2

Literature and Stylistics for Language Learners

243 Pages · 2010 · 629 KB · English

  • Literature and Stylistics for Language Learners

    Literature and Stylistics for


    Language Learners


    Theory and Practice


    Edited by


    Greg Watson and Sonia Zyngier Literature and Stylistics for Language Learners Also by Greg Watson


    DOIN’ MUDROOROO: Elements of Style and Involvement in the Early Prose


    Fiction of Mudrooroo


    FINNO-UGRIC LANGUAGE CONTACTS (co-editor)


    Also by Sonia Zyngier


    AT THE CROSSROADS OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: Literary Awareness,


    Stylistics, and the Acquisition of Literary Skills in an EFLit Context


    DEVELOPING AWARENESS IN LITERATURE Literature and Stylistics for


    Language Learners


    Theory and Practice


    Edited by


    Greg Watson


    University of Joensuu, Finland


    and


    Sonia Zyngier


    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


    Foreword by Ronald Carter Selection and editorial matter © Greg Watson and Sonia Zyngier 2007


    Foreword © Ronald Carter 2007


    Individual chapters © the contributors 2007


    All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this


    publication may be made without written permission.


    No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted


    save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the


    Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence


    permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90


    Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP.


    Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication


    may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages.


    The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors


    of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and


    Patents Act 1988.


    First published 2007 by


    PALGRAVE MACMILLAN


    Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS and


    175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010


    Companies and representatives throughout the world


    PALGRAVE MACMILLAN is the global academic imprint of the Palgrave


    Macmillan division of St. Martin’s Press, LLC and of Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.


    Macmillan® is a registered trademark in the United States, United Kingdom


    and other countries. Palgrave is a registered trademark in the European


    Union and other countries.


    ISBN–13: 978–1–4039–8799–0


    ISBN–10: 1–4039–8799–8


    This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully


    managed and sustained forest sources.


    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Literature and stylistics for language learners : theory and practice / edited


    by Greg Watson and Sonia Zyngier ; foreword by Ronald Carter.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 1–4039–8799–8 (cloth)


    1. Language and languages–Study and teaching. 2. Style, Literary–Study


    and teaching. I. Watson, Greg (Greg J.) II. Zyngier, Sonia.


    P53.L538 2007


    418′.0071–dc22 20006045538


    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07


    Printed and bound in Great Britain by


    Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham and Eastbourne Contents


    Foreword by Ronald Carter vii


    Preface xii


    Notes on the Contributors xvii


    Part I Theoretical Perspectives


    1 Stylistics in Second Language Contexts: A Critical 3


    Perspective


    Geoff Hall


    2 On Teaching Literature Itself 15


    Peter Stockwell


    Part II New Approaches


    3 When the Students Become the Teachers: A Practical 27


    Pedagogy


    Joanne Gavins and Jane Hodson


    4 ‘The Shudder of the Dying Day in Every Blade of Grass’: 37


    Whose Words? Voice, Veracity and the Representation of


    Memory


    John McRae


    5 Analysing Literature Through Films 48


    Rocio Montoro


    6 Discourse Stylistics and Detective Fiction: A Case Study 60


    Urszula Clark


    Part III Corpus Stylistics


    7 Corpus Stylistics as a Discovery Procedure 79


    Donald E. Hardy


    8 Literary Worlds as Collocation 91


    Bill Louw


    9 Investigating Student Reactions to a Web-Based Stylistics 106


    Course in Different National and Educational Settings


    Mick Short, Beatrix Busse and Patricia Plummer


    v vi Contents


    Part IV Stylistics, Grammar and Discourse


    10 From Syntax to Schema: Teaching Flannery O’Connor in 129


    the Persian Gulf


    David L. Gugin


    11 Non-Standard Grammar in the Teaching of Language 140


    and Style


    Paul Simpson


    12 Language Teaching Through Gricean Glasses 155


    Judit Zerkowitz


    Part V Awareness and Cognition


    13 Attention-directed Literary Education: An Empirical 169


    Investigation


    David Ian Hanauer


    14 What Reading Does to Readers: Stereotypes, Foregrounding 181


    and Language Learning


    Willie van Peer and Aikaterini Nousi


    15 Revisiting Literary Awareness 194


    Sonia Zyngier, Olivia Fialho and Patricia Andréa do Prado Rios


    Index 211 Foreword


    ‘A hard coming we had of it.’


    —T.S. Eliot, Journey of the Magi


    Stylistics has always had a hard time of it. As an academic discipline it


    has always been seen, pretty much throughout the twentieth century,


    as neither one thing nor the other, or, much worse, as all things to all


    men and women, as sitting uncomfortably on the fence between the


    linguistic and the literary, and as a bit uneasy within either domain,


    building bridges that never quite stretch far enough across dividing


    waters and always, as here, resorting to retreat, repair and reconciliation


    metaphors of bridges, unfilled gaps and spaces, crossing contested terri-


    tories, unhappy marriages and paths not taken. In the 1960s and 1970s


    this was in part to be expected for an essentially inchoate interdiscipli-


    nary endeavour. Linguists felt stylistics was too soft to be taken too seri-


    ously and tended to introduce irrelevant notions such as performance


    data and interpretation; literature specialists felt that stylistics was too


    hard, too mechanistic and too reductive, saying nothing significant


    about historical context or aesthetic theory, eschewing evaluation for


    the most part in the interests of a naïve scientism and claiming too


    much for interpretations that were at best merely text-immanent. And


    many linguists and literary critics continue to this day to give stylistics a


    hard time. But, for better or for worse, stylisticians have stayed together.


