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Methods for Teaching Learning Strategies in the Foreign Language

347 Pages · 2012 · 5.56 MB · English

  • Methods for Teaching Learning Strategies in the Foreign Language

    DOCUMENT RESUME


    ED 365 157


    FL 021 785


    AUTHOR


    Chamot, Anna Uhl; And Others


    TITLE


    Methods for Teaching Learning Strategies in the


    Foreign Language Classroom and Asscssment of Language


    Skills for Instruction. Final Report.


    INSTITUTION


    Georgetown Univ., Washington, D.C.


    SPONS AGENCY


    Department of Education, Washington, DC.


    PUB DATE


    Dec 93


    NOTE


    357p.


    PUB TYPE


    Reports


    Evaluative/Feasibility (142)


    Guides


    Classroom Use


    Teaching Guides (For Teacher) (052)


    Tests/Evaluation Instruments (160)


    EDRS PRICE


    MF01/PC15 Plus Postage.


    DESCRIPTORS


    Achievement Gains; Classroom Techniques; Diagnostic


    Tests; High Schools; Independent Study; Instructional


    Materials; Introductory Courses; Japanese; *Language


    Tests; *Learning Strategies; Listening Comprehension;


    Material Development; Problem Solving; Reading


    Comprehension; Russian; Second Language Instruction;


    *Second Language Learning; Skill Development;


    Spanish; Speech Skills; *Student Placement; Teacher


    Education; Test Construction; Vocabulary


    Development


    ABSTRACT


    Two studies are reported. The first investigated the


    feasibility of integra 'ng learning strategy instruction into high


    school beginning and intennediate level Russian and Spanish classes.


    The-second study assisted teachers and students of Japanese, Russian,


    and Spanish to implement informal assessment activities in their


    classrooms. A literature review examines previous research on


    learning strategies and the "good language learner," motivation,


    alternative assessment, and whether or not learning strategies can be


    taught. The two studies are then described, detailing the subjects,


    sites, instruments, and procedures for the three languages involved


    in the three years of the studies. Both studies were conducted in the


    Washington, D.C. area in three public school districts and one


    private school, with the collaboration of two Japanese teachers, four


    Russian teachers, and seven Spanish teachers. Instructional materials


    designed to teach learning strategies explicitly were developed for


    and integrated into the Spanish and Russian curricula. Teachers were


    provided with guidelines for instruction in vocabulary learning,


    listening and reading comprehension, speaking, self-regulated


    learning, and problem-solving. Major accomplishments included


    identification of relevant strategies, successful classroom


    implementation, development of instruments to assess the


    effectiveness of instruction, and increases in student


    self-confidence and language skills. Substantial related materials


    are appended. (MSE)


    ***********************************************************************


    Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made


    from the original document.


    *********************************************************************** METHODS FOR TEACHING LEARNING STRATEGIES


    IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM


    and


    ASSESSMENT OF LANGUAGE SKILLS FOR INSTRUCTION


    FINAL REPORT


    by


    Anna Uhl Chamot, Project Director


    Sarah Barnhardt, Assistant Project Director


    Pamela Beard EI-Dinary, Senior Research Analyst


    Gilda Carbonaro, Research Associate


    Jill Robbins, Research Associate


    GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY


    December 1993


    This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Education, International Research


    The views, opinions, and findings


    and Studies Program in Washington, D.C.


    contained in this report are those of the authors and should not be construed as an


    ,r)


    official Department of Education position, policy, or decision unless so designated by


    other offical documentation.


