Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility

Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility

Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility

348 Pages ·2013·5.67 MB ·English

Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility

PLANNING AND DESIGN FOR


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3 SUST AIN ABLE URBAN MOBILITY


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9EEEE PLANNING AND DESIGN FOR


1EEE


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3 SUST AIN ABLE URBAN MOBILITY


4


5


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GLOBAL REPORT ON HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 2013


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8


9


10


1


2


3111


4 United Nations Human Settlements Programme


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9EEEE First published 2013


by Routledge


2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN


Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada


by Routledge


711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017


Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business


© 2013 United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,


mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any


information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.


Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for


identification and explanation without intent to infringe.


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)


PO Box 30030, GPO Nairobi 00100, Kenya


Tel: +254 20 762 3120


Fax: +254 20 762 3477 / 4266 / 4267


Web: www.unhabitat.org


DISCLAIMER


The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any


opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country,


territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries, or regarding its


economic system or degree of development. The analysis, conclusions and recommendations of the report do not


necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, the Governing Council of the


United Nations Human Settlements Programme or its Member States.


British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Planning and design for sust aina bleurban mobility : global report on human settlements 2013 /


United Nations Human Settlements Programme.


pages cm


Includes bibliographical references and index.


1. Urban transportation. 2. Sus taina ble devel op ment. I. United Nations Human Settlements Programme.


HE305.P55 2013


711′.7—dc23


2013023163


HS Number: HS/031/13E (paperback)


HS/033/13E (hardback)


ISBN: 978-0-415-72318-3 (paperback)


978-1-315-85715-2 (ebook)


978-92-1-131929-3 (UN-Habitat series)


978-92-1-132568-3 (UN-Habitat paperback)


978-92-1-132570-6 (UN-Habitat hardback)


Typeset in Weidemann BT and Gill Sans by


Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon, UK


Cover by Austin Ogola 1EEE


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9 FOREWORD


10


1


2


3111


4


5


6


7


For more than half a century, most countries have experienced rapid urban growth and increased use of


8


motor vehicles. This has led to urban sprawl and even higher demand for motorized travel with a range of


9


environmental, social and economic consequences.


20


Urban transport is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions and a cause of ill-health due to air


1


and noise pollution. The traffic congestion created by unsustainable transportation systems is responsible for


2


significant economic and productivity costs for commuters and goods transporters.


3


These challenges are most pronounced in developing country cities. It is here that approximately 90 per


4


cent of global population growth will occur in the coming decades. These cities are already struggling to


5


meet increasing demand for investment in transportation. That is why my Five-year Action Agenda, launched


6


in January 2012, highlights urban transport – with a focus on pollution and congestion – as a core area for


7


advancing sustainable development.


8


This year’s edition of the UN-Habitat Global Report on Human Settlements provides guidance on


9


developing sustainable urban transportation systems. The report outlines trends and conditions and reviews


30


a range of responses to urban transport challenges worldwide. The report also analyses the relationship between


1


urban form and mobility, and calls for a future with more compact and efficient cities. It highlights the role


2


of urban planning in developing sustainable cities where non-motorized travel and public transport are the


3


preferred modes of transport.


4


I commend this report to all involved in developing sustainable cities and urban transport systems. Success


5


in this area is essential for creating more equitable, healthy and productive urban living environments that


6


benefit both people and the planet.


7


8


9


40


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


Ban Ki-moon


8


Secretary-General


9


United Nations


50


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9EEEE 1EEE


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9 INTRODUCTION


10


1


2


3111


4


5


6


7


Urban transport systems worldwide are faced by a multitude of challenges. In most cities, the economic dimensions


8


of such challenges tend to receive most attention. The traffic gridlocks experienced on city roads and highways


9 have been the basis for the development of most urban transportation strategies and policies. The solution prescribed


20 in most of these has been to build more infrastructures for cars, with a limited number of cities improving public


1 transport systems in a sustainable manner.


