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Modern Hindi Grammar-Indian Institute of Language Studies (IILS)

337 Pages · 2009 · 7.21 MB · English

  • Modern Hindi Grammar-Indian Institute of Language Studies (IILS)

    Modern Hindi


    Grammar


    Omkar N. Koul Modern Hindi Grammar


    Omkar N. Koul Modern Hindi Grammar


    Omkar N. Koul


    2008


    Dunwoody Press Modern Hindi Grammar


    Copyright © 2008 by McNeil Technologies, Inc.


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    Dunwoody Press


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    Springfield, VA 22150, USA


    ISBN: 978-1-931546-06-5


    Library of Congress Control Number: 2004113175


    Printed and bound in the United States of America ISBN: 978-1-931546-06-5


    9 781931 546065



    Table of Contents



    Preface .......................................................................................... i


    Abbreviations ............................................................................ iii


    References .................................................................................. iv



    1. Introduction


    1.1. Area and Its Speakers ......................................................... 1


    1.2. Dialects and Classification ................................................. 1


    1.3. Hindi - Urdu ....................................................................... 2


    1.4. Linguistic Characteristics ................................................... 4


    1.5. Status .................................................................................. 4


    1.6. Grammars in Hindi ............................................................ 7



    2. Phonology


    2.1. Phonological Units (Segmental) ...................................... 11


    2.1.1. Distinctive Segments .................................................. 11


    Vowels ................................................................................ 11


    Consonants .......................................................................... 12