    U S DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


    Oho e of Educ anon& Research and Improvement


    EDUCATIONAL RE SOURCE S INFORMATION


    CENTERtERICI


    ,,iA This document haS been reProdia ed as


    received horn the person or organization


    originating it


    Minor i hanges have been made In improve


    reproduction quality


    2


    BEST COPY AVAILABLE


    PoInts ol vie* or opinions slated in thidric u


    ment do not necessarily represent official


    OE RI Position or POlicy ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


    We would like to acknowledge and thank teachers for their enormous contributions. This study


    could not have been conducted without their active participation: Esther Ain, Magarita Cruz,


    Valentine Cukierman, Janet Dannemiller, Frances Gabor, Elizabeth Groner, Arlette Herring,


    Corinne Kintz, Virginia Layman, Tina Lazar, Gladys Ortega, Maria Solerno, Alla Sonsev, Kazue


    Watlington, and Tai Ko Wu. TABLE OF CONTENTS


    CHAPTER I


    INTRODUCTION


    1


    Purposes of the Studies and Theoretical Background


    1


    Literature Review


    3


    Early Research on the Good Language Learner


    3


    4


    Classification of Learner Strategies


    Strategic Differences between Effective and Less Effective


    Language Learners


    8


    Learning Strategies and Motivation


    11


    Learning Strategies and Alternative Assessment


    12


    Can Strategies Be Taught?


    13


    Summary of Literature Review


    16


    17


    Research Questions


    Overview of the Report


    18


    CHAPTER II


    21


    METHODOLOGY


    21


    Overview


    Subjects and Sites


    21


    Year 1: 1990-1991


    21


    22


    Year 2: 1991-1992


    23


    Year 3: 1992-1993


    Development and Implementation of


    24


    Language Learning Strategies Instruction


    24


    Phase 1: Type of Strategy Instruction


    Phase 2: Selection of Strategies


    25


    Strategies for Beginning Level: 1991-1992


    25


    Memorization strategies for vocabulary learning


    27


    Strategies for listening comprehension


    27


    28


    Strategies for reading comprehension


    29


    Strategies for speaking


    Strategies for self-regulated learning


    29


    Strategies for Intermediate Level: 1992-1993


    30


    32


    Phase 3: Implementation of Strategies Instruction


    33


    Instruments


    Background Questionnaire (BQ)


    35


    36


    Learning Strategy Questionnaire (LSQ)


    37


    Mid-Year Student Questionnaire


    37


    Spanish Student Questionnaire


    38


    Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ)


    4 Language Tests (LT)


    39


    Student Self-Assessment Worksheets


    39


    Teacher Ratings


    40


    40


    Teacher Rankings


    41


    Teacher Questionnaires


    Individual Teacher Interviews


    41


    42


    Procedures


    42


    Year 1: 1990-1991


    42


    Year 2: 1991-1992


    43


    Year 3: 1992-1993


    45


    Data Analysis Procedures


    CHAPTER III


    STUDENT USE AND PERCEPTIONS OF LANGUAGE


    47


    LEARNING STRATEGIES


    47


    Overview


    48


    Objectives


    48


    Methods


    48


    Subjects


    49


    Instruments


    49


    Procedures


    49


    Strategies Instruction


    49


    Year 2 instruction


    50


    Year 3 instruction


    51


    Analyses


    51


    Findings


    Beginning-Level Student Perceptions of the Learning Strategies


    Year 2: 1991-1992


    51


    Perceptions ci Individual Strategies


    51


    Classroom Observations: Use and Perceptions of


    52


    Strategies Instruction


    Intermediate-Level Student Perceptions of the Learning


    53


    Strategies: Year 3 1992-1993


    56


    Individual Strategy Preferences


    57


    Student Feedback about Strategies Instruction


    58


    Student Perceptions about Thinking Aloud


    60


    Students Independent Use of Strategies


    60


    Continued Strategies Use in Subsequent Levels


    61


    Discussion


    61


    Transfer of Learning Strategies


    62


    Student Understanding of Instructed Strategies


    Implications of Student Perceptions of Strategies and Strategies


    62


    Instruction


    62


    Valuing Strategies: Necessary, but not Sufficient


    II Scaffolding Instruction More Rapidly


    Expanding, Not Replacing, Students' Strategic


    Repertoires


    64


    The Role of Integrating Strategies Instruction with Language


    Instxuction


    64


    CHAPTER IV


    IMPACT OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES ON STUDENTS


    67


    Overview


    67


    Objectives


    67


    Methods


    68


    Subjects


    68


    Year 2:


