehensive Africa


Agriculture Development Programme) process which shaped  the national agricultural development


strategies and the related investment programmes.


The present book focusing on West Africa embodies a thorough analysis of past and present policies


pertaining to food value chains without overlooking export commodities. It examines detailed value


chain case studies conducted in several countries, covering both staple food commodities (rice, maize,


sorghum, millet and cassava) and export crops (cocoa, cotton, oil palm, mangoes and horticultural


products). It reviews public and private initiatives and includes thematic analyses on not only the private


sector but also farmers’ organizations seen as market agents.


This book aims to contribute to filling an existing gap in the literature on food value chains in West


Africa. It identifies good practices in value chain development and provides policy guidance to


agricultural and rural development stakeholders. It is intended to be a sourcebook  for decision makers,


especially at a time when many countries in the region have embarked on implementing their national


agricultural strategies derived from the CAADP process.


The book recommends several priority areas for action. Key among these are: (a) Policy support to


agriculture to achieve food security and poverty reduction must place greater emphasis on staple food


crops and build stronger market incentives for smallholders’ inclusiveness, with particular focus on


women’s access to inputs, credit, better organization and market/business capabilities; (b) Investment


strategies aligned with CAADP must ensure greater policy coordination between public and private actors


and enhance market opportunities, especially through domestic marketing and intra-regional trade; (c)


Policy support should focus on developing market-based input delivery services, enhancing capacity for


producers’ organizations to self-reliably access information, inputs, credit and forge credible business


linkages with other value chain actors.


David Hallam Ides de Willebois


Director Director


Trade and Markets Division West and Central Africa Division


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations International Food and Agriculture Development Editor’s note and acknowledgements VII


Editor’s note and acknowledgements


This book addresses the central question of how to rebuild West Africa’s food potential in light of the


heightened concern over food security in the region, especially in the aftermath of the food crisis of


2007-2008. The book has a regional focus, namely the ECOWAS region (15 West African countries)


plus Cameroun and Chad (part of the Central Africa region). Also the book places a particular focus


on staple food value chains even though export commodities are also covered. The primary concern


of the book was to identify and delineate the key features of a new development model suitable for


competitive and smallholder-inclusive staple food value chains.


Several studies reported in this book were carried out by FAO Trade and Markets (EST) Division as part


of the All-ACP Program on Basic Commodities (2008-2011) funded by the European Commission.


Other studies were commissioned by EST as part of the program of work on small holder market


integration. Finally, additional studies were also made possible with funding from IFAD under a small


grant agreement with FAO to co-sponsor workshops on the topic and to produce a consolidated


publication (this book). Under the IFAD grant, two workshops were organized; the first workshop was


held in Rome in November 2011 and focused on the conceptualisation of an appropriate model for


staple food value chains. The second workshop, with a more policy focus was held in Accra, Ghana in


July 2012 to which a large number of stakeholders from West Africa participated.


Evidently, a large number of people have contributed to this book. Aside from the authors, whose


names are listed under each chapter, several consultants from West Africa contributed indirectly as


part of their participation in the All-ACP program through their assistance in organising and facilitating


stakeholder workshops and roundtables. Special acknowledgements go to: Salif Foulani Sissoko,


Ibrahima Coulibaly, and Fatoumatou Diallo Sireballa (Mali); Idrissa Wade, Abdoulaye Fall, and Papa


Dieye (Senegal), Jean-Baptiste Zoma and Ouédraogo Salifou (Burkina Faso),  Martin Tseunkeu, Norbert


Monkam and Christine Andela (Cameroun).


Participants to the first FAO-IFAD workshop held in Rome (November 2011) also helped shape the


argument for an appropriate model for staple food value chains, in particular: David Hallam, David


Neven, Siobhan Kelly (FAO), Ides Willebois, Steven Schonberger (IFAD); Michael Morris, John Baffes


(World Bank); Michael Weber (Michigan State University); Ethel del Pozo-Vergnes (IIED), Michel Benoit-


Cattin (CIRAD), Tanguy Bernard (IFPRI), and Jonathan Coulter, UK.


The second FAO-IFAD workshop, held in Accra, Ghana in July 2012, brought together a large number


of Government officials, country CAADP focal points, private industry, producer organisations and


academic. The rich deliberations at that workshop were incorporated into the book in various ways.


This successful workshop benefitted from a close coordination between FAO-HQ, FAO-Ghana office


and the IFAD regional office in Accra under the leadership of Han Ulaç Demirag.


