Organic Waste Recycling

Organic Waste Recycling

Organic Waste Recycling

538 Pages ·2007·8.74 MB ·English

Organic Waste Recycling

O


r Organic Waste Recycling


This book covers the principles and practices of technologies for the control g


a


of pollution originating from organic wastes (e.g. human faeces and urine,


n


wastewater, solid wastes, animal manure and agro-industrial wastes) and the i


c


recycling of these organic wastes into valuable products such as fertilizer, Technology and Management


W


biofuels, algal and fish protein and irrigated crops.


a


s


Each recycling technology is described with respect to: t 3rd Edition


e


• Objectives


R


• Benefits and limitations e


c Chongrak Polprasert


• Environmental requirements y


c


• Design criteria of the process l


i


n


• Use of the recycled products


g



• Pubic health aspects


T


e


c


This new edition, an update of the previous book, is a response to the hn


o


emerging environmental problems caused by rapid population growth and lo


g


industrialization. It describes the current technology and management options y



a


for organic waste recycling which are environmentally friendly, effective in n


d



pollution control and yield valuable by-products. Every chapter has been revised M


a


to include successful case studies, new references, design examples and n


a


g


exercises. New sections added to the 3rd edition include: Millennium e


m


development goals, waste minimization and cleaner production, methanol and e


n


ethanol production, chitin and chitosan production, constructed wetlands, t



3


management and institutional development. rd



E


d


This is a textbook for environmental science, engineering and management it


students who are interested in the current environmental problems and seeking io


n


solutions to the emerging issues. It should be a valuable reference book for


policy makers, planners and consultants working in the environmental fields.


C


h


o


n


g


r


a


k



P


o


lp


r


a


s


e


www.iwapublishing.com rt


ISBN 184339121X ISBN 13: 9781843391210


6.14 x 9.21 6.14 x 9.21


1.099 Organic Waste Recycling


Technology and Management Organic Waste Recycling


Technology and Management


Third Edition


Chongrak Polprasert


Environmental Engineering and Management Field


Asian Institute of Technology


Bangkok


Thailand Published by IWA Publishing, Alliance House, 12 Caxton Street, London SW1H 0QS, UK


Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7654 5500; Fax: +44 (0) 20 7654 5555; Email: publications@iwap.co.uk


Web: www.iwapublishing.com


First published 2007


© 2007 IWA Publishing


Printed by Lightning Source


Cover design by www.designforpublishing.co.uk


Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review,


as permitted under the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act (1998), no part of this publication


may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior


permission in writing of the publisher, or, in the case of photographic reproduction, in accordance


with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance


with the terms of licenses issued by the appropriate reproduction rights organization outside the


UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to IWA


Publishing at the address printed above.


The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the


information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for


errors or omissions that may be made.


Disclaimer


The information provided and the opinions given in this publication are not necessarily those of


IWA and should not be acted upon without independent consideration and professional advice.


IWA and the Author will not accept responsibility for any loss or damage suffered by any person


acting or refraining from acting upon any material contained in this publication.


British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library


Library of Congress Cataloging- in-Publication Data


A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress


ISBN: 184339121X


ISBN13: 9781843391210 Contents


Preface ix


Abbreviations and symbols xi


Atomic weight and number of elements xvi


Conversion factor for SI units xix



1 Introduction 1


1.1 Problems and need for waste recycling 1


1.2 Objectives and scope of organic waste recycling 6


1.3 Integrated and alternative technologies 9


1.4 Feasibility and social acceptance of waste recycling 17


1.5 References 19


1.6 Exercises 20



2 Characteristics of organic wastes 21


2.1 Human wastes 22


2.2 Animal wastes 28 iv Contents


2.3 Agro-industrial wastewaters 30


2.4 Pollution caused by human wastes and other wastewaters 54


2.5 Diseases associated with human and animal wastes 57


2.6 Cleaner production (CP) 72


2.7 References 83


2.8 Exercises 86



3 Composting 88


3.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations of composting 89


3.2 Biochemical reactions 92


3.3 Biological succession 95


3.4 Environmental requirements 97


3.5 Composting maturity 109


3.6 Composting systems and design criteria 111


3.7 Public health aspects of composting 129


3.8 Utilization of composted products 134


3.9 References 140


3.10 Exercises 142



4 Biofuel production 145


4.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations of biogas technology 147