    1991-1992


    68


    Year 3:


    1992-1993


    68


    Instruments


    69


    Procedures


    71


    Analyses


    72


    Findings


    73


    Strategies Use and Language Performance


    73


    Strategies Use and Self-efficacy


    73


    Self-efficacy and Language Performance


    74


    Gails in Learning Strategies Use


    74


    Impact of Strategies Instruction


    75


    Discussion


    75


    Strategies Use and Language Performance


    76


    Strategies Use and Self-efficacy


    77


    Self-efficacy and Language Performance


    78


    Gains in Learning Strategies Use


    79


    Impact of Strategies Instruction


    80


    CHAPTER V


    PROFESSIONAL STAFF DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF


    LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES


    83


    Overview


    83


    Objectives


    83


    84


    Method&


    Findings


    85


    Approaches to Professional Development for Implementation of


    Language Learning Strategies Instruction


    85


    First Cohort of Teachers (1991-1992)


    86


    Second Cohort of Teachers (1992-1993)


    88


    Findings Across Cohorts


    92


    Teachers' Perception of Language Learning Strategies Instruction


    93


    Effectiveness of Strategies Instruction


    93


    Hi Difficulties Implementing Language Learning Strategies


    Instruction


    96


    Use of English


    96


    Time


    97


    Student motivation


    98


    Conclusions


    99


    CHAPTER VI


    INFORMAL ASSESSMENT OF LANGUAGE SKILLS


    101


    Overview


    101


    Objectives


    101


    Methods


    102


    Subjects


    102


    Instruments


    102


    Procedures


    103


    Findings


    105


    Informal Assessment Materials


    105


    Japanese


    105


    Russian


    106


    Spanish


    108


    Teachers' Informal Assessments and Formal Measures of


    Language Performance


    109


    Teachers' Informal Assessments and Students' Informal


    Assessments


    110


    Student Gains in Self-efficacy


    111


    Self-efficacy Questionnaire and Student Self-assessments


    111


    Students' Performance on Formal Assessment Measures and


    Students' Ratings on Informal Self-assessments


    112


    Discussion


    113


    Teachers' Informal Assessment of Student Learning


    113


    Students' Self-assessment and Self-efficacy


    115


    CHAPTER VIII


    CONCLUSION


    119


    REFERENCES


    TABLES


    Table 1. Definitions of Key Learning Strategies


    7


    Table 2. Number of Students and Teachers


    22


    Strategies Taught To Beginning Level Students: 1991-1992


    26


    Table 3.


    Student Instrum9.0dentification and Data Collection Dates


    34


    Table 4.


    Table 5. Teacher Instrument Identification and Data Collection Dates


    35


    Table 6. Year 3 Student Comments Regarding the Helpfulness of Strategies


    56


    Instruction


    Table 7. Summary of Subjects and Instruments


    70


    Informal Assessment of Language Skills: Summary


    Table 8.


    104


    iv FIGURES


    Figure 1: Problem-Solving Model of Comprehension


    31


    1"-igure 2. Perceived helpfulness of strategies instruction


    54


    Figure 3. Appeal of strategies instruction.


    55


    Figure 4. Students perceptions of the ease and difficulty


    of thinking aloud in Spanish


    57


    Figure 5. Framework for Strategies Instruction


    90


    APPENDICES


    Appendix A


    Instruments


    Background Questionnaires


    Appendix A-1


    Background Questionnaires-Beginning Level (1991-1992)


    Appendix A-1.1


    Background Questionnaires-Intermediate Level (1992-1993)


    Appendix A-1.2


    Learning Strategy Questionnaires


    Appendix A-2


    Learning Strategy Questionnaires-Beginning Level (1991-1992)


    Appendix A-2.1


    Learning Strategy Quef tionnaires-Intermediate Level


    Appendix A-2.2


    (1992-1993)


    Mid-Year Student Questionnaires


    Appendix A-3


    Mid-Year Student Questionnaires-Beginning Level (1991-1992)