Bringing the various studies to fruition and shepherding through the book preparation process required


dedication from a large team of professional and administrative staff at the Trade and Markets Division.


Emily Carroll and Sugi Yoo ably provided the required administrative support during the All-ACP program


phase (2008- 2011). Daniela Piergentili provided support for the organisation of the Rome workshop


(November 2011); Patricia Arquero, Antonia Caggiani (FAO-HQ), and Henrietta Appiah (FAO-Ghana)


provided the superb logistic support to the regional workshop in Accra, Ghana (July 2012); Patricia


Taylor, Nadia Laouini and Rita Ashton (FAO-EST), Francesca DEmidio (FAO-TCSR), and Michelle Calcatelli


(IFAD), ensured a smooth administrative support for the present book. Marwan Benali assisted with VIII Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential


the organisation of the Rome and Accra workshops, and provided editorial assistance to several draft


chapters.


Since the book was prepared simultaneously in English and French, all chapters had to be translated to


one or the other language. Special thanks go to Brett Shapiro for his high quality English style editing


and to Eric Juillard for translating documents into French and for proof reading the French version of


the book. Additional translations were carried out by Chantal Zanettin, Illia Rosenthal, while Fergus


Mulligan performed a final proof read for the English manuscript. The formatting and design of the


book was ably carried out by Ana Filipa Amaro Costa who demonstrated skill and patience shepherding


through the simultaneous formatting of two large volumes.


The final manuscript was reviewed by David Hallam, Director of FAO Trade and Markets Division, and


individual chapters were cross checked by Suffyan Koroma, Felix Baquedano, Concepcion “Concha”


Calpe, Peter Thoenes, ElMamoun Amrouk, and Jamie Morrison. IFAD staff from the West and Central


Division, under the coordination of Barry Abdoul, also provided feedback on the manuscript and their


input was incorporated into the synthesis chapter. List of tables, figures and boxes  IX


List of tables, figures and boxes


Chapter 1


Tables


Table 1. Caloric consumption (in Kcal/day/inhabitant) in West Africa in 2003 6


Table 2. Indirect and invisible costs as percentages of firms’ sales 13


Table 3. Top 20 food crops in West Africa ranked in terms of production volume,


value and acreage (average 2005-2010) 18


Table 4. Palm oil and groundnuts production and consumption trends in West Africa 1990-2010 23


Table 5. Trade flows for six strategic commodities in six key ECOWAS countries 30


Figures


Figure 1. Population growth in millions for West Africa (plus Cameroon and Chad) 4


Figure 2. Rate of urbanization (in %) in West Africa from 1950-2010 5


Figure 3. Staple crop utilization shares (in %) by top producers (2009) 9


Figure 4. Share of paved roads(2004) 11


Figure 5. Electric power consumption (kwh per capita) and energy use (kg oil equiv. per capita)  12


Figure 6. Cost of electricity in some West African countries (CFAF/ Kwh) 13


Figure 7. R&D share of total GDP for West Africa and other comparable regions and the world 14


Figure 8. Trends in total factor productivity for sub-Saharan Africa and other developing regions 15


Figure 9. Agricultural productivity (agricultural value added per worker) 16


Figure 10. Available land per capita in West Africa and other regions (ha per capita) 17


Figure 11. Geographical distribution of the major food crops in West Africa 17


Figure 12. Top commodities produced in terms of volume (12A), acreage (12B) and value (12C) 19


Figure 13. Nigeria’s share of staple crop production in West Africa (MT) 20


Figure 14. Cereal production trends in West Africa since 1990 21


Figure 15. Top West African cassava producers (x 1000 tonnes) 22


Figure 16. Top 4 palm oil producers in West Africa (x 1000 tonnes) 23


Figure 17. Fertilizer consumption in West Africa, 2007-2009 26


Figure 18. Cereal yield trends in West Africa 27


Figure 19. Cassava yield trends (tonne/ha) 29


Boxes


Box 1. The phenomenal surge of rice consumption in West Africa: A combination of population


growth, urbanization, and import facilitation policies 7


Box 2. Enhancing regional trade and value chains: the USAID Agribusiness and Trade


Promotion project 34


Rebuilding


West Africa’s food potential:


Policies and market incentives for


smallholder-inclusive food value chains


Edited by


Aziz Elbehri




The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United nations and


The International Fund for Agriculture Development


Rome, 2013 The designations employed and the presentation of material in this


information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever


on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


(FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city


or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or


boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers,


whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have


been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar


nature that are not mentioned.


The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and


do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO.