2 However, the transportation sector is also responsible for a number of other challenges that do not necessarily


3 get solved by the construction of new infrastructure. It is, for example, responsible for a large proportion of the


4 greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Furthermore, road traffic accidents are among the main


5 causes of premature deaths in most countries and cities. Likewise, the health effects of noise and air pollution


6 caused by motorized vehicles are a major cause for concern. In some cities, the physical separation of residential


7 areas from places of employment, markets, schools and health services force many urban residents to spend increasing


8 amounts of time, and as much as a third (and sometimes even more) of their income, on public transport.


9 While those among the urban populace that have access to a private car, or can afford to make regular use


30 of public transport, see traffic jams and congestion as a major concern; this is a marginal issue for people living


in ‘transport poverty’. Their only affordable option for urban transportation is their own feet. Persons with low


1


household incomes – but also others, including many women, and vulnerable groups such as the young, the elderly,


2


the disabled, and ethnic and other minorities – form the bulk of those characterized as living in transport


3


poverty.


4


Thus, when the Secretary-General of the United Nations launched his ‘5-year action agenda’ in January


5


2012, he identified sustainable transportation as one of the major building blocks of sustainable development. In


6


particular, he stressed the need for urgent action to develop more sustainable urban ‘transport systems


7


that can address rising congestion and pollution’. He noted that action was required by a range of actors,


8


including ‘aviation, marine, ferry, rail, road and urban public transport providers, along with Governments and


9


investors’.


40


Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility: Global Report on Human Settlements 2013


1


seeks to highlight the transportation challenges experienced in cities all over the world, and identifies examples


2 of good practice from specific cities of how to address such challenges. The report also provides recommendations


3 on how national, provincial and local governments and other stakeholders can develop more sustainable urban


4 futures through improved planning and design of urban transport systems.


5 The report argues that the development of sustainable urban transport systems requires a conceptual leap.


6 The purpose of ‘transportation’ and ‘mobility’ is to gain access to destinations, activities, services and goods. Thus,


7 accessis the ultimate objective of all transportation (save a small portion of recreational mobility). The construction


8 of more roads for low-income cities and countries is paramount to create the conditions to design effective transport


9 solutions. However, urban planning and design for these cities and others in the medium and high income brackets


50 is crucial to reduce distances and increase accessibility to enhancing sustainable urban transport solutions. If city


1 residents can achieve access without having to travel at all (for instance through telecommuting), through more


2 efficient travel (online shopping or car-sharing), or by travelling shorter distances, this will contribute to reducing


3 some of the challenges currently posed by urban transport. Thus, urban planning and design should focus on how


to bring people and places together, by creating cities that focus on accessibility, rather than simply increasing the


4


length of urban transport infrastructure or increasing the movement of people or goods.


5


The issue of urban form and functionality of the city is therefore a major focus of this report. Not only should


6


urban planning focus on increased population densities; cities should also encourage the development of mixed-


7


use areas. This implies a shift away from strict zoning regulations that have led to a physical separation of activities


8


and functions, and thus an increased need for travel. Instead, cities should be built around the concept of ‘streets’,


9EEEE viii


Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility


which can serve as the focus for building liveable communities. Cities should therefore encourage mixed land-


use, both in terms of functions (i.e. residential, commercial, manufacturing, service functions and recreational)


and in terms of social composition (i.e. with neighbourhoods containing a mixture of different income and social


groups).


Such developments also have the potential to make better use of existing transport infrastructure. Most of


today’s cities have been built as ‘zoned’ cities, which tends to make rather inefficient use of their infrastructure;


as ‘everyone’ is travelling in the same direction at the same time. In such cities, each morning is characterized by


(often severe) traffic jams on roads and congestion on public transport services leading from residential areas to


places of work. At the same time, however, the roads, buses and trains going in the opposite direction are empty.


