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Piping Materials Guide by Peter Smith

356 Pages · 2005 · 5.38 MB · English

  • Piping Materials Guide by Peter Smith

    Smith/PipingMaterialsGuide FinalProof 14.11.2004 10:45pm pagei


    P I P I N G


    M A T E R I A L S


    S E L E C T I O N A N D


    A P P L I C A T I O N S Smith/PipingMaterialsGuide FinalProof 14.11.2004 10:45pm pageii Smith/PipingMaterialsGuide FinalProof 14.11.2004 10:45pm pageiii


    P I P I N G


    M A T E R I A L S


    S E L E C T I O N A N D


    A P P L I C A T I O N S


    By


    PETER SMITH


    . . . . .


    AMSTER.DAM BOST.ON HEIDELBERG.LONDON N.EWYORK.OXFORD


    PARIS SANDIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO


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    CONTENTS


    Preface ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... vii


    1 The Piping Material Engineer.. ... ... ... ... ... ... 1


    2 Process Industry Codes and Standards ... ... ... .. 11


    3 Materials... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 37


    4 Piping Components .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 131


    5 Joints for Process Piping Systems.. ... ... ... ... . 171


    6 Bolts and Gaskets . .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 201


    7 Valves .. ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 213


    8 Glossaries and Abbreviations . ... ... ... ... ... . 243


    v Smith/PipingMaterialsGuide FinalProof 14.11.2004 10:45pm pagevi Smith/PipingMaterialsGuide FinalProof 14.11.2004 10:45pm pagevii


    PREFACE


    The Piping Material Selection Guide for Process Systems, as the title


    states, is a guide for the piping engineer who is faced with the challenge


    of choosing the correct piping materials of construction.


    The list of codes and standards in ASME B31.3 that apply to process


    plant design is huge, and it is impossible to cover them all in one book.


    Instead I use ASME B31.3 as the basic construction code, and I briefly


    touch on the most significant codes and standards applicable to the


    design of the plant.


    The EPC contractor is responsible for having all the necessary codes


    andstandards available at all times during the design,construction,and


    commissioning of the plant. These standards must be the final reference


    point, and the objective of this book is to guide the piping engineer to


    that point.


    Although the function of a piping material engineer is driven by code


    and specifications, there is no substitute for all-around experience. This


    can be gained from several areas: the design office, a manufacturer’s


    facility,thefabricationyard,aswellasthejobsite.Exposuretoasmanyof


    thesefacetsoftheprocessindustryaspossibleisbeneficialtothegrowth


    of an engineer’s professional development. Each sector has its own


    characteristics,andknowledgeofoneaidsthecomprehensiontheothers.


    The design office is where the project evolves and is engineered and


    developed on paper. A manufacturer’s facility is were the numerous


    individualcomponentsessentialforconstructionoftheprojectarebuilt.


    For piping this includes pipe, fittings, flanges, valves,bolts, gaskets,and


    the like. In the fabrication yard, the welded piping components are


    ‘‘spooled’’upfortransportationtothejobsite.Atthejobsite,paperand


    hardware come together and final fabrication and erection take place.


    Thevariouspipingsystemsarecommissioned,andtheprojectisbrought


    to its conclusion and finally handed over to the client’s operators. All


    these phases of a project are equally important, and it is very important


    vii Smith/PipingMaterialsGuide FinalProof 14.11.2004 10:45pm pageviii


    viii Preface


    that the engineer understand the challenges that arise in these very


    different environments.


    The PipingMaterial Selection Guidefor theProcess Systems is written


    to be useful to all piping engineers and designers involved in the design,


    construction,andcommissioningofoil,gas,andpetrochemicalfacilities.


    However, it is primarily aimed at the piping material engineer, the


    individual responsible for the selection and the specifying of piping


    material for process facilities.


    Pipingengineeringandthematerialsusedintheconstructionofpiping


    systemsisahugesubject.Itisvirtuallyimpossibletocoverallaspectsof


    itindepthinonevolume.Inthisbook,Itrytocoverthemostimportant


    areas and introduce the reader to the fundamentals of the specific


    subjects. I suggest readers skim through the pages to gain a familiarity


    withthetopicscovered.Ihaveintroducedeachsubjectandthenlinkedit


    with text and technical data. I limit my use of opinions and concentrate


    on mandatory statements that are set out in the design codes. These


    standards must be met or improved on.


    MostoftheindividualsIhaveworkedwithhavedevelopedtheirskills


    by working with fellow engineers who imparted their knowledge to the


    uninitiated.Theingredientsthatgointomakingagoodengineerarenot


    fullytaughtinschools,colleges,oruniversities,butbyexperiencegained


    listeningtomore-knowledgeablecolleagues,absorbinginformation,and


    through personal research.


    To be a complete engineer, it is essential not only to have knowledge


    but to share this knowledge with fellow piping engineers and other


    colleagues. A piping material engineer’s role is driven by codes,


    standards, technical data, and catalogued information. When asked a


    questionIbelievethat,ifpossible,theanswershouldbesupportedwitha


    copy from the relevant source of information. This allows recipients to


    filetheinformation,makesthemmoreconfident,andprotectsthepiping


    material engineer. It is a small action that pays big dividends.


    Despiteseveralexcellenttextbooksonpipingdesignandpipingstress,


    Iknowofnonethatspecializesinpipingmaterials.Itisnottheintention


    ofthisbooktoexplainthegeometryofthenumerouspipingcomponents


    and how their final shape is computed. All the piping components


    discussed in this book are covered by strict design codes or recognized


    manufacturers’ standards.Their dimensionsare carefully calculated and


    unlikely to change dramatically in the near or distant future. Indeed,


    most have remained the same dimensionally for several decades and


    longer. Smith/PipingMaterialsGuide FinalProof 14.11.2004 10:45pm pageix


    Preface ix


    Piping engineering is not rocket science. As a fellow engineer, not a


    piping specialist, once said, ‘‘I thought that the Romans sorted piping


    out.’’ Not true, but I see where my colleague was coming from. The


    pipingcontentofaprojectisgenerallythelargestofallthedisciplinesin


    material value, engineering, and construction personnel. Piping engin-


    eering also creates large volumes of paper in the form of drawings,


    specifications, and support documents. What it lacks in technical


    complexity it more than makes up for by the volumes of paperwork,


    which seem to increase each year.


    So,toconclude, althoughpipingmaynotadvanceasquicklyasother


    disciplines, such as instrumentation and electrical, which are driven


    greatly by vendors and technology, piping does not stand still. New


    materials are always being developed, as well as fresh methods of


    manufacturing and new designs, that constantly fine-tune what we


    inherited from our friends the Romans.


    Ifthisbookdoesnotcompletelyansweryourquestions,Ifeelsurethat


    it will guide you in the right direction.


    Peter Smith


    Fano, Italy


    June 2004


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