ISBN 978-92-5-107530-2 (print)


E-ISBN 978-92-5-107531-9 (PDF)


© FAO 2013


FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this


information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be


copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching


purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that


appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder is


given and that FAO’s endorsement of users’ views, products or services is not


implied in any way.


All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other


commercial use rights should be made via www.fao.org/contact-us/licence-


request or addressed to copyright@fao.org.


FAO information products are available on the FAO website (www.fao.org/


publications) and can be purchased through publications-sales@fao.org.


Photo credits: FAO Mediabase III


Table of Contents


Foreword  V


Editor’s note and acknowledgments  VII


List of tables, figures and boxes  IX


List of acronyms and abbreviations  XIX


Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential: Synthesis and recommendations


Aziz ELBEHRI  XXVII


General introduction and book content


Aziz ELBEHRI  XLVII


PART 1: POLICIES, PRIVATE INITIATIVES AND ROLE OF PRODUCER ORGANISATIONS IN FOOD


CHAIN STRATEGIES


Chapter 1. West Africa food systems: An overview of trends and indicators


of demand, supply, and trade 1


Aziz ELBEHRI, Jonathan KAMINSKI, Suffyan KOROMA, Massimo IAFRATE, and Marwan BENALI


Chapter 2. A historical comparative analysis of commodity development models


in West Africa and implications for staple food value chains


Aziz ELBEHRI and Marwan BENALI 43


Chapter 3. Analytical review of national investment strategies and agricultural


policies for the promotion of staple food value chains in West Africa


Bio Goura SOULE  83


Chapter 4. Review and analysis of national investment strategies


for agricultural policies in Central Africa: The Case of Cameroon


Valantine ACHANCHO 115


Chapter 5. Impact of Mali’s food and agricultural policies: an assessment


of public expenditure and incentives to production from 2005 to 2010


Alban MAS APARISI, Jean BALIE, Fatoumata DIALLO, Joanna KOMOROWSKA and Naman KEITA 151


Chapter 6. The role of the private sector and the engagement of smallholder farmers


in food value chains: initiatives and successful cases from Nigeria, Senegal, and Ghana


Ndidi NWUNELI, Arona DIAW, Festus KWADZOKPO, and Aziz ELBEHRI  187


Chapter 7. GAIN methodology to enhance producer organizations’ capacity


for market integration: Applications to West Africa


Aziz ELBEHRI, Maria LEE, Carina HIRSCH, and Marwan BENALI 211 IV Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential


PART II: FOOD VALUE CHAIN COUNTRY CASE STUDIES


Chapter 8. Cocoa and cotton commodity chains in West Africa: Policy and


institutional roles for smallholder market participation


Philip ABBOTT 251


Chapter 9. Constraints to smallholder participation in high-value agriculture


in West Africa


Johan SWINNEN, Liesbeth COLEN, and Miet MAERTENS 287


Chapter 10. Comparative analysis of mango value chain models in Benin,


Burkina Faso and Ghana


Cathelijne VAN MELLE and Sönke BUSCHMANN 315


Chapter 11. Oil palm industry growth in Africa: A value chain and smallholders’


study for Ghana


K. OFOSU-BUDU and Daniel SARPONG 349


Chapter 12. Smallholder participation in value chains: The case of domestic


rice in Senegal


Liesbeth COLEN, Matty DEMONT and Johan SWINNEN 391


Chapter 13. Rice in Mali: Enhancing competitiveness and promoting policies


for inclusive value chain development


Adam-Yeboua N’KRUMAH, Aziz ELBEHRI, and Bogui LEGRET  417


Chapter 14. An analysis of maize value chain and competitiveness


in Burkina Faso: Implications for smallholder-inclusive policies and initiatives


Jonathan KAMINSKI, Aziz ELBEHRI and Jean-Baptiste ZOMA 451


Chapter 15. An assessment of sorghum and millet in Mali and implications


for competitive and inclusive value chains


Jonathan KAMINSKI, Aziz ELBEHRI, and Michel SAMAKE 479


Chapter 16. Enhancing cassava marketing and processing in Cameroon:


Drivers, constraints, and prospects of the value chain


Tolly Lolo EMMANUEL 503 Foreword V


Foreword


The price hike on international food markets in 2007-2008 was a turning point in world agriculture.


Despite the surge in food prices, the expected supply response for most smallholder farmers, particularly


in Africa, did not occur. The crisis triggered a broad consensus calling for substantial investments in


agricultural and rural development to reduce both food insecurity and poverty affecting chiefly rural


areas.  The price hike also confirmed the urgent necessity of making markets work for and inclusive of


smallholder farmers.


In West Africa, this episode triggered a stronger commitment to a food security policy geared toward


improving the performance of the agricultural sector. There were renewed commitments to create the


enabling environment for greater investment in staple food commodities, long neglected in favor of a


few export commodities.  The episode also gave a new impetus to the CAADP (Comprehensive Africa


Agriculture Development Programme) process which shaped  the national agricultural development


strategies and the related investment programmes.


The present book focusing on West Africa embodies a thorough analysis of past and present policies


pertaining to food value chains without overlooking export commodities. It examines detailed value


chain case studies conducted in several countries, covering both staple food commodities (rice, maize,


sorghum, millet and cassava) and export crops (cocoa, cotton, oil palm, mangoes and horticultural


products). It reviews public and private initiatives and includes thematic analyses on not only the private


sector but also farmers’ organizations seen as market agents.


This book aims to contribute to filling an existing gap in the literature on food value chains in West


Africa. It identifies good practices in value chain development and provides policy guidance to


agricultural and rural development stakeholders. It is intended to be a sourcebook  for decision makers,


especially at a time when many countries in the region have embarked on implementing their national


agricultural strategies derived from the CAADP process.


The book recommends several priority areas for action. Key among these are: (a) Policy support to


agriculture to achieve food security and poverty reduction must place greater emphasis on staple food


crops and build stronger market incentives for smallholders’ inclusiveness, with particular focus on


women’s access to inputs, credit, better organization and market/business capabilities; (b) Investment


strategies aligned with CAADP must ensure greater policy coordination between public and private actors


and enhance market opportunities, especially through domestic marketing and intra-regional trade; (c)


Policy support should focus on developing market-based input delivery services, enhancing capacity for


producers’ organizations to self-reliably access information, inputs, credit and forge credible business


linkages with other value chain actors.


David Hallam Ides de Willebois


Director Director


Trade and Markets Division West and Central Africa Division


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations International Food and Agriculture Development Editor’s note and acknowledgements VII


Editor’s note and acknowledgements


This book addresses the central question of how to rebuild West Africa’s food potential in light of the


heightened concern over food security in the region, especially in the aftermath of the food crisis of


2007-2008. The book has a regional focus, namely the ECOWAS region (15 West African countries)


plus Cameroun and Chad (part of the Central Africa region). Also the book places a particular focus


on staple food value chains even though export commodities are also covered. The primary concern


of the book was to identify and delineate the key features of a new development model suitable for


competitive and smallholder-inclusive staple food value chains.


Several studies reported in this book were carried out by FAO Trade and Markets (EST) Division as part


of the All-ACP Program on Basic Commodities (2008-2011) funded by the European Commission.


Other studies were commissioned by EST as part of the program of work on small holder market


integration. Finally, additional studies were also made possible with funding from IFAD under a small


grant agreement with FAO to co-sponsor workshops on the topic and to produce a consolidated


publication (this book). Under the IFAD grant, two workshops were organized; the first workshop was


held in Rome in November 2011 and focused on the conceptualisation of an appropriate model for


staple food value chains. The second workshop, with a more policy focus was held in Accra, Ghana in


July 2012 to which a large number of stakeholders from West Africa participated.


Evidently, a large number of people have contributed to this book. Aside from the authors, whose


names are listed under each chapter, several consultants from West Africa contributed indirectly as


part of their participation in the All-ACP program through their assistance in organising and facilitating


stakeholder workshops and roundtables. Special acknowledgements go to: Salif Foulani Sissoko,


Ibrahima Coulibaly, and Fatoumatou Diallo Sireballa (Mali); Idrissa Wade, Abdoulaye Fall, and Papa


Dieye (Senegal), Jean-Baptiste Zoma and Ouédraogo Salifou (Burkina Faso),  Martin Tseunkeu, Norbert


Monkam and Christine Andela (Cameroun).


Participants to the first FAO-IFAD workshop held in Rome (November 2011) also helped shape the


argument for an appropriate model for staple food value chains, in particular: David Hallam, David


Neven, Siobhan Kelly (FAO), Ides Willebois, Steven Schonberger (IFAD); Michael Morris, John Baffes


(World Bank); Michael Weber (Michigan State University); Ethel del Pozo-Vergnes (IIED), Michel Benoit-


Cattin (CIRAD), Tanguy Bernard (IFPRI), and Jonathan Coulter, UK.