In the afternoon the situation is the opposite. Thus, the infrastructure in such cities is operating at half capacity


only, despite congestion. In contrast, in cities characterized by ‘mixed land-use’ (such as Stockholm, Sweden),


traffic flows are multidirectional – thus making more efficient use of the infrastructure – as residential areas and


places of work are more evenly distributed across the urban landscape.


Furthermore, the report argues with strong empirical information that increased sustainability of urban passenger


transport systems can be achieved through modal shifts – by increasing the modal share of public transport and


non-motorized transport modes (walking and bicycling), and by reducing private motorized transport. Again, an


enhanced focus on urban planning and design is required, to ensure that cities are built to encourage environmentally


sustainable transportation modes. While encouraging a shift to non-motorized transport modes, however, the report


acknowledges that such modes are best suited for local travel and that motorized transport (in particular public


transport) has an important role while travelling longer distances. However, in many (if not most) countries there


is a considerable stigma against public transport. The private car is often seen as the most desirable travel option.


There is thus a need to enhance the acceptabilityof public transport systems. More needs to be done to increase


reliability and efficiency of public transport services and to make these services more secure and safe.


The report also notes that most trips involve a combination of several modes of transport. Thus, modal integration


is stressed as a major component of any urban mobility strategy. For example, the construction of a high-capacity


public transport system needs to be integrated with other forms of public transport, as well as with other modes.


Such integration with various ‘feeder services’ is crucial to ensure that metros, light rail and bus rapid transit (BRT)


systems can fully utilize their potential as a ‘high-capacity’ public transport modes. It is therefore essential that


planners take into account how users (or goods) travel the ‘last (or first) mile’ of any trip. By way of an example,


it is not much use to live ‘within walking distance’ of a metro (or BRT) station, if this implies crossing a busy eight-


lane highway without a pedestrian crossing, or if one is unable to walk to the station (due to disability, or lack of


personal security). Likewise, it is unlikely that urban residents will make use of metros (and BRTs), if the nearest


station is located beyond walking distance, and there is no public transport ‘feeder’ services providing access to


these stations or no secure parking options for private vehicles near the stations.


Yet, it is important to note that considerable investments are still required in urban transportation infrastructure


in most cities, and particularly in developing countries. City authorities should ensure that such investments are


made where they are most needed. They should also make sure that they are commensurate with their financial,


institutional and technical capacities. In many cities of developing countries, large proportions of the population


cannot afford to pay the fare required to use public transport, or to buy a bicycle. Others may find these modes


of transport affordable, but choose not to use them as they find the safety and security of public transport to be


inadequate (due to sexual harassment or other forms of criminal behaviour), and/or the roads to be unsafe for


bicycle use or walking (due to lack of appropriate infrastructure). Investment in infrastructure for non-motorized


transport or affordable (and acceptable) public transport systems is a more equitable (and sustainable) use of scarce


funds.


However, many cities and metropolitan areas, all around the world, experience considerable institutional,


regulatory and governance problems when trying to address urban mobility challenges. In many cases national,


regional and local institutions may be missing or their responsibilities may be overlapping, and even in conflict


with each other. To address such concerns, the report notes that it is essential that all stakeholders in urban


transport – including all levels of government, transport providers and operators, the private sector, and civil


society (including transport users) – are engaged in the governance and development of urban mobility


systems.


To ensure effective integration of transportation and urban development policies, it is essential that urban


transportation and land-use policies are fully integrated. Such integration is required at all geographic scales. At


the micro level, much is to be gained from advancing the model of ‘complete streets’; an acknowledgement that


streets serve numerous purposes, not just moving cars and trucks. At the macro level, there is considerable scope


for cross-subsidies between different parts of the urban mobility system, including through value-capture


mechanisms which ensure that increased land and property values (generated by the development of high-capacity


public transport systems) benefits the city at large, and the wider metropolitan region, rather than private sector


actors alone.


Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility: Global Report on Human Settlements 2013is


released at a time when the challenges of urban transportation demands are greater than ever. This is particularly


PLANNING AND DESIGN FOR


1EEE


2


3 SUST AIN ABLE URBAN MOBILITY


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


1


2


3111


4


5


6


7


8


9


20


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


30


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


40


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


50


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9EEEE PLANNING AND DESIGN FOR


1EEE


2


3 SUST AIN ABLE URBAN MOBILITY


4


5


6


GLOBAL REPORT ON HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 2013


7


8


9


10


1


2


3111


4 United Nations Human Settlements Programme


5


6


7


8


9


20


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


30


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


40


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


50


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9EEEE First published 2013


by Routledge


2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN


Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada


by Routledge


711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017


Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business


© 2013 United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,


mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any


information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.


Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for


identification and explanation without intent to infringe.


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)


PO Box 30030, GPO Nairobi 00100, Kenya


Tel: +254 20 762 3120


Fax: +254 20 762 3477 / 4266 / 4267


Web: www.unhabitat.org


DISCLAIMER


The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any


opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country,


territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries, or regarding its


economic system or degree of development. The analysis, conclusions and recommendations of the report do not


necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, the Governing Council of the


United Nations Human Settlements Programme or its Member States.


British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Planning and design for sust aina bleurban mobility : global report on human settlements 2013 /


United Nations Human Settlements Programme.


pages cm


Includes bibliographical references and index.


1. Urban transportation. 2. Sus taina ble devel op ment. I. United Nations Human Settlements Programme.


HE305.P55 2013


711′.7—dc23


2013023163


HS Number: HS/031/13E (paperback)


HS/033/13E (hardback)


ISBN: 978-0-415-72318-3 (paperback)


978-1-315-85715-2 (ebook)


978-92-1-131929-3 (UN-Habitat series)


978-92-1-132568-3 (UN-Habitat paperback)


978-92-1-132570-6 (UN-Habitat hardback)


Typeset in Weidemann BT and Gill Sans by


Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon, UK


Cover by Austin Ogola 1EEE


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9 FOREWORD


10


1


2


3111


4


5


6


7


For more than half a century, most countries have experienced rapid urban growth and increased use of


8


motor vehicles. This has led to urban sprawl and even higher demand for motorized travel with a range of


9


environmental, social and economic consequences.


20


Urban transport is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions and a cause of ill-health due to air


1


and noise pollution. The traffic congestion created by unsustainable transportation systems is responsible for


2


significant economic and productivity costs for commuters and goods transporters.


3


These challenges are most pronounced in developing country cities. It is here that approximately 90 per


4


cent of global population growth will occur in the coming decades. These cities are already struggling to


5


meet increasing demand for investment in transportation. That is why my Five-year Action Agenda, launched


6


in January 2012, highlights urban transport – with a focus on pollution and congestion – as a core area for


7


advancing sustainable development.


8


This year’s edition of the UN-Habitat Global Report on Human Settlements provides guidance on


9


developing sustainable urban transportation systems. The report outlines trends and conditions and reviews


30


a range of responses to urban transport challenges worldwide. The report also analyses the relationship between


1


urban form and mobility, and calls for a future with more compact and efficient cities. It highlights the role


2


of urban planning in developing sustainable cities where non-motorized travel and public transport are the


3


preferred modes of transport.


4


I commend this report to all involved in developing sustainable cities and urban transport systems. Success


5


in this area is essential for creating more equitable, healthy and productive urban living environments that


6


benefit both people and the planet.


7


8


9


40


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


Ban Ki-moon


8


Secretary-General


9


United Nations


50


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9EEEE 1EEE


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9 INTRODUCTION


10


1


2


3111


4


5


6


7


Urban transport systems worldwide are faced by a multitude of challenges. In most cities, the economic dimensions


8


of such challenges tend to receive most attention. The traffic gridlocks experienced on city roads and highways


9 have been the basis for the development of most urban transportation strategies and policies. The solution prescribed


20 in most of these has been to build more infrastructures for cars, with a limited number of cities improving public


1 transport systems in a sustainable manner.


2 However, the transportation sector is also responsible for a number of other challenges that do not necessarily


3 get solved by the construction of new infrastructure. It is, for example, responsible for a large proportion of the


4 greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Furthermore, road traffic accidents are among the main


5 causes of premature deaths in most countries and cities. Likewise, the health effects of noise and air pollution


6 caused by motorized vehicles are a major cause for concern. In some cities, the physical separation of residential


7 areas from places of employment, markets, schools and health services force many urban residents to spend increasing


8 amounts of time, and as much as a third (and sometimes even more) of their income, on public transport.


9 While those among the urban populace that have access to a private car, or can afford to make regular use


30 of public transport, see traffic jams and congestion as a major concern; this is a marginal issue for people living


in ‘transport poverty’. Their only affordable option for urban transportation is their own feet. Persons with low


1


household incomes – but also others, including many women, and vulnerable groups such as the young, the elderly,


2


the disabled, and ethnic and other minorities – form the bulk of those characterized as living in transport


3


poverty.


4


Thus, when the Secretary-General of the United Nations launched his ‘5-year action agenda’ in January


5


2012, he identified sustainable transportation as one of the major building blocks of sustainable development. In


6


particular, he stressed the need for urgent action to develop more sustainable urban ‘transport systems


7


that can address rising congestion and pollution’. He noted that action was required by a range of actors,


8


including ‘aviation, marine, ferry, rail, road and urban public transport providers, along with Governments and


9


investors’.


40


Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility: Global Report on Human Settlements 2013


1


seeks to highlight the transportation challenges experienced in cities all over the world, and identifies examples


2 of good practice from specific cities of how to address such challenges. The report also provides recommendations


3 on how national, provincial and local governments and other stakeholders can develop more sustainable urban


4 futures through improved planning and design of urban transport systems.


5 The report argues that the development of sustainable urban transport systems requires a conceptual leap.


6 The purpose of ‘transportation’ and ‘mobility’ is to gain access to destinations, activities, services and goods. Thus,


7 accessis the ultimate objective of all transportation (save a small portion of recreational mobility). The construction


8 of more roads for low-income cities and countries is paramount to create the conditions to design effective transport


9 solutions. However, urban planning and design for these cities and others in the medium and high income brackets


50 is crucial to reduce distances and increase accessibility to enhancing sustainable urban transport solutions. If city


1 residents can achieve access without having to travel at all (for instance through telecommuting), through more


2 efficient travel (online shopping or car-sharing), or by travelling shorter distances, this will contribute to reducing


3 some of the challenges currently posed by urban transport. Thus, urban planning and design should focus on how


to bring people and places together, by creating cities that focus on accessibility, rather than simply increasing the


4


length of urban transport infrastructure or increasing the movement of people or goods.


5


The issue of urban form and functionality of the city is therefore a major focus of this report. Not only should


6


urban planning focus on increased population densities; cities should also encourage the development of mixed-


7


use areas. This implies a shift away from strict zoning regulations that have led to a physical separation of activities


8


and functions, and thus an increased need for travel. Instead, cities should be built around the concept of ‘streets’,


9EEEE viii


Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility


which can serve as the focus for building liveable communities. Cities should therefore encourage mixed land-


use, both in terms of functions (i.e. residential, commercial, manufacturing, service functions and recreational)


and in terms of social composition (i.e. with neighbourhoods containing a mixture of different income and social


groups).


Such developments also have the potential to make better use of existing transport infrastructure. Most of


today’s cities have been built as ‘zoned’ cities, which tends to make rather inefficient use of their infrastructure;


as ‘everyone’ is travelling in the same direction at the same time. In such cities, each morning is characterized by


(often severe) traffic jams on roads and congestion on public transport services leading from residential areas to


places of work. At the same time, however, the roads, buses and trains going in the opposite direction are empty.


