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NEPHROLOGY FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS

220 Pages · 2006 · 2.79 MB · English

  • NEPHROLOGY FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS



    NEPHROLOGY


    FOR


    MEDICAL STUDENTS



    by


    MOHAMED A. SOBH



    Prof. and head of Nephrology Department,


    Urology and Nephrology Center,


    University of Mansoura, Mansoura, Egypt

































    NEPHROLOGY


    FOR


    MEDICAL


    STUDENTS





    NEPHROLOGY


    FOR


    MEDICAL STUDENTS





    By


    MOHAMED A. SOBH



    Prof. and head of Nephrology Department, Urology and


    Nephrology Center


    University of Mansoura, Mansoura, Egypt




    Dedication



    To the soul of my dear father


    To my dear mother


    To my lovely wife, and


    To my children.





















    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



    Professor Jacob Churg, USA and IGAKU-SHOIN


    Medical Publishers, Inc Japan are acknowledged for granting a


    permission to reproduce some of their histopathology figures.


    Also, Novartis, Egypt, is acknowledged for facilitating the


    permission to reproduce some of Frank Netter's illustrations


    (The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations, Vol. 6,


    illustrated by M.D. all rights reserved).



    The gratitude is for Dr. Fatma El-Husseini, professor of


    pathology for providing some of her pathology figures. Dr.


    Tarek El-Diasty, consultant radiologist, is acknowledged for


    providing the radiology figures. The valuable help provided by


    Dr. M. Ashraf Foda, Dr. Ahmed Donia, Dr. Ahmed Hamdy and


    Dr. Mahmoud Mohasseb is highly appreciated.



    The clever secretarial work of Mrs. Hend Sharaby and


    Heba Zaher are greatly acknowledged.




    PREFACE



    Renal diseases are increasing worldwide. Doctors in all


    specialties are facing renal diseases either as isolated disorder or


    in association with other disease. For these reasons it became


    mandatory to give more attention for better education of renal


    diseases especially for young doctors and medical students.



    This book is written essentially for medical students and


    general practionares. It covers most of the items of renal


    diseases in a simple fashion with sufficient number of


    illustrations and figures.



    For those who are seeking for more details, this could be


    easily obtained from the more comprehensive version of this


    book entitled "Essentials of Clinical Nephrology".



    The author



    Dr. Mohamed Sobh




    The Author



    Name : Dr. Mohamed A Sobh


    Born : 8th, Oct., 1949


    Nationality: Egyptian


    Social Status: Married




    CERTIFICATES:



    1973 M.B., B.Ch


    1977 M.Sc. (Internal Medicine)


    1978 ECFMG (294-874-3) London, UK


    1980 TOEFL (3693139) Montrial, Canada


    1982 M.D. (Internal Medicine)


    1996 MACP (Member American College of Physians)


    1997 FACP ( Fellow American College of Physians)



    TRAINING:



    • In Internal Medicine (Mansoura University


    Hospitals).


    • In Nephrology (Sherbrook University Hospital,


    canada).



    PRESENT POSITION:



    • Professor and head of nephrology section, Urology and Nephrology


    Center, University of Mansoura.



    MEMBERSHIP:



    • Egyptian Society of Nephrology.


    • International Society of Nephrology.


    • European Society of Nephrology.





    PRIZES:



    • Winner of the National Encouragement Prize for Medical Science, Egypt,


    1987.


    • Winner of Dr. Mohamed Fakhry prize for the most distinguished research in


    Internal Medicine, Awarded by the Egyptian Academey of Research and


    Technology, 1987.


    • Winner of Abd El-Hamid Shoman foundation Prize for the Arab Scientists


    in The Clinical Medical Sciences, Jordan, 1988.


    • Winner of the Arab Prize for the most distinguished Medical Research


    (Awarded by the President of the Algerian Republic), 1993.


    • Winner of the National Prize for the Distinction in


    Medical Sciences, 1999.





    CONTENTS





    PART I: RENAL FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURE


    • Kidney functions ......................................................... 1


    • Anatomy of the kidney ................................................... 2




    PART II: INVESTIGATIONS FOR KIDNEY DISEASES


    • Biochemical investigations .............................................. 6


    • Microbiological examination of urine .................................. 8


    • Immunological tests ...................................................... 8


    • Radiologic examinations ................................................ 9




    PART III: GLOMERULAR DISEASES


    • Pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis.....................................15


    • Classification of glomerulonephritis.....................................15


    • Nephrotic syndrome ....................................................19


    • Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis ..........................24


    • Secondary glomerulonephritis...........................................25


    • Lupus nephritis ............................................................26


    • Renal involvement in vasculitis .........................................27


    • Henoch-Schönlein purpura ..............................................28


    • Essential mixed cryoglobulinaemia .....................................30


    • Diabetic nephropathy .....................................................30


    • Alport syndrome ..........................................................32


    • Fabry's disease ...........................................................32


    • Nail-patella syndrome ...................................................32


    • Malarial nephropathy ....................................................33




    • Schistosomal nephropathy ..............................................33


    • Glomerulopathy secondary to virus infections .......................34



    PART IV: ACUTE RENAL FAILURE ................................ 36







    PART V: CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE:


    • Definitions .................................................................45


    • Etiology .....................................................................45


    • Clinical features ............................................................47


    • Investigations ..............................................................53


    • Management ............................................................... 54


    • Dialysis .................................................................... 57


    • Transplantation ...........................................................64



    PART VI: RENAL TUBULAR AND TUBULOINTERSTITIAL DISEASES


    • Renal glycosuria .........................................................68


    • Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) ..........................................68


    • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus .......................................72


    • Water retention ..........................................................74


    • Interstitial nephritis......................................................74


    • Analgesic nephropathy.................................................78


    • Reflux nephropathy....................................................80


    • Pyelonephritis.........................................................82


    • Urinary tuberculosis ..................................................86



    PART VII: RENAL CYSTIC DISEASES



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