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NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

360 Pages · 2007 · 14.85 MB · English

  • NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA/SP-2007-6105


    Rev1


    NASA


    Systems Engineering


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    ographies that contain minimal annotation. Does not 7115 Standard Drive


    contain extensive analysis. Hanover, MD 21076-1320 NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev1


    Systems Engineering Handbook



    National Aeronautics and Space Administration


    NASA Headquarters


    Washington, D.C. 20546


    December 2007 To request print or electronic copies or provide comments,



    contact the Office of the Chief Engineer via



    [email protected]



    Electronic copies are also available from



    NASA Center for AeroSpace Information



    7115 Standard Drive



    Hanover, MD 21076-1320



    at



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    Table of Contents



    Preface ..............................................................................................................................................................xiii



    Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................................................xv



    1.0 Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................1



    1.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1



    1.2 Scope and Depth ........................................................................................................................................................ 1



    2.0 Fundamentals of Systems Engineering .....................................................................................................3



    2.1 The Common Technical Processes and the SE Engine ......................................................................................... 4



    2.2 An Overview of the SE Engine by Project Phase ................................................................................................... 6



    2.3 Example of Using the SE Engine .............................................................................................................................. 7



    2.3.1 Detailed Example ........................................................................................................................................... 8



    2.3.2 Example Premise ............................................................................................................................................ 8



    2.3.2.1 Example Phase A System Design Passes....................................................................................... 8



    2.3.2.2 Example Product Realization Passes ........................................................................................... 12



    2.3.2.3 Example Use of the SE Engine in Phases B Through D ............................................................ 14



    2.3.2.4 Example Use of the SE Engine in Phases E and F ..................................................................... 14



    2.4 Distinctions Between Product Verification and Product Validation ................................................................ 15



    2.5 Cost Aspect of Systems Engineering ..................................................................................................................... 16



    3.0 NASA Program/Project Life Cycle ............................................................................................................ 19



    3.1 Program Formulation .............................................................................................................................................. 19



    3.2 Program Implementation ....................................................................................................................................... 21



    3.3 Project Pre-Phase A: Concept Studies .................................................................................................................. 22



    3.4 Project Phase A: Concept and Technology Development .................................................................................. 22



    3.5 Project Phase B: Preliminary Design and Technology Completion ................................................................. 24



    3.6 Project Phase C: Final Design and Fabrication .................................................................................................... 25



    3.7 Project Phase D: System Assembly, Integration and Test, Launch .................................................................... 25



    3.8 Project Phase E: Operations and Sustainment ..................................................................................................... 28



    3.9 Project Phase F: Closeout ....................................................................................................................................... 28



    3.10 Funding: The Budget Cycle. .................................................................................................................................... 29



    4.0 System Design ......................................................................................................................................... 31



    4.1 Stakeholder Expectations Definition. .................................................................................................................... 33



    4.1.1 Process Description ..................................................................................................................................... 33



    4.1.1.1 Inputs .............................................................................................................................................. 33



    4.1.1.2 Process Activities ........................................................................................................................... 33



    4.1.1.3 Outputs ........................................................................................................................................... 35



    4.1.2 Stakeholder Expectations Definition Guidance ....................................................................................... 35



    4.1.2.1 Concept of Operations .................................................................................................................. 35



    4.2 Technical Requirements Definition ....................................................................................................................... 40



    4.2.1 Process Description ..................................................................................................................................... 40



    4.2.1.1 Inputs .............................................................................................................................................. 41



    4.2.1.2 Process Activities ........................................................................................................................... 41



    4.2.1.3 Outputs ........................................................................................................................................... 41



    4.2.2 Technical Requirements Definition Guidance ......................................................................................... 41



    4.2.2.1 Types of Requirements.................................................................................................................. 41



    NASA Systems Engineering Handbook uf06c iii Table of Contents


    4.2.2.2 Human Factors Engineering Requirements ............................................................................... 45



    4.2.2.3 Requirements Decomposition, Allocation, and Validation ..................................................... 45



    4.2.2.4 Capturing Requirements and the Requirements Database ...................................................... 47



    4.2.2.5 Technical Standards ...................................................................................................................... 47



