Pile Design and Construction Practice, Fifth edition - Civil engineering

566 Pages · 2007 · 11.44 MB · English

  • Pile Design and Construction Practice, Fifth edition - Civil engineering

    Pile Design and Construction

    Practice Also available from Taylor & Francis

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    Fifth edition

    Michael Tomlinson and

    John Woodward First published 1977,

    reprinted with amendments 1981,

    third edition 1987 by Palladian,

    reprinted 1991,fourth edition 1994,

    reprinted 1994,1995,1998 by E & FN Spon

    Fifth Edition published 2008

    by Taylor & Francis

    2 Park Square,Milton Park,Abingdon,Oxon OX14 4RN

    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada

    by Taylor & Francis

    270 Madison Ave,New York,NY 10016

    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2007.

    “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s

    collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”

    Taylor & Francis is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group,

    an informa business

    ©1977,1987,1994,2008 Michael Tomlinson and John Woodward

    All rights reserved.No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced

    or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means,

    now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording,

    or in any information storage or retrieval system,without permission in

    writing from the publishers.

    The publisher makes no representation,express or implied,with regard

    to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot

    accept any legal responsibility or liability for any efforts or

    omissions that may be made.

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

    Tomlinson,M.J.(Michael John)

    Pile design and construction practice / Michael Tomlinson and

    John Woodward .– 5th ed.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    1.Piling (Civil engineering) I.Woodward,John,1936–


    TA780.T65 2007

    624.1'54–dc22 2006019427

    ISBN 0-203-96429-2 Master e-book ISBN

    ISBN10:0–415–38582–2 (hbk)

    ISBN10:0–203–96429–2 (ebk)

    ISBN13:978–0–415–38582–4 (hbk)

