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Medical Bacteriology - The Carter Center

444 Pages · 2009 · 2.21 MB · English

  • Medical Bacteriology - The Carter Center

    LECTURE NOTES



    Degree and Diploma Programs


    For Environmental Health Students







    Medical Bacteriology










    Abilo Tadesse, Meseret Alem



    University of Gondar




    In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center,


    the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education



    September 2006









    Funded under USAID Cooperative Agreement No. 663-A-00-00-0358-00.




    Produced in collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter


    Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education.










    Important Guidelines for Printing and Photocopying


    Limited permission is granted free of charge to print or photocopy all pages of this


    publication for educational, not-for-profit use by health care workers, students or


    faculty. All copies must retain all author credits and copyright notices included in the


    original document. Under no circumstances is it permissible to sell or distribute on a


    commercial basis, or to claim authorship of, copies of material reproduced from this


    publication.



    ©2006 by Abilo Tadesse, Meseret Alem



    All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided above, no part of this publication may


    be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,


    including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system,


    without written permission of the author or authors.








    This material is intended for educational use only by practicing health care workers or


    students and faculty in a health care field.


    PREFACE



    Text book on Medical Bacteriology for Medical Laboratory


    Technology students are not available as need, so this lecture note


    will alleviate the acute shortage of text books and reference


    materials on medical bacteriology.



    Since it comprises most of the contents of course outline on medical


    bacteriology to nursing, pharmacy and environmental science


    students, it can be used as a main learning material to these


    category of students.


    This lecture note gives emphasis on the knowledge and procedures


    of medical bacteriology to common pathogens in our country.



    At last but not least, the quality of this lecture note is kept updated


    by continous comments made by users of this lecture note.



    Abilo Tadesse


    Meseret Alem










    i


    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



    We would like to acknowledge the Carter Center, USA, for financial


    support for the preparation of this lecture note.



    Our deepest gratitude goes to Prof. Dennis Carlson for his


    invaluable technical and moral support for the completion of this


    work.



    We also extend our appreciation to those individuals who reviewed


    this lecture note in different teaching institutions for the


    materialization of this lecture note.

















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    TABLE OF CONTENTS



    Page


    Preface ………………………………………………………………...i


    Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………ii


    Table of Contents ....................................................................... iii


    List of tables .............................................................................. vii


    List of figures .............................................................................viii


    List of Abbreviation …………………………………………………..xi



    CHAPTER ONE


    1.1. Introduction to Microbiology ................................... 1


    1.2. The Microbial World ............................................... 5


    1.3. Structure of bacteria ............................................ 12


    1.4. Classification of bacteria ...................................... 23


    1.5. Cultivation of bacteria .......................................... 33


    1.6. Bacterial nutrition ……………………… ................ 47


    1.7. Bacterial growth ................................................... 49


    1.8. Bacterial genetics ................................................ 85


    1.9. Sterilization and disinfection ................................ 92


    1.10. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing ......................... 107