In the afternoon the situation is the opposite. Thus, the infrastructure in such cities is operating at half capacity


only, despite congestion. In contrast, in cities characterized by ‘mixed land-use’ (such as Stockholm, Sweden),


traffic flows are multidirectional – thus making more efficient use of the infrastructure – as residential areas and


places of work are more evenly distributed across the urban landscape.


Furthermore, the report argues with strong empirical information that increased sustainability of urban passenger


transport systems can be achieved through modal shifts – by increasing the modal share of public transport and


non-motorized transport modes (walking and bicycling), and by reducing private motorized transport. Again, an


enhanced focus on urban planning and design is required, to ensure that cities are built to encourage environmentally


sustainable transportation modes. While encouraging a shift to non-motorized transport modes, however, the report


acknowledges that such modes are best suited for local travel and that motorized transport (in particular public


transport) has an important role while travelling longer distances. However, in many (if not most) countries there


is a considerable stigma against public transport. The private car is often seen as the most desirable travel option.


There is thus a need to enhance the acceptabilityof public transport systems. More needs to be done to increase


reliability and efficiency of public transport services and to make these services more secure and safe.


The report also notes that most trips involve a combination of several modes of transport. Thus, modal integration


is stressed as a major component of any urban mobility strategy. For example, the construction of a high-capacity


public transport system needs to be integrated with other forms of public transport, as well as with other modes.


Such integration with various ‘feeder services’ is crucial to ensure that metros, light rail and bus rapid transit (BRT)


systems can fully utilize their potential as a ‘high-capacity’ public transport modes. It is therefore essential that


planners take into account how users (or goods) travel the ‘last (or first) mile’ of any trip. By way of an example,


it is not much use to live ‘within walking distance’ of a metro (or BRT) station, if this implies crossing a busy eight-


lane highway without a pedestrian crossing, or if one is unable to walk to the station (due to disability, or lack of


personal security). Likewise, it is unlikely that urban residents will make use of metros (and BRTs), if the nearest


station is located beyond walking distance, and there is no public transport ‘feeder’ services providing access to


these stations or no secure parking options for private vehicles near the stations.


Yet, it is important to note that considerable investments are still required in urban transportation infrastructure


in most cities, and particularly in developing countries. City authorities should ensure that such investments are


made where they are most needed. They should also make sure that they are commensurate with their financial,


institutional and technical capacities. In many cities of developing countries, large proportions of the population


cannot afford to pay the fare required to use public transport, or to buy a bicycle. Others may find these modes


of transport affordable, but choose not to use them as they find the safety and security of public transport to be


inadequate (due to sexual harassment or other forms of criminal behaviour), and/or the roads to be unsafe for


bicycle use or walking (due to lack of appropriate infrastructure). Investment in infrastructure for non-motorized


transport or affordable (and acceptable) public transport systems is a more equitable (and sustainable) use of scarce


funds.


However, many cities and metropolitan areas, all around the world, experience considerable institutional,


regulatory and governance problems when trying to address urban mobility challenges. In many cases national,


regional and local institutions may be missing or their responsibilities may be overlapping, and even in conflict


with each other. To address such concerns, the report notes that it is essential that all stakeholders in urban


transport – including all levels of government, transport providers and operators, the private sector, and civil


society (including transport users) – are engaged in the governance and development of urban mobility


systems.


To ensure effective integration of transportation and urban development policies, it is essential that urban


transportation and land-use policies are fully integrated. Such integration is required at all geographic scales. At


the micro level, much is to be gained from advancing the model of ‘complete streets’; an acknowledgement that


streets serve numerous purposes, not just moving cars and trucks. At the macro level, there is considerable scope


for cross-subsidies between different parts of the urban mobility system, including through value-capture


mechanisms which ensure that increased land and property values (generated by the development of high-capacity


public transport systems) benefits the city at large, and the wider metropolitan region, rather than private sector


actors alone.


Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility: Global Report on Human Settlements 2013is


released at a time when the challenges of urban transportation demands are greater than ever. This is particularly


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