    2.1.2. Description of Phonemes ............................................ 12


    2.1.2.1. Vowels ................................................................... 12


    2.1.2.2. Consonants ............................................................. 14


    2.1.2.3. Distribution of Phonemes and Allophones ............ 19


    2.2. Phonotactics ..................................................................... 20


    2.2.1. Vowel Sequences ........................................................ 20


    2.2.2. Consonant Clusters ..................................................... 20


    2.2.2.1. Word-initial Cosonant Clusters .............................. 20


    2.2.2.2. Word-medial Consonant Clusters .......................... 21


    2.2.2.3. Word-final Consonant Clusters .............................. 23


    2.2.3. Syllable Structure ........................................................ 24


    2.3. Supersegmental Features ................................................. 25


    2.3.1. Nasalization ................................................................. 25


    2.3.2. Length ......................................................................... 26


    2.3.3. Stress ........................................................................... 26


    2.3.4. Intonation .................................................................... 27


    2.3.5. Juncture ....................................................................... 29


    2.4. Morphophonemics ........................................................... 30


    2.4.1. Loss of Phoneme ......................................................... 30


    2.4.2. Addition of Phoneme .................................................. 30


    2.4.3. Alternations ................................................................. 31



    3. Morphology


    3.1. Nouns ............................................................................... 33


    3.1.1. Noun Inflection ........................................................... 33


    3.1.1.1. Gender .................................................................... 33


    3.1.1.2. Number .................................................................. 35


    3.1.1.3. Case ........................................................................ 36


    3.1.2. Postpositions ............................................................... 37


    3.1.2.1. The Postposition nao ne ............................................. 37


    3.1.2.2. The Postposition kao ko ............................................ 41


    3.1.2.3. The Postposition sao se ............................................. 47


    3.1.2.4. The Postposition maoM mẽ ............................................ 52


    3.1.2.5. The Postposition pr par .......................................... 53


    3.1.2.6. The Postposition ka ka ............................................ 55


    3.1.2.7. Compound Postpositions........................................ 57


    3.1.3. Noun Derivation .......................................................... 68


    3.1.3.1. Nouns from Nouns ................................................. 68


    3.1.3.2. Nouns from Adjectives .......................................... 70


    3.1.3.3. Nouns from Verbs .................................................. 71


    3.1.4. Noun Compounds ....................................................... 72


    3.1.4.1. Noun-Noun Compounds ........................................ 73


    3.1.4.2. Copulative Compounds .......................................... 73


    3.1.4.3. Reduplicated Compounds ...................................... 73


    3.1.4.4. Partially Duplicated Compounds ........................... 73


    3.1.4.5. Superordinate Compounds ..................................... 74


    3.1.4.6. Complex Compounds ............................................. 74


    3.1.4.7. Hybrid Compounds ................................................ 74


    3.1.4.8. Adjective-Noun Compounds .................................. 74


    3.1.4.9. Modifier-Noun Compounds ................................... 75


    3.2. Pronouns .......................................................................... 75


    3.2.1. Personal Pronouns ....................................................... 75


    3.2.2. Demonstrative Pronouns ............................................. 77


    3.2.3. Relative Pronouns ....................................................... 77


    3.2.4. Reflexive Pronouns ..................................................... 77


    3.2.5. Interrogative Pronouns ................................................ 78


    3.2.6. Indefinite Pronouns ..................................................... 79


    3.2.7. Oblique Forms of Pronouns ........................................ 79


    3.2.8. Compound Pronouns ................................................... 80


    3.3. Adjectives ........................................................................ 81


    3.3.1. Inflected ...................................................................... 82


    3.3.2. Uninflected .................................................................. 82


    3.3.3. Types of Adjectives .................................................... 82


    3.3.4. Degree of Adjectives ................................................... 84



    3.3.5. Derivation of Adjectives ............................................. 85


    3.3.6. Numerals ..................................................................... 88


    3.3.6.1. Cardinals ................................................................ 88


    3.3.6.2. Ordinals .................................................................. 90


    3.3.6.3. Fractions ................................................................. 91


    3.3.6.4. Multiplicatives ....................................................... 92


    3.3.6.5. Approximation ....................................................... 92


    3.3.6.6. Aggregation ............................................................ 93


    3.4. Verbs ................................................................................ 93


    3.4.1. The Verb hona: ........................................................... 93


    3.4.2. Main Verbs .................................................................. 95


    3.4.2.1. Intransitive Verbs ................................................... 95


    3.4.2.2. Transitive Verbs ..................................................... 96


    3.4.2.3. Ditransitive Verbs .................................................. 98


    3.4.2.4. Causative Verbs ..................................................... 98


    3.4.2.5. Dative Verbs ........................................................ 100


    3.4.2.6. Conjunct Verbs .................................................... 102


    3.4.2.7. Compound Verbs ................................................. 103


    3.4.3. Tense ......................................................................... 105


    3.4.4. Aspect ....................................................................... 107


    3.4.4.1. Habitual Aspect .................................................... 107


    3.4.4.2. Progressive Aspect ............................................... 111


    3.4.4.3. Perfective Aspect ................................................. 113


    3.4.5. Mood ......................................................................... 116


    3.4.5.1. Indicative Mood ................................................... 116


    3.4.5.2. Imperative Mood .................................................. 116


    3.4.5.3. Subjuntive Mood .................................................. 119


    3.4.6. Voice ......................................................................... 121


    3.4.7. Non-finite Verb Forms .............................................. 122


