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LEARNING SPOKEN ENGLISH

54 Pages · 2008 · 1.1 MB · English

  • LEARNING SPOKEN ENGLISH

    L


    EARNING


    S


    POKEN


    E


    NGLISH


    the


    . . . in half time


    by Lynn Lundquist







    Learning Spoken English



    ...in half the time








    by Lynn Lundquist






    Publisher information




    Public Domain. This book (Learning Spoken English) may be freely published in


    English or translated into any other language. It may be sold or distributed in any man-


    ner (including website publication) without permission from, or royalty payments to,


    the original author. It may carry any publisher's, translator's, or author's name and copy-


    right as long as other publishers outside of the original country of publication can pub-


    lish their own edition. The book's title may be changed at the publisher's discretion. The


    book's dual purpose is first, to help those wanting to learn English become more suc-


    cessful in that endeavor, and secondly, to be an effective advertising medium for Spo-


    ken English Learned Quickly as distributed by www.FreeEnglishNow.com. As such,


    our only requirement is that: 1) the English text of the numbered chapters be published


    as supplied (however, the book's title, cover, and the content of the front material in-


    cluding the introduction may be altered at the discretion of the publisher), 2) any trans-


    lation be a true translation of the English text, and 3) the names Spoken English


    Learned Quickly and www.FreeEnglishNow.com be prominently displayed in the text.


    Any one of three texts available on the www.FreeEnglishNow.com website may be


    used: the HTML texts by copying the VIEW SOURCE files, the PDF file, or the Mi-


    crosoft Word files. The graphics file (included with the Microsoft Word files) may


    be used as is or may be redrawn provided that the intent of the individual graphic re-


    main unchanged.




    For greater interest and sales, we recommend that Learning Spoken


    English be published using both the translated language and English.


    The translated language should be emphasized as the primary language


    with the translated book title in larger font on the cover and each page


    occupying the left-hand page. English should be the secondary lan-


    guage with the book title in smaller font and each English page occupy-


    ing the right-hand page. See the example on


    www.FreeEnglishNow.com/lsebrazil.pdf.


    We also suggest that a CD of the entire course be included with the


    book. See www.FreeEnglishNow.com/help14.html.











    Index:




    Introduction


    Chapter 1: Teaching Your Tongue to Speak English . . . . . 1


    Chapter 2: Four Rules for Learning Spoken English . . . . . 12


    Chapter 3: Grammar and Writing in Spoken English Study 17


    Chapter 4: Do You Need Beginning and Advanced Lessons? 21


    Chapter 5: Selecting a Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


    Chapter 6: Studying the English Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


    Chapter 7: Success in Spoken English Study . . . . . . . . . 43






    Introduction



    You have an opportunity for a better paying job, but you need to


    improve your English before you can apply. Or, you want to enroll in a


    university in the United States, but your English is not good enough yet.


    You have already taken English classes for two years in secondary


    school. Maybe you have studied more English at the university. You


    know English grammar and can write, but you need to learn how to


    speak English.


    And you need to improve your spoken English very quickly.


    This book will tell you how to retrain your mind—and your


    tongue—in order to learn fluent spoken English.


    With the information from this book, you can learn to speak English


    in half of the time it normally takes.


    Throughout this book, I will emphasize spoken English.


    Chapter 1: Teaching Your Tongue to Speak English explains the con-


    cept on which this Spoken English Learned Quickly method is built.


    The remaining chapters tell you how to apply that information as you


    learn to speak English fluently.


    I wish you the best of success as you study spoken English.






    Chapter 1: Teaching Your Tongue to Speak English



    Chapter Summary: Speech is controlled in your mind by feed-


    back from your hearing and mouth position as much as it is from


    your memory. If you want to speak fluent English, it is just as im-


    portant to retrain your tongue as it is to train your memory. To be


    effective, however, you must retrain your mind, tongue, and hear-


    ing at exactly the same time because they must work together


    when you speak English.


    Why have you studied English so long in school without learn-


    ing to speak fluently? It is because your teachers have tried to


    train your mind with written exercises without retraining your


    tongue at the same time.



    If you want to learn to speak English fluently, it will help you to


    understand how the human mind produces speech.


    However, before looking at the mechanics of speech, I want to draw


    an analogy from machine control because the analogy closely parallels


    neurological responses in spoken language.



    Open-loop machine control


    Wikipedia describes an open-loop control system as follows:


    An open-loop controller, also called a non-


    feedback controller, is a type of controller


    which computes its input into a system using


    only the current state . . . of the system. A


    characteristic of the open-loop controller is


    that it does not use feedback to determine if


    its input has achieved the desired goal. This


    means that the system does not observe the


    output of the processes that it is


    2 Learning Spoken English


    controlling. Consequently, a true open-loop


    system . . . cannot correct any errors that


    it could make.


    For example, a sprinkler system, programmed


    to turn on at set times could be an example


    of an open-loop system if it does not measure


    soil moisture as a form of feedback. Even if


    rain is pouring down on the lawn, the


    sprinkler system would activate on schedule,


    wasting water.


    Figure 1 shows an


    open-loop control


    Open-Loop Control


    system. The control


    may be a simple


    Control


    switch, or it could be a


    combination of a


    switch and a timer.


    Yet, all it can do is


    turn the machine on. It


    cannot respond to


    anything the machine


    is doing.


    Figure 1: An open-loop machine control.




    Closed-loop machine control


    Wikipedia then describes closed-loop control as follows:


    To avoid the problems of the open-loop


    controller, control theory introduces


    feedback. A closed-loop controller uses


    feedback to control states or outputs of a


    dynamical system. Its name comes from the


    information path in the system: process


    inputs (e.g. voltage applied to a motor) have


    an effect on the process outputs (e.g.


    velocity . . . of the motor), which is


    measured with sensors and processed by the


    controller; the result (the control signal)


    is used as input to the process, closing the


    loop.


    Teaching Your Tongue to Speak English 3


    Wikipedia's definition of a closed-loop system subsequently


    becomes too technical to use here. However, as Wikipedia suggests


    above, a sprinkler incorporating a soil moisture sensor would be a


    simple closed-loop system. The sprinkler system would have both a


    timer and a control valve. Either could operate independently, and either


    could shut the water off, but both would need to be open in order for the


    sprinkler to operate. The arrangement is shown in Figure 2.


    Water pipe


    Sprinkler


    Timer


    Valve Soil moisture probe


    Figure 2: A closed-loop sprinkler system.


    If the soil is already moist, the sprinkler will remain off whether or


    not the timer is open. When the moisture probe senses dry soil, the valve


    is opened. However, after the sprinkler is on, if the soil becomes moist


    enough, the valve will close even if the timer is still open. Thus, the


    sprinkler uses feedback from its own operation to control itself.


    Figure 3 shows a simple


    closed-loop machine


    control.


    Closