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Psychology and Life

627 Pages · 2012 · 28.21 MB · English

  • Psychology and Life

    Why Do You Need This New Edition?


    6 Good Reasons Why You Should Buy This New Edition


    ofxa0Psychology and Life!


    1. This edition of Psychology and Life is fresh with the most up-to-date coverage and brimming with over


    560 new references. Our goal is to be the most current, most accurate, and most accessible treatment


    of our discipline today. An in-depth list of updates can be found in the preface.


    2. T his edition of Psychology and Life presents cutting-edge research on interactions of genes and envi-


    ronments. For much of its history, psychology hasxa0asked the question “Nature or nurture?” However,


    in recent years researchers have demonstrated important instances in which nature (genes) have an


    impact only in particular circumstances of nurture (environments). This edition provides examples of


    these interactions for central topics such as intelligence, attachment, and psychopathology.


    3. Psychology and Life is now accompanied by the brand-new MyPsychLab Video Series! This new series


    offers instructors and students the most current and cutting-edge introductory psychology video


    content available anywhere. These exclusive videos take the viewer into today’s research laborato-


    ries, inside the body and brain through breathtaking animations, and out into the street for real-world


    applications. Guided by the Design, Development, and Review team, a diverse group of introductory


    psychology professors, this comprehensive new series features 17 half-hour episodes organized around


    the major topics of the introductory psychology course syllabus.


    4. In addition to the vast topical updates made to this edition, we have replaced more than one-third of


    the nearly 140 featured studies, highlighted with dark fuchsia brackets throughout the text. These major


    studies showcase the scientific process that drives psychological research.


    5. Every feature box in each chapter has been taken into consideration during this revision. Many boxes


    contain updated research, and 11 of the Critical Thinking in Your Life and Psychology in Your Life boxes


    have been replaced with new topics altogether.


    6. Throughout the text, you will find references to the new Experiments Tool in MyPsychLab. Just as


    Psychology and Life emphasizes the process behind the science of psychology, the Experiments


    Tool will allow you to become an active part of that process by participating in key psychological


    experiments and inventories. This page intentionally left blank 20 EDITION


    TH


    Psychology


    and Life


    Richard J. Gerrig


    Stony Brook University


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    Copyright © 2013, 2010, 2008, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of


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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Gerrig, Richard J.


    Psychology and life / Richard J. Gerrig. — 20th ed.


    p. cm.


    ISBN-13: 978-0-205-85913-9—ISBN-10: 0-205-85913-5 1. Psychology. I. Title.


    BF121.G47 2013


    150—dc23


    2012001117


    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    Student Edition:


    ISBN-10: 0-205-85913-5


    ISBN-13: 978-0-205-85913-9


    Instructor’s Review Copy:


    ISBN-10: 0-205-85914-3


    ISBN-13: 978-0-205-85914-6


    A la Carte:


    ISBN-10: 0-205-86313-2


    ISBN-13: 978-0-205-86313-6 To Phil Zimbardo, for entrusting me with


    Psychology and Life. This page intentionally left blank Brief Contents


    1 PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE 1


    2 RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY 20


    STATISTICAL SUPPLEMENT 38


    3 THE BIOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY BASES OF BEHAVIOR 46


    4 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 79


    5 MIND, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND ALTERNATE STATES 120


    6 LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 144


    7 MEMORY 173


    8 COGNITIVE PROCESSES 206


    9 INTELLIGENCE AND INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENT 239


    10 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN 260


    11 MOTIVATION 297


    12 EMOTION, STRESS, AND HEALTH 322


    13 UNDERSTANDING HUMAN PERSONALITY 356


    14 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS 385


    15 THERAPIES FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS 418


    16 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 446


    vii This page intentionally left blank Contents


    Preface xix


    2 RESEARCH METHODS


    1 PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE 1 IN PSYCHOLOGY 20


    THE PROCESS OF RESEARCH 21


    WHAT MAKES PSYCHOLOGY UNIQUE? 2


    Observer Biases and Operational Definitions 22


    Definitions 2


    Experimental Methods: Alternative Explanations


    The Goals of Psychology 3


    and the Need for Controls 24


    Critical Thinking in Your Life: Does “Comfort Food”


    Correlational Methods 27


    Really Give Comfort? 6


    Psychology in Your Life: Does Wishful Thinking Affect


    THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY 5 How You Evaluate Information? 29


    Psychology’s Historical Foundations 5


    PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT 28


    Women as Pioneering Researchers 8


    Achieving Reliability and Validity 30


    Perspectives on Psychology 9


    Self-Report Measures 30


    WHAT PSYCHOLOGISTS DO 14 Behavioral Measures and Observations 30


    Psychology in Your Life: In What Ways Do ETHICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL


    Psychologists Participate in the Legal System? 16


    RESEARCH 32


    HOW TO USE THIS TEXT 16 Informed Consent 33


    Study Strategies 16 Risk/Gain Assessment 33


    Study Techniques 17 Intentional Deception 33


    Recapping Main Points 17 Debriefing 33


    Key Terms 18 Issues in Animal Research 33


    Practice Test 19


    BECOMING A CRITICAL CONSUMER


    OF RESEARCH 34


    Critical Thinking in Your Life: Why Is Skill with


    Numbers Important? 35


    Recapping Main Points 35


    Key Terms 36


    Practice Test 37


    STATISTICAL SUPPLEMENT 38


    UNDERSTANDING STATISTICS: ANALYZING


    DATA AND FORMING CONCLUSIONS 38


    ANALYZING THE DATA 39


    Descriptive Statistics 40


    Inferential Statistics 43


    BECOMING A WISE CONSUMER


    OF STATISTICS 45


    Key Terms 45


    iixx


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