4.2 Biochemical reactions and microbiology of anaerobic digestion 150


4.3 Environmental requirements for anaerobic digestion 158


4.4 Modes of operation and types of biogas digesters 162


4.5 Biogas production 185


4.6 End uses of biogas and digested slurry 199


4.7 Ethanol production 207


4.8 References 213


4.9 Exercises 215



5 Algae production 219


5.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations 222


5.2 Algal production and high-rate algal ponds 225


5.3 Algal harvesting technologies 244


5.4 Utilization of waste-grown algae 251


5.5 Public health aspects and public acceptance 255


5.6 References 257


5.7 Exercises 259



6 Fish production 262


6.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations 263 Contents v


6.2 Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores 267


6.3 Biological food chains in waste-fed ponds 269


6.4 Biochemical reactions in waste-fed ponds 272


6.5 Environmental requirements and design criteria 274


6.6 Utilization of waste-grown fish 293


6.7 Public health aspects and public acceptance 295


6.8 Chitin and chitosan production 299


6.9 References 302


6.10 Exercises 305



7 Aquatic weeds and their utilization 308


7.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations 309


7.2 Major types and functions 310


7.3 Weed composition 313


7.4 Productivity and problems caused by aquatic weeds 316


7.5 Harvesting, processing and uses 321


7.6 Food potential 330


7.7 Wastewater treatment using aquatic weeds 338


7.8 Health hazards relating to aquatic weeds 375


7.9 References 376


7.10 Exercises 379



8 Land treatment of wastewater 383


8.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations 383


8.2 Wastewater renovation processes 384


8.3 Wastewater renovation mechanisms 399


8.4 System design and operation 407


8.5 Land treatment – design equations 418


8.6 System monitoring 430


8.7 Public health aspects and public acceptance 436


8.8 References 440


8.9 Exercises 441



9 Land treatment of sludge 445


9.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations 446


9.2 Sludge transport and application procedures 450


9.3 System design and sludge application rates 454


9.4 Toxic compounds vs. crop growth 469


9.5 Microbiological aspects of sludge application on land 470


9.6 References 472 vi Contents


9.7 Exercises 473



10 Management of organic waste recycling program 476


10.1 Planning for waste recycling programs 476


10.2 Guidelines for technology and site selection 483


10.3 Institutional arrangements 486


10.4 Regulatory aspects 488


10.5 Monitoring and control of facility performance 501


10.6 Case studies of waste recycling management program 503


10.7 References 507


10.8 Exercises 508



Index 509 Preface


As the world population is projected to increase from the current number of 6


billions to 9 billions in the year 2050, the amount of organic wastes generated


from human, animal and agricultural activities would also increase, causing


more pollution problems to the environment. The Millennium Development


Goals call for actions on environmental protection, sustainable development and


poverty alleviation. Despite a lot of efforts from the national and international


agencies, waste treatment alone will not be able to respond effectively to the


challenges.


The book presents new concept and strategy of waste management which


combines technologies of waste treatment and recycling and emphasizing the


benefits to be gained from use of the recycled products. These technologies such


as composting, fermentation, algal photosynthesis, and natural treatment


systems are cost-effective, bring economic returns and are applicable to most


countries, in particular those located in the tropical areas. They are considered as


sustainable technologies which, if properly applied, should be an effective tool


in responding to the Millennium Development Goals.


In the third edition, I have included up-to-date information on organic waste


recycling technologies and more case studies of successful organic waste


O


r Organic Waste Recycling


This book covers the principles and practices of technologies for the control g


a


of pollution originating from organic wastes (e.g. human faeces and urine,


n


wastewater, solid wastes, animal manure and agro-industrial wastes) and the i


c


recycling of these organic wastes into valuable products such as fertilizer, Technology and Management


W


biofuels, algal and fish protein and irrigated crops.


a


s


Each recycling technology is described with respect to: t 3rd Edition


e


• Objectives


R


• Benefits and limitations e


c Chongrak Polprasert


• Environmental requirements y


c


• Design criteria of the process l


i


n


• Use of the recycled products


g



• Pubic health aspects


T


e


c


This new edition, an update of the previous book, is a response to the hn


o


emerging environmental problems caused by rapid population growth and lo


g


industrialization. It describes the current technology and management options y



a


for organic waste recycling which are environmentally friendly, effective in n


d



pollution control and yield valuable by-products. Every chapter has been revised M


a


to include successful case studies, new references, design examples and n


a


g


exercises. New sections added to the 3rd edition include: Millennium e


m


development goals, waste minimization and cleaner production, methanol and e


n


ethanol production, chitin and chitosan production, constructed wetlands, t



3


management and institutional development. rd



E


d


This is a textbook for environmental science, engineering and management it


students who are interested in the current environmental problems and seeking io


n


solutions to the emerging issues. It should be a valuable reference book for


policy makers, planners and consultants working in the environmental fields.


C


h


o


n


g


r


a


k



P


o


lp


r


a


s


e


www.iwapublishing.com rt


ISBN 184339121X ISBN 13: 9781843391210


6.14 x 9.21 6.14 x 9.21


1.099 Organic Waste Recycling


Technology and Management Organic Waste Recycling


Technology and Management


Third Edition


Chongrak Polprasert


Environmental Engineering and Management Field


Asian Institute of Technology


Bangkok


Thailand Published by IWA Publishing, Alliance House, 12 Caxton Street, London SW1H 0QS, UK


Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7654 5500; Fax: +44 (0) 20 7654 5555; Email: publications@iwap.co.uk


Web: www.iwapublishing.com


First published 2007


© 2007 IWA Publishing


Printed by Lightning Source


Cover design by www.designforpublishing.co.uk


Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review,


as permitted under the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act (1998), no part of this publication


may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior


permission in writing of the publisher, or, in the case of photographic reproduction, in accordance


with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance


with the terms of licenses issued by the appropriate reproduction rights organization outside the


UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to IWA


Publishing at the address printed above.