    4.3 Logical Decomposition ........................................................................................................................................... 49



    4.3.1 Process Description .................................................................................................................................... 49



    4.3.1.1 Inputs .............................................................................................................................................. 49



    4.3.1.2 Process Activities ........................................................................................................................... 49



    4.3.1.3 Outputs ........................................................................................................................................... 51



    4.3.2 Logical Decomposition Guidance ............................................................................................................. 52



    4.3.2.1 Product Breakdown Structure ..................................................................................................... 52



    4.3.2.2 Functional Analysis Techniques .................................................................................................. 52



    4.4 Design Solution Definition ....................................................................................................................................... 55



    4.4.1 Process Description ........................................................................................................................................ 55



    4.4.1.1 Inputs ................................................................................................................................................ 55



    4.4.1.2 Process Activities ............................................................................................................................. 56



    4.4.1.3 Outputs ............................................................................................................................................. 61



    4.4.2 Design Solution Definition Guidance.......................................................................................................... 62



    4.4.2.1 Technology Assessment ................................................................................................................ 62



    4.4.2.2 Integrating Engineering Specialties into the Systems Engineering Process .......................... 62



    5.0 Product Realization ................................................................................................................................. 71



    5.1 Product Implementation ......................................................................................................................................... 73



    5.1.1 Process Description ..................................................................................................................................... 73



    5.1.1.1 Inputs .............................................................................................................................................. 73



    5.1.1.2 Process Activities .......................................................................................................................... 74



    5.1.1.3 Outputs ........................................................................................................................................... 75



    5.1.2 Product Implementation Guidance ........................................................................................................... 76



    5.1.2.1 Buying Off-the-Shelf Products .................................................................................................... 76



    5.1.2.2 Heritage ........................................................................................................................................... 76



    5.2 Product Integration ................................................................................................................................................. 78



    5.2.1 Process Description ..................................................................................................................................... 78



    5.2.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................. 79



    5.2.1.2 Process Activities ........................................................................................................................... 79



    5.2.1.3 Outputs ........................................................................................................................................... 79



    5.2.2 Product Integration Guidance ................................................................................................................... 80



    5.2.2.1 Integration Strategy ....................................................................................................................... 80



    5.2.2.2 Relationship to Product Implementation .................................................................................. 80



    5.2.2.3 Product/Interface Integration Support ....................................................................................... 80



    5.2.2.4 Product Integration of the Design Solution ............................................................................... 81



    5.2.2.5 Interface Management .................................................................................................................. 81



    5.2.2.6 Compatibility Analysis.................................................................................................................. 81



    5.2.2.7 Interface Management Tasks ........................................................................................................ 81



    5.3 Product Verification ............................................................................................................................................... 83



    5.3.1 Process Description ..................................................................................................................................... 83



    5.3.1.1 Inputs .............................................................................................................................................. 83



    5.3.1.2 Process Activities ........................................................................................................................... 84



    5.3.1.3 Outputs ........................................................................................................................................... 89



    5.3.2 Product Verification Guidance................................................................................................................... 89



    5.3.2.1 Verification Program ..................................................................................................................... 89



    5.3.2.2 Verification in the Life Cycle ........................................................................................................ 89



    5.3.2.3 Verification Procedures ................................................................................................................ 92



    iv uf06c NASA Systems Engineering Handbook Table of Contents


    5.3.2.4 Verification Reports ...................................................................................................................... 93



    5.3.2.5 End-to-End System Testing ......................................................................................................... 93



    5.3.2.6 Modeling and Simulation ............................................................................................................. 96



    5.3.2.7 Hardware-in-the-Loop ................................................................................................................. 96



    5.4 Product Validation ................................................................................................................................................... 98



    5.4.1 Process Description ..................................................................................................................................... 98



    5.4.1.1 Inputs .............................................................................................................................................. 98



    5.4.1.2 Process Activities ........................................................................................................................... 99



    5.4.1.3 Outputs ......................................................................................................................................... 104



    5.4.2 Product Validation Guidance ...................................................................................................................104



    5.4.2.1 Modeling and Simulation ...........................................................................................................104



    5.4.2.2 Software ........................................................................................................................................ 104