    Appendix A-3.1


    Mid-Year Student Questionnaires-Intermediate Level


    Appendix A-3.2


    (1992-1993)


    Spanish Student Questionnaire


    Appendix A-4


    Self-efficacy Questionnaires


    Appendix A-5


    Self-efficacy Questionnaires-Beginning Level (1991-1992)


    Appendix A-5.1


    Self-efficacy Questionnaires-Intermediate Level (1992-1993)


    Appendix A-5.2


    Language Tests


    Appendix A-6


    Language Tests-Beginning Level (1991-1992)


    Appendix A-6.1


    Language Tests-Intermediate Level (1992-1993)


    Appendix A-6.2


    Student Self-assessment Worksheets


    Appendix A-7


    Teacher Ratings


    Appendix A-8


    Teacher Ranldngs


    Appendix A-9


    Teacher Questionnaire


    Appendix A-10


    Individual Teacher Interviews


    Appendix A-11


    Sample Learning Strategies Lessons


    Appendix B


    Sample Learning Strategies Lessons-Beginning Level


    Appendix B-1


    (1991-1992)


    Sample Learning Strategies Lessons-Intermediate Level


    Appendix B-2


    (1992-1993) 1


    CHAPTER I


    INTRODUCTION


    Research conducted by Georgetown University as part of the National Foreign


    Language Resource Center in 1990-1993 included two studies conducted with high school


    foreign language teachers and their students. The first study, Methods for Teaching


    Learning Strategies in the Foreign Language Classroom, investigated the feasibility


    of integrating learning strategy instruction into beginning and intermediate level Russian


    Assessment of Language Skills for


    The second study,


    and Spanish classrooms.


    Instruction, assisted teachers and students of Japanese, Russian, and Spanish to


    implement informal assessment activities in their classrooms.


    Purposes of the Studies and Theoretical Background


    The major purposes of the studies were to investigate learning strategies


    instruction appropriate for beginning and intermediate level high school foreign language


    students, to develop instructional materials and informal assessments, and to describe the


    impact of the instruction and assessment on students. In addressing these major purposes,


    additional objectives included issues in professional development of teachers, design of


    materials, student affect and self-efficacy, and teacher attitudes and teaching styles.


    This work has built on an emerging interest in a cognitive perspective in second


    become


    and foreign language acquisition research. While cognitive learning theory has


    general education, the theory's contributions


    a well-established model for instruction in


    to the area of second language acquisition are relatively recent. 2


    model in second language acquisition is important as a basis for


    A theoretical


    explaining how a language is learned and how second and foreign languages can best be


    taught. Moreover, for purposes of research on language learning processes, a theoretical


    model should describe the role of strategic processes in learning. A cognitive theoretical


    model of learning (e.g., Anderson, 1983; 1984; Gagné, 1985; Gagné, Yekovich, &


    Yekovich, 1993; Shuell, 1986) accomplishes these objectives because the theory is general


    enough to explain how learning takes place in a variety of simple and complex tasks, and


    because cognitive theory provides important insights into second language acquisition


    (McLaughlin, 1987; O'Malley & Chamot, 1990).


    In cognitive theory, learning is seen as an active, constructivist process in which


    learners select and organize informational input, relate it to prior knowledge, retain what


    is considered important, use the information appropriately, and reflect on the outcomes


    of their learning efforts (Gagné, 1985; Gagné, et al., 1993; Shuell, 1986). In this dynamic


    view of learning, second languan acquisition should be most successful when learners


    in both classroom and non-classroom


    are actively involved in directing their own learning


    Second language learners would select from target language input, analyze


    settings.


    language functions and forms perceived as important, think about their own learning


    efforts, anticipate the kinds of language demands they may encounter, and activate prior


    It is because of this


    knowledge and skills to apply to new language learning tasks.


    intricate set of mental processes that second language acquisition has been construed as


    O'Malley & Chamot, 1990).


    a complex cognitive skill (McLaughlin, 1987;


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