The second FAO-IFAD workshop, held in Accra, Ghana in July 2012, brought together a large number


of Government officials, country CAADP focal points, private industry, producer organisations and


academic. The rich deliberations at that workshop were incorporated into the book in various ways.


This successful workshop benefitted from a close coordination between FAO-HQ, FAO-Ghana office


and the IFAD regional office in Accra under the leadership of Han Ulaç Demirag.


Bringing the various studies to fruition and shepherding through the book preparation process required


dedication from a large team of professional and administrative staff at the Trade and Markets Division.


Emily Carroll and Sugi Yoo ably provided the required administrative support during the All-ACP program


phase (2008- 2011). Daniela Piergentili provided support for the organisation of the Rome workshop


(November 2011); Patricia Arquero, Antonia Caggiani (FAO-HQ), and Henrietta Appiah (FAO-Ghana)


provided the superb logistic support to the regional workshop in Accra, Ghana (July 2012); Patricia


Taylor, Nadia Laouini and Rita Ashton (FAO-EST), Francesca DEmidio (FAO-TCSR), and Michelle Calcatelli


(IFAD), ensured a smooth administrative support for the present book. Marwan Benali assisted with VIII Rebuilding West Africa’s food potential


the organisation of the Rome and Accra workshops, and provided editorial assistance to several draft


chapters.


Since the book was prepared simultaneously in English and French, all chapters had to be translated to


one or the other language. Special thanks go to Brett Shapiro for his high quality English style editing


and to Eric Juillard for translating documents into French and for proof reading the French version of


the book. Additional translations were carried out by Chantal Zanettin, Illia Rosenthal, while Fergus


Mulligan performed a final proof read for the English manuscript. The formatting and design of the


book was ably carried out by Ana Filipa Amaro Costa who demonstrated skill and patience shepherding


through the simultaneous formatting of two large volumes.


The final manuscript was reviewed by David Hallam, Director of FAO Trade and Markets Division, and


individual chapters were cross checked by Suffyan Koroma, Felix Baquedano, Concepcion “Concha”


Calpe, Peter Thoenes, ElMamoun Amrouk, and Jamie Morrison. IFAD staff from the West and Central


Division, under the coordination of Barry Abdoul, also provided feedback on the manuscript and their


input was incorporated into the synthesis chapter. List of tables, figures and boxes  IX


List of tables, figures and boxes


Chapter 1


Tables


Table 1. Caloric consumption (in Kcal/day/inhabitant) in West Africa in 2003 6


Table 2. Indirect and invisible costs as percentages of firms’ sales 13


Table 3. Top 20 food crops in West Africa ranked in terms of production volume,


value and acreage (average 2005-2010) 18


Table 4. Palm oil and groundnuts production and consumption trends in West Africa 1990-2010 23


Table 5. Trade flows for six strategic commodities in six key ECOWAS countries 30


Figures


Figure 1. Population growth in millions for West Africa (plus Cameroon and Chad) 4


Figure 2. Rate of urbanization (in %) in West Africa from 1950-2010 5


Figure 3. Staple crop utilization shares (in %) by top producers (2009) 9


Figure 4. Share of paved roads(2004) 11


Figure 5. Electric power consumption (kwh per capita) and energy use (kg oil equiv. per capita)  12


Figure 6. Cost of electricity in some West African countries (CFAF/ Kwh) 13


Figure 7. R&D share of total GDP for West Africa and other comparable regions and the world 14


Figure 8. Trends in total factor productivity for sub-Saharan Africa and other developing regions 15


Figure 9. Agricultural productivity (agricultural value added per worker) 16


Figure 10. Available land per capita in West Africa and other regions (ha per capita) 17


Figure 11. Geographical distribution of the major food crops in West Africa 17


Figure 12. Top commodities produced in terms of volume (12A), acreage (12B) and value (12C) 19


Figure 13. Nigeria’s share of staple crop production in West Africa (MT) 20


Figure 14. Cereal production trends in West Africa since 1990 21


Figure 15. Top West African cassava producers (x 1000 tonnes) 22


Figure 16. Top 4 palm oil producers in West Africa (x 1000 tonnes) 23


Figure 17. Fertilizer consumption in West Africa, 2007-2009 26


Figure 18. Cereal yield trends in West Africa 27


Figure 19. Cassava yield trends (tonne/ha) 29


Boxes


Box 1. The phenomenal surge of rice consumption in West Africa: A combination of population


growth, urbanization, and import facilitation policies 7


Box 2. Enhancing regional trade and value chains: the USAID Agribusiness and Trade


Promotion project 34


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