    5.5 Product Transition ................................................................................................................................................ 106



    5.5.1 Process Description ................................................................................................................................... 106



    5.5.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................ 106



    5.5.1.2 Process Activities ......................................................................................................................... 107



    5.5.1.3 Outputs ......................................................................................................................................... 109



    5.5.2 Product Transition Guidance ...................................................................................................................110



    5.5.2.1 Additional Product Transition Input Considerations ............................................................ 110



    5.5.2.2 After Product Transition to the End User—What Next? ....................................................... 110



    6.0 Crosscutting Technical Management .................................................................................................. 111



    6.1 Technical Planning ................................................................................................................................................ 112



    6.1.1 Process Description ................................................................................................................................... 112



    6.1.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................ 112



    6.1.1.2 Process Activities ......................................................................................................................... 113



    6.1.1.3 Outputs ......................................................................................................................................... 122



    6.1.2 Technical Planning Guidance .................................................................................................................. 122



    6.1.2.1 Work Breakdown Structure ........................................................................................................ 122



    6.1.2.2 Cost Definition and Modeling ...................................................................................................125



    6.1.2.3 Lessons Learned .......................................................................................................................... 129



    6.2 Requirements Management .................................................................................................................................. 131



    6.2.1 Process Description ................................................................................................................................... 131



    6.2.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................ 131



    6.2.1.2 Process Activities ......................................................................................................................... 132



    6.2.1.3 Outputs ......................................................................................................................................... 134



    6.2.2 Requirements Management Guidance .................................................................................................... 134



    6.2.2.1 Requirements Management Plan .............................................................................................. 134



    6.2.2.2 Requirements Management Tools ............................................................................................. 135



    6.3 Interface Management .......................................................................................................................................... 136



    6.3.1 Process Description ................................................................................................................................... 136



    6.3.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................ 136



    6.3.1.2 Process Activities ......................................................................................................................... 136



    6.3.1.3 Outputs ......................................................................................................................................... 137



    6.3.2 Interface Management Guidance ............................................................................................................. 137



    6.3.2.1 Interface Requirements Document ........................................................................................... 137



    6.3.2.2 Interface Control Document or Interface Control Drawing ................................................. 137



    6.3.2.3 Interface Definition Document ................................................................................................ 138



    6.3.2.4 Interface Control Plan ................................................................................................................. 138



    6.4 Technical Risk Management................................................................................................................................. 139



    6.4.1 Process Description ................................................................................................................................... 140



    6.4.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................ 140



    NASA Systems Engineering Handbook uf06c v Table of Contents


    6.4.1.2 Process Activities ......................................................................................................................... 140



    6.4.1.3 Outputs ......................................................................................................................................... 141



    6.4.2 Technical Risk Management Guidance ................................................................................................... 141



    6.4.2.1 Role of Continuous Risk Management in Technical Risk Management ............................. 142



    6.4.2.2 The Interface Between CRM and Risk-Informed Decision Analysis ................................... 142



    6.4.2.3 Selection and Application of Appropriate Risk Methods ....................................................... 143



    6.5 Configuration Management ................................................................................................................................ 151



    6.5.1 Process Description ................................................................................................................................... 151



    6.5.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................ 151



    6.5.1.2 Process Activities ......................................................................................................................... 151



    6.5.1.3 Outputs ......................................................................................................................................... 156



    6.5.2 CM Guidance ............................................................................................................................................. 156



    6.5.2.1 What Is the Impact of Not Doing CM? .................................................................................... 156



    6.5.2.2 When Is It Acceptable to Use Redline Drawings? ...................................................................157



    6.6 Technical Data Management ................................................................................................................................ 158



    6.6.1 Process Description ................................................................................................................................... 158



    6.6.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................ 158



    6.6.1.2 Process Activities ........................................................................................................................ 158



    6.6.1.3 Outputs ......................................................................................................................................... 162



    6.6.2 Technical Data Management Guidance ..................................................................................................162



    6.6.2.1 Data Security and ITAR .............................................................................................................. 162



    6.7 Technical Assessment ............................................................................................................................................166



    6.7.1 Process Description ................................................................................................................................... 166



    6.7.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................ 166



    6.7.1.2 Process Activities ......................................................................................................................... 166



    6.7.1.3 Outputs ......................................................................................................................................... 167



    6.7.2 Technical Assessment Guidance ..............................................................................................................168



    6.7.2.1 Reviews, Audits, and Key Decision Points .............................................................................. 168



    6.7.2.2 Status Reporting and Assessment .............................................................................................. 190



    6.8 Decision Analysis ................................................................................................................................................... 197



    6.8.1 Process Description ................................................................................................................................... 197



    6.8.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................ 198



    6.8.1.2 Process Activities ......................................................................................................................... 199



    6.8.1.3 Outputs ......................................................................................................................................... 202



    6.8.2 Decision Analysis Guidance ..................................................................................................................... 203



    6.8.2.1 Systems Analysis, Simulation, and Performance ..................................................................... 203



    6.8.2.2 Trade Studies ................................................................................................................................ 205



    6.8.2.3 Cost-Benefit Analysis .................................................................................................................. 209



    6.8.2.4 Influence Diagrams ..................................................................................................................... 210



    6.8.2.5 Decision Trees .............................................................................................................................. 210



    6.8.2.6 Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis .............................................................................................. 211



    6.8.2.7 Utility Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 212



    6.8.2.8 Risk-Informed Decision Analysis Process Example ...............................................................213



    7.0 Special Topics ........................................................................................................................................ 217



    7.1 Engineering with Contracts ................................................................................................................................. 217



    7.1.1 Introduction, Purpose, and Scope ...........................................................................................................217



    7.1.2 Acquisition Strategy................................................................................................................................... 217



    7.1.2.1 Develop an Acquisition Strategy ............................................................................................... 218



    7.1.2.2 Acquisition Life Cycle .................................................................................................................218



    7.1.2.3 NASA Responsibility for Systems Engineering ....................................................................... 218



    7.1.3 Prior to Contract Award ........................................................................................................................... 219



    vi uf06c NASA Systems Engineering Handbook Table of Contents


    7.1.3.1 Acquisition Planning................................................................................................................... 219



    7.1.3.2 Develop the Statement of Work ................................................................................................. 223



    7.1.3.3 Task Order Contracts ..................................................................................................................225



    7.1.3.4 Surveillance Plan ......................................................................................................................... 225



    7.1.3.5 Writing Proposal Instructions and Evaluation Criteria ......................................................... 226



    7.1.3.6 Selection of COTS Products ...................................................................................................... 226



    7.1.3.7 Acquisition-Unique Risks .......................................................................................................... 227



    7.1.4 During Contract Performance ................................................................................................................. 227



    7.1.4.1 Performing Technical Surveillance .......................................................................................... 227



    7.1.4.2 Evaluating Work Products .......................................................................................................... 229



    7.1.4.3 Issues with Contract-Subcontract Arrangements ................................................................... 229



    7.1.5 Contract Completion ............................................................................................................................... 230



    7.1.5.1 Acceptance of Final Deliverables ............................................................................................... 230



    7.1.5.2 Transition Management .............................................................................................................. 231



    7.1.5.3 Transition to Operations and Support ...................................................................................... 232



    7.1.5.4 Decommissioning and Disposal ................................................................................................ 233



    7.1.5.5 Final Evaluation of Contractor Performance ........................................................................... 233



    7.2 Integrated Design Facilities .................................................................................................................................. 234



    7.2.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 234



    7.2.2 CACE Overview and Importance ............................................................................................................ 234



    7.2.3 CACE Purpose and Benefits ..................................................................................................................... 235



    7.2.4 CACE Staffing ............................................................................................................................................. 235



    7.2.5 CACE Process ............................................................................................................................................. 236



    7.2.5.1 Planning and Preparation ........................................................................................................... 236



    7.2.5.2 Activity Execution Phase ............................................................................................................236



    7.2.5.3 Activity Wrap-Up ....................................................................................................................... 237



    7.2.6 CACE Engineering Tools and Techniques ............................................................................................ 237



    7.2.7 CACE Facility, Information Infrastructure, and Staffing ..................................................................... 238



    7.2.7.1 Facility ........................................................................................................................................... 238