    CHAPTER TWO


    Collection, transport, and examination of specimen ............... 113





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    CHAPTER THREE


    3.1 Gram positive cocci .................................................... 173


    3.1.1. Genus Staphylococci ...................................... 173


    3.1.2. Genus Streptococci ........................................ 180


    3.2 Gram positive spore forming rods ............................. 192


    3.2.1. Genus Bacillus …………………… ................... 192


    3.2.2. Genus Clostridium ....................................... 197


    3.2.3. Gram positive Non-spore forming rods ........ 205


    3.3.1. Genus Corynebacteria ..................................... 205


    3.3.2. Genus Listeria .................................................. 210


    3.3.3. Genus Erysipelothrix ........................................ 212


    3.4 Gram negative diplococci ................................................ 213


    3.4.1 Genus Neisseria ......................................... 213


    3.5 Gram negative coccobacilli .............................................. 221


    3.5.1 Genus Haemophilus ....................................... 221


    3.5.2 Genus Bordetella ............................................. 224


    3.5.3 Genus Brucella ................................................ 227


    3.5.4 Genus Francissella .......................................... 229


    3.5.5 Genus Pasteurella ........................................... 230


    3.6 Gram negative rods ........................................................... 231


    3.6.1 Genus Escherichia ................................................ 233


    3.6.2. Genus Klebsiella ................................................... 235


    3.6.3. Genus Enterobacter ............................................. 236


    3.6.4. Genus Citrobacter ................................................ 237


    3.6.5. Genus Salmonella ................................................ 237


    3.6.6. Genus Shigella ..................................................... 242


    3.6.7. Genus Proteus ...................................................... 244


    3.6.8. Genus Yersinia ..................................................... 245


    iv


    3.6.9. Genus Peudomonas ............................................. 249


    3.6.10 Genus Vibrios ...................................................... 252


    3.6.11 Genus Campylobacter ....................................... 254


    3.6.12 Genus Helicobacter ........................................... 256


    3.7. Genus Mycobacteria ........................................................ 263


    3.8. Spirochetes ...................................................................... 273


    3.8.1.Genus Treponema ..................................................... 273


    3.8.2 Genus Borellia ........................................................... 279


    3.8.3 Genus Leptospira ....................................................... 281


    3.9 Genus Rickettsia ............................................................... 282


    3.10. Genus Mycoplasma ........................................................ 286


    3.11. Genus Chlamydia ........................................................... 288



    CHAPTER FOUR


    4.1. Host-parasite relationship ............................................ 294


    4.2. Normal microbial flora ................................................. 300


    4.3. Infection of skin and wound ......................................... 304


    4.4. Infection of respiratory tract ......................................... 307


    4.5. Infection of gastrointestinal tract .................................. 313


    4.6. Infection of urinary tract ............................................... 318


    4.7. Infection of genital tract ............................................... 321


    4.8. Infection of blood ......................................................... 325


    4.9. Infection of central nervous system ............................ 327


    4.10 Infection of bone and joint ........................................... 331



    CHAPTER FIVE


    5.1. Bacteriology of water ........................................................ 335



    v


    CHAPTER SIX


    Food Bacteriology ................................................................... 341


    Annexes .................................................................................... 375


    Glossary .................................................................................. 429


    References .............................................................................. 433




    vi



    LIST OF TABLES



    Table1.1 The distinguishing features between eukaryotic and


    prokaryotic cell .......................................................... 11


    Table 1.2 Comparison between flagella and pili ....................... 22


    Table 2.1 Differentiation of staphylococcal species ................ 180


    Table 2.2 Classification based on hemolytic reaction of


    Streptococci ............................................................. 183


    Table 2.3 Comparison of streptolysin ...................................... 185


    Table 2.4 Differentiation of streptococci species ..................... 192


    Table 2.5 Comparison features of meningococcal meningitis and


    meningococcemia ................................................... 219


    Table 2.6 Comparison features of N.gonorrhea and N.


    Meningitides ........................................................... 221


    Table 2.7 Comparison between tuberculoid and lepromatous


    Leprosy ........................................................... 267


    Table 2.8 Hosts and vectors of medically impotant rickettsiae 283


    Table 4.1 Characteristic of bacterial toxin ............................... 295


    Table 4.2 Examples of food intoxication ................................. 317


    Table 4.3 Examples of food infection ...................................... 317


    Table 4.4 Causative agents and disease of genital infection .. 321


    Table 4.5 Genital ulcer with or with out inguinal


    Lymphadenopathy .................................................. 324


    Table 4.6 Cerebrospinal fluid findings in meningitis ................ 330




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    LIST OF FIGURES



    Fig 1.1Ultrastructure of bacteria ................................................ 13


    Fig 1.2 Cell wall of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria . 14


    Fig 1.3 Components of Bacterial flagellum ............................... 20


    Fig 1.4 Flagellar arrangement ................................................... 21


    Fig 1.5 Morphology bacteria ....................................................... 24


    Fig 1.6 Inoculation technique .................................................... 43


    Fig 1.7 Inoculation of solid culture media in petridishes ........... 44


    Fig 1.8 Inoculation of slant and butt media ............................... 45


    Fig 1.9 Inoculation of slant media ............................................. 46


    Fig 1.10 Co2-enriched atmosphere ........................................... 47


    Fig 1.11 Bacterial growth curve ................................................. 51


    Fig 1.12 Bacterial chromosome ................................................ 86


    Fig 1.13 Gene transfer by Transformation ................................ 89


    Fig 1.14 Gene transfer by Transduction .................................... 90


    Fig 1.15 Gene transfer by conjugation ...................................... 91


    Fig 1.16 Antimicrobial sensitivity test media ........................... 111


    Fig 3.1 Staphylococci .............................................................. 175


    Fig 3.2 Streptococci ................................................................. 182


    Fig 3.3 Streptococcus pneumoniae ......................................... 189


    Fig 3.4 Neisseria gonorrhea .................................................... 214


    Fig 3.5 Neisseria meningitides ................................................ 218


    Fig 2.6 Spirochetes ................................................................. 273





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