    There have been few divorces or major disagreements within the family.


    More recently, however, in the 1980s and 1990s the offence mecha-


    nisms have become stronger as traditional linguists began to feel threat-


    ened by developments in discourse and pragmatics that (augmented by


    the dialogic philosophies of Bakhtin and Vygotsky) generated fuller


    accounts of language in use and in context and as traditional literary


    critics began to feel threatened by the linguistic turn in the humanities


    and social sciences. There has been, often in response to demands to


    make courses accessible and ‘relevant’ to high-fee paying international


    students, a growth in ESOL, significant developments in classroom


    research in second and foreign language studies, and a not unsurprising


    growth in pedagogic stylistics. The pedagogic turn has also given buoy-


    ancy to the language dimension of English studies, accelerating under


    the impetus of (mainly) sociolinguistic studies in World Englishes and


    vii viii Foreword


    debates concerning the ownership of English. The growth of stylistic


    studies of literatures in English, often within a classroom research per-


    spective, is especially marked. The two decades saw a growth in volumes


    dedicated to these broad pedagogic perspectives (Brumfit and Carter


    1986; Short 1988; Durant and Fabb 1990; Widdowson 1975, 1992; Carter


    and McRae 1996) and a simultaneous growth in classroom-ready text-


    books in stylistics (Leech and Short 1981; Short 1996; Simpson 1997;


    Wales 1990), the latter of which have often exerted real influence in


    schools where a new generation of teachers of English have embraced


    the possibilities offered. This is not to say that the developments have


    not been problematic, as applied, classroom-based pedagogic research


    has always to some degree been seen (universally) as inferior to ‘pure’


    research. But the two decades saw increasing confidence in the field of


    stylistics, alongside institutional power shifts, and an altogether less


    defensive stance.


    The first decade of the twenty-first century is witnessing less concern


    with bridges and dividing lines and more a sense that there is much to


    be done within the interdisciplinary field of stylistics in and for itself


    with no longer any overriding need to explain or to attack or to defend.


    The intellectual excitement of cognitive poetics (with its re-tuning of the


    significance of language processing), the awesome power of corpus lin-


    guistics, the depth and richness of studies in narrative analysis, the ever


    new angles on the literariness of language – all now take place routinely


    alongside developing opportunities for web-based teaching and learning,


    the pedagogic possibilities afforded by hypertexts, more refined rhetor-


    ical-analytical tools, enhanced paradigms for greater empirical investiga-


    tion, more and more successful integration of quantitative and qualita-


    tive methodologies. An ever-greater variety of texts and genres and reg-


    isters is studied stylistically with increasing numbers now feeling more


    comfortable than ever before, as a series of books ranging from mono-


    graphs to dedicated textbooks, internationally refereed journals and new


    courses are established, increased research grants are secured and inter-


    national conferences are hosted by a growing body of national associ-


    ations. It may have been hard but it is no longer as hard as it was.


    Stylistics people are together and together in larger numbers. They have


    a sense, like never before, that they are here to stay and it is no big deal


    now to worry about what part of the linguistic, literary or pedagogic ter-


    ritory they occupy. Although this does not mean that clear orientations


    are not given, it is up to others to worry about where they stand in rela-


    tion to stylistics. Foreword ix


    This volume exhibits much of this new-found confidence. Before


    reading the papers contained here I had doubts and worries, as I always


    do when picking up new books in the field. I asked myself if there is the


    danger that stylistics has become a bit complacent. Should we be hard-


    er on ourselves? Should we be picking more fights with others outside


    the field – and with each other? In terms of the above vastly over-


    simplified history, would there be any significant difference between


    this volume and other pedagogic volumes from the last decade or two?


    With a first word of ‘Literature’ in the title of the book would there be


    enough here of the literary or would the contributions be open to a


    charge of a lack of criticality and reflexivity of the kind that can some-


    times come with an increased strength of identity?


    What I have found both challenging (and reassuring because it is


    challenging) is that this book does not rest on any assumed disciplinary


    or interdisciplinary laurels, be they methodological, ideological, theo-


    retical or epistemological. Collectively, the authors of the chapter in


    this book very clearly manifest a continuing endeavour to address and


    re-address issues surrounding the study of literature and its teaching


    from a language-based perspective. Some key questions are asked about


    the relevance of literary stylistics to the literature classroom and new


    and fresh examples introduced that provide a real stimulus to thinking


    about textual history in relation to textual stylistics; aesthetic questions


    are posed alongside the role of critical linguistics in language and liter-


    ary studies; and the student-centred focus does not eschew difficult


    questions (questions dear to the heart of teachers of literature), concern-


    ing value(s), socio-historical cultures, the student experience of texts


    and the kinds of personal growth made possible by this engagement.


    Throughout, there is a steady focus on the kinds of meanings released


    by careful, systematic and retrievable description of language functions


    and on the classroom practices, both new and tried and tested, that can


    help to foster such releases of meaning. Going back to re-read some of


    the volumes from earlier decades, what strikes me here is a quieter, soft-


    er confidence in the range of available methods, a trust in the analytical


    equipment and a hard-edged belief in the importance of continuing to


    make analysis open, usable and contestable (because retrievable) by


    others.


    Above all, though, there is also a collective feeling that more still needs


    to be done. More needs to be invested in new textual theories and ana-


    lytical frameworks to help us to begin to address the more elusive, even


    harder questions which are still discussed in relatively loose and un-


    inspected ways by all concerned with text and discourse – literary


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.