    7.2.7.2 Information Infrastructure ......................................................................................................... 238



    7.2.7.3 Facility Support Staff Responsibilities ....................................................................................... 239



    7.2.8 CACE Products ......................................................................................................................................... 239



    7.2.9 CACE Best Practices .................................................................................................................................. 239



    7.2.9.1 People ............................................................................................................................................ 240



    7.2.9.2 Process and Tools ........................................................................................................................ 240



    7.2.9.3 Facility ........................................................................................................................................... 240



    7.3 Selecting Engineering Design Tools ..................................................................................................................... 242



    7.3.1 Program and Project Considerations ......................................................................................................242



    7.3.2 Policy and Processes ..................................................................................................................................242



    7.3.3 Collaboration .............................................................................................................................................. 242



    7.3.4 Design Standards ....................................................................................................................................... 243



    7.3.5 Existing IT Architecture............................................................................................................................ 243



    7.3.6 Tool Interfaces ............................................................................................................................................ 243



    7.3.7 Interoperability and Data Formats .......................................................................................................... 243



    7.3.8 Backward Compatibility ........................................................................................................................... 244



    7.3.9 Platform ....................................................................................................................................................... 244



    7.3.10 Tool Configuration Control ...................................................................................................................... 244



    7.3.11 Security/Access Control ............................................................................................................................ 244



    7.3.12 Training ....................................................................................................................................................... 244



    7.3.13 Licenses ....................................................................................................................................................... 244



    7.3.14 Stability of Vendor and Customer Support ............................................................................................ 244



    7.4 Human Factors Engineering ................................................................................................................................ 246



    NASA Systems Engineering Handbook uf06c vii Table of Contents


    7.4.1 Basic HF Model ..........................................................................................................................................247



    7.4.2 HF Analysis and Evaluation Techniques ................................................................................................ 247



    7.5 Environmental, Nuclear Safety, Planetary Protection, and Asset Protection Policy Compliance .............. 256



    7.5.1 NEPA and EO 12114 ................................................................................................................................. 256



    7.5.1.1 National Environmental Policy Act .......................................................................................... 256



    7.5.1.2 EO 12114 Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions ................................... 257



    7.5.2 PD/NSC-25 ................................................................................................................................................. 257



    7.5.3 Planetary Protection ..................................................................................................................................258



    7.5.4 Space Asset Protection .............................................................................................................................. 260



    7.5.4.1 Protection Policy.......................................................................................................................... 260



    7.5.4.2 Goal ............................................................................................................................................... 260



    7.5.4.3 Scoping .......................................................................................................................................... 260



    7.5.4.4 Protection Planning .................................................................................................................... 260



    7.6 Use of Metric System ............................................................................................................................................ 261



    Appendix A: Acronyms ................................................................................................................................. 263



    Appendix B: Glossary ................................................................................................................................... 266



    Appendix C: How to Write a Good Requirement ........................................................................................ 279



    Appendix D: Requirements Verification Matrix ......................................................................................... 282



    Appendix E: Creating the Validation Plan (Including Validation Requirements Matrix) ........................ 284



    Appendix F: Functional, Timing, and State Analysis ................................................................................. 285



    Appendix G: Technology Assessment/Insertion ........................................................................................ 293



    Appendix H: Integration Plan Outline ........................................................................................................ 299



    Appendix I: Verification and Validation Plan Sample Outline .................................................................. 301



    Appendix J: SEMP Content Outline ............................................................................................................. 303



    Appendix K: Plans ........................................................................................................................................ 308



    Appendix L: Interface Requirements Document Outline .......................................................................... 309



    Appendix M: CM Plan Outline ..................................................................................................................... 311



    Appendix N: Guidance on Technical Peer Reviews/Inspections .............................................................. 312



    Appendix O: Tradeoff Examples .................................................................................................................. 316



    Appendix P: SOW Review Checklist ............................................................................................................ 317



    Appendix Q: Project Protection Plan Outline ............................................................................................ 321



    References ...................................................................................................................................................... 323



    Bibliography .................................................................................................................................................. 327



    Index ............................................................................................................................................................... 332



    viii uf06c NASA Systems Engineering Handbook


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