The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the


information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for


errors or omissions that may be made.


Disclaimer


The information provided and the opinions given in this publication are not necessarily those of


IWA and should not be acted upon without independent consideration and professional advice.


IWA and the Author will not accept responsibility for any loss or damage suffered by any person


acting or refraining from acting upon any material contained in this publication.


British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library


Library of Congress Cataloging- in-Publication Data


A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress


ISBN: 184339121X


ISBN13: 9781843391210 Contents


Preface ix


Abbreviations and symbols xi


Atomic weight and number of elements xvi


Conversion factor for SI units xix



1 Introduction 1


1.1 Problems and need for waste recycling 1


1.2 Objectives and scope of organic waste recycling 6


1.3 Integrated and alternative technologies 9


1.4 Feasibility and social acceptance of waste recycling 17


1.5 References 19


1.6 Exercises 20



2 Characteristics of organic wastes 21


2.1 Human wastes 22


2.2 Animal wastes 28 iv Contents


2.3 Agro-industrial wastewaters 30


2.4 Pollution caused by human wastes and other wastewaters 54


2.5 Diseases associated with human and animal wastes 57


2.6 Cleaner production (CP) 72


2.7 References 83


2.8 Exercises 86



3 Composting 88


3.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations of composting 89


3.2 Biochemical reactions 92


3.3 Biological succession 95


3.4 Environmental requirements 97


3.5 Composting maturity 109


3.6 Composting systems and design criteria 111


3.7 Public health aspects of composting 129


3.8 Utilization of composted products 134


3.9 References 140


3.10 Exercises 142



4 Biofuel production 145


4.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations of biogas technology 147


4.2 Biochemical reactions and microbiology of anaerobic digestion 150


4.3 Environmental requirements for anaerobic digestion 158


4.4 Modes of operation and types of biogas digesters 162


4.5 Biogas production 185


4.6 End uses of biogas and digested slurry 199


4.7 Ethanol production 207


4.8 References 213


4.9 Exercises 215



5 Algae production 219


5.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations 222


5.2 Algal production and high-rate algal ponds 225


5.3 Algal harvesting technologies 244


5.4 Utilization of waste-grown algae 251


5.5 Public health aspects and public acceptance 255


5.6 References 257


5.7 Exercises 259



6 Fish production 262


6.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations 263 Contents v


6.2 Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores 267


6.3 Biological food chains in waste-fed ponds 269


6.4 Biochemical reactions in waste-fed ponds 272


6.5 Environmental requirements and design criteria 274


6.6 Utilization of waste-grown fish 293


6.7 Public health aspects and public acceptance 295


6.8 Chitin and chitosan production 299


6.9 References 302


6.10 Exercises 305



7 Aquatic weeds and their utilization 308


7.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations 309


7.2 Major types and functions 310


7.3 Weed composition 313


7.4 Productivity and problems caused by aquatic weeds 316


7.5 Harvesting, processing and uses 321


7.6 Food potential 330


7.7 Wastewater treatment using aquatic weeds 338


7.8 Health hazards relating to aquatic weeds 375


7.9 References 376


7.10 Exercises 379



8 Land treatment of wastewater 383


8.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations 383


8.2 Wastewater renovation processes 384


8.3 Wastewater renovation mechanisms 399


8.4 System design and operation 407


8.5 Land treatment – design equations 418


8.6 System monitoring 430


8.7 Public health aspects and public acceptance 436


8.8 References 440


8.9 Exercises 441



9 Land treatment of sludge 445


9.1 Objectives, benefits, and limitations 446


9.2 Sludge transport and application procedures 450


9.3 System design and sludge application rates 454


9.4 Toxic compounds vs. crop growth 469


9.5 Microbiological aspects of sludge application on land 470


9.6 References 472 vi Contents


9.7 Exercises 473



10 Management of organic waste recycling program 476


10.1 Planning for waste recycling programs 476


10.2 Guidelines for technology and site selection 483


10.3 Institutional arrangements 486


10.4 Regulatory aspects 488


10.5 Monitoring and control of facility performance 501


10.6 Case studies of waste recycling management program 503


10.7 References 507


10.8 Exercises 508



Index 509 Preface


As the world population is projected to increase from the current number of 6


billions to 9 billions in the year 2050, the amount of organic wastes generated


from human, animal and agricultural activities would also increase, causing


more pollution problems to the environment. The Millennium Development


Goals call for actions on environmental protection, sustainable development and


poverty alleviation. Despite a lot of efforts from the national and international


agencies, waste treatment alone will not be able to respond effectively to the


challenges.


The book presents new concept and strategy of waste management which


combines technologies of waste treatment and recycling and emphasizing the


benefits to be gained from use of the recycled products. These technologies such


as composting, fermentation, algal photosynthesis, and natural treatment


systems are cost-effective, bring economic returns and are applicable to most


countries, in particular those located in the tropical areas. They are considered as


sustainable technologies which, if properly applied, should be an effective tool


in responding to the Millennium Development Goals.


In the third edition, I have included up-to-date information on organic waste


recycling technologies and more case studies of successful organic waste


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