    3.4.7.1. Infinitives ............................................................. 122


    3.4.7.2. Participles ............................................................. 124


    3.4.7.2.1. Imperfective Participles .................................. 125


    3.4.7.2.2. Perfective Participles ....................................... 126


    3.4.7.2.3. Conjunctive Participles ................................... 128


    3.5. Adverbs .......................................................................... 129


    3.5.1. Types of Adverbs ...................................................... 130


    3.5.2. Expressions of Time ................................................. 133


    3.5.2.1. General Time Expressions ................................... 133


    3.5.2.2. Time of Day ......................................................... 133


    3.5.2.3. Period of Day ....................................................... 135


    3.5.2.4. Days of the Week ................................................. 135


    3.5.2.5. Months of the Year .............................................. 135


    3.5.2.6. Year ...................................................................... 136


    3.5.2.7. Seasons ................................................................. 136


    3.5.3. Frequentative ............................................................. 137


    3.6. Particles .......................................................................... 137


    3.6.1. The Particle Bar bhi: ‘also’ ......................................... 137


    3.6.2. The Particle hI hi: ...................................................... 150


    3.6.3. The Particle tao to ........................................................ 155


    3.6.4. The Particle tk tak ‘up to’ ......................................... 157


    3.6.5. The Particle Bar bhar .................................................. 158


    3.6.6. The Particle maa~ ma:tr ................................................ 159


    3.7. Connectives .................................................................... 160


    3.7.1. Mono-morphemic ..................................................... 161


    3.7.2. Poly-morphemic ........................................................ 161


    3.7.3. Phrasal ....................................................................... 161


    3.8. Interjections .................................................................... 162



    4. Syntax


    4.1. Structure of Phrases ....................................................... 165


    4.1.1. Noun Phrase .............................................................. 165


    4.1.2. Postpositional Phrases ............................................... 171


    4.1.3. Adjectival Phrases ..................................................... 173


    4.1.4. Adverbial Phrases ..................................................... 176


    4.2. Structure of Clauses ....................................................... 179


    4.2.1. Subordinate Clauses .................................................. 179


    4.2.2. Noun Clauses ............................................................ 180


    4.2.2.1. Finite Noun Clauses ............................................. 181


    4.2.2.1.1. The ik ki Complement Clauses ........................ 181


    4.2.2.1.2. Direct and Indirect Speech .............................. 182


    4.2.2.1.3. Non-finite Noun Clause .................................. 184


    4.2.3. Relative Clauses ........................................................ 187


    4.2.3.1. Restrictive and Non-restrictive Clauses ............... 189


    4.2.3.2. Non-finite Relative Clauses ................................. 194


    4.2.3.3. Finite Relative Clauses ......................................... 195


    4.2.4. Adverbial Clauses ..................................................... 198


    4.2.4.1. Adverbial Clauses of Time .................................. 198


    4.2.4.2. Manner Clauses .................................................... 200


    4.2.4.3. Purpose Clauses ................................................... 202


    4.2.4.4. Cause Clauses ...................................................... 203


    4.2.4.5. Condition Clauses ................................................ 204


    4.2.4.6. Concession Clauses .............................................. 205


    4.2.4.7. Result Clauses ...................................................... 206



    4.3. Sentence Construction ................................................... 207


    4.3.1. Copular Sentences ..................................................... 207


    4.3.2. Verbal Sentences ....................................................... 211


    4.3.2.1. Direct Object ........................................................ 213


    4.3.2.2. Indirect Object ..................................................... 214


    4.3.2.3. Other Types of Verb Argument ........................... 215


    4.3.3. Negation .................................................................... 216


    4.3.3.1. Sentential Negation .............................................. 216


    4.3.3.2. Constituent Negation ........................................... 217


    4.3.3.3. Double/Multiple Negation ................................... 220


    4.3.3.4. Negation and Coordination .................................. 220


    4.3.3.5. Negation and Subordination ................................. 221


    4.3.4. Interrogative .............................................................. 222


    4.3.4.1. Yes-No Questions ................................................ 222


    4.3.4.1.1. Neutral Yes-No Questions .............................. 222


    4.3.4.1.2. Leading Questions........................................... 225


    4.3.4.2. Question-Word Questions .................................... 226


    4.3.4.3. Echo-Questions .................................................... 246


    4.3.4.3.1. Yes-No Echo-Questions .................................. 246


    4.3.4.3.2. Question-Word Echo-Questions ..................... 248


    4.3.4.4. Answers ................................................................ 250


    4.3.5. Imperatives ................................................................ 254


    4.3.5.1. Unmarked or True Imperatives ............................ 254


    4.3.5.2. Prohibitive Imperatives ........................................ 255


    4.3.5.3. Degrees of Imperatives ........................................ 257


    4.3.6. Anaphora ................................................................... 260


    4.3.7. Reflexives ................................................................. 263


    4.3.8. Reciprocals ................................................................ 269


    4.3.9. Equatives ................................................................... 271


    4.3.10. Comparison ............................................................. 274


    4.3.11. Superlatives ............................................................. 277


    4.3.12. Coordination ........................................................... 278


    4.3.12.1. Coordination and Accompaniment .................... 286


    4.3.12.2. Structural Constraints ......................................... 287



    5. Lexicon


    5.1. Animals, Birds and Insects............................................. 293


    5.2. Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables ..................................... 294


    5.3. Jewels, Metals, and Minerals ......................................... 296


    5.4. Miscellaneous Items ....................................................... 296


    5.5. Body Parts ...................................................................... 302


    5.6. Occupations.................................................................... 303


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