    ISBN13:978–0–203–96429–3 (ebk) Contents

    Preface to fifth edition ix

    Preface to first edition xiii

    1 General principles and practices 1

    1.1 Function of piles 1

    1.2 Historical 1

    1.3 Calculations of load-carrying capacity 2

    1.4 Dynamic piling formulae 4

    1.5 Code of practice requirements 5

    1.6 Responsibilities of engineer and contractor 7

    1.7 References 9

    2 Types of pile 10

    2.1 Classification of piles 10

    2.2 Driven displacement piles 14

    2.3 Driven and cast-in-place displacement piles 50

    2.4 Replacement piles 58

    2.5 Composite piles 65

    2.6 Minipiles and micropiles 66

    2.7 Factors governing choice of type of pile 66

    2.8 Reuse of existing piled foundations 69

    2.9 References 69

    3 Piling equipment and methods 71

    3.1 Equipment for driven piles 72

    3.2 Equipment for installing driven and cast-in-place piles 104

    3.3 Equipment for installing bored and cast-in-place piles 106

    3.4 Procedure in pile installation 124

    3.5 Constructing piles in groups 137

    3.6 References 137 vi Contents

    4 Calculating the resistance of piles to compressive loads 139

    4.1 General considerations 139

    4.2 Calculations for piles in fine-grained soils 151

    4.3 Piles in coarse-grained soils 165

    4.4 Piles in soils intermediate between sands and clays 188

    4.5 Piles in layered fine- and coarse-grained soils 189

    4.6 The settlement of the single pile at the working load

    for piles in soil 192

    4.7 Piles bearing on rock 196

    4.8 Piles in fill – negative skin friction 212

    4.9 References 220

    4.10 Worked examples 223

    5 Pile groups under compressive loading 240

    5.1 Group action in piled foundations 240

    5.2 Pile groups in fine-grained soils 243

    5.3 Pile groups in coarse-grained soils 263

    5.4 Eurocode 7 recommendations for pile groups 272

    5.5 Pile groups terminating in rock 272

    5.6 Pile groups in filled ground 276

    5.7 Effects on pile groups of installation methods 278

    5.8 Precautions against heave effects in pile groups 281

    5.9 Pile groups beneath basements 282

    5.10 The optimization of pile groups to reduce

    differential settlements in clay 287

    5.11 References 288

    5.12 Worked examples 290

    6 The design of piled foundations to resist

    uplift and lateral loading 305

    6.1 The occurrence of uplift and lateral loading 305

    6.2 Uplift resistance of piles 308

    6.3 Single vertical piles subjected to lateral loads 327

    6.4 Lateral loads on raking piles 352

    6.5 Lateral loads on groups of piles 353

    6.6 References 356

    6.7 Worked examples 357

    7 Some aspects of the structural design of

    piles and pile groups 375

    7.1 General design requirements 375

    7.2 Designing reinforced concrete piles for lifting after fabrication 376 Contents vii

    7.3 Designing piles to resist driving stresses 379

    7.4 The effects on bending of piles below ground level 383

    7.5 The design of axially loaded piles as columns 383

    7.6 Lengthening piles 385

    7.7 Bonding piles with caps and ground beams 386

    7.8 The design of pile caps 388

    7.9 The design of pile capping beams and connecting ground beams 393

    7.10 References 396

    8 Piling for marine structures 398

    8.1 Berthing structures and jetties 398

    8.2 Fixed offshore platforms 416

    8.3 Pile installations for marine structures 418

    8.4 References 424

    8.5 Worked examples 425

    9 Miscellaneous piling problems 434

    9.1 Piling for machinery foundations 434

    9.2 Piling for underpinning 437

    9.3 Piling in mining subsidence areas 445

    9.4 Piling in frozen ground 449

    9.5 Piled foundations for bridges on land 453

    9.6 Piled foundations for over-water bridges 463

    9.7 Piled foundations in karst 472

    9.8 Energy piles 474

    9.9 References 475

    9.10 Worked example 477

    10 The durability of piled foundations 478

    10.1 General 478

    10.2 Durability and protection of timber piles 479

    10.3 Durability and protection of concrete piles 486

    10.4 Durability and protection of steel piles 492

    10.5 References 497

    11 Ground investigations,piling contracts,pile testing 498

    11.1 Ground investigations 498

    11.2 Piling contracts and specifications 508

    11.3 Control of pile installation 514

    11.4 Load testing of piles 520

    11.5 Tests for the structural integrity of piles 535

    11.6 References 537 viii Contents

    Appendix:properties of materials 539

    A.1 Coarse-grained soils 539

    A.2 Fine-grained and organic soils 539

    A.3 Rocks and other materials 540

    A.4 Engineering classification of chalk 540

    Name index 543

    Subject index 547 Preface to fifth edition

    Piling rigs are a commonplace feature on building sites in cities and towns today. The

    continuing introduction of new, more powerful, and self-erecting machines for installing

    piled foundations has transformed the economics of this form of construction in ground

    conditions where, in the past, first consideration would have been given to conventional

    spread or raft foundations, with piling being adopted only as a last resort in difficult


    The increased adoption of piling is not only due to the availability of more efficient

    mechanical equipment. Developments in analytical methods of calculating bearing capacity

    and dynamic methods for load and integrity testing have resulted in greater assurance of

    sound long-term performance. Further economies in foundation and superstructure design

    are now possible because of the increased ability to predict movements of piles under load,

    thus allowing engineers to adopt with confidence the concept of redistribution of load

    between piles with consequent savings in overall pile lengths and cross-sectional dimensions,

    as described in this new edition.

    Since the publication of the fourth edition of this book, Eurocode 7, Geotechnical Design,

    has been issued. As the name implies this code does not deal with all aspects of foundation

    design; there are extensive cross-references to other Eurocodes dealing with such matters as

    the general basis of design and the properties of constructional materials. The Code does not

    cover foundation design and particularly construction as comprehensively as the present

    British Standard 8004 Foundations, and the British National Annex to Eurocode 7 is yet to

    be published. The authors have endeavoured to co-ordinate the principles of both codes in this

    new book.

    The authors are grateful to Professor Richard Jardine and his colleagues at Imperial

    College and Thomas Telford Limited for permission to quote from their book on the ICP

    method of designing piles driven into clays and sands based on extensive laboratory research

    and practical field testing of instrumented piles. Their work represents a considerable

    advance on previous design methods. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the help of

    Mr Ian Higginbottom in checking the proofs and Mr Tony Bracegirdle of the Geotechnical

    Consulting Group for his helpful comments on the application of Eurocode 7 to the design

    of piles and pile groups.

    Many specialist piling companies and manufacturers of piling equipment have kindly

    supplied technical information and illustrations of their processes and products. Where

    appropriate the source of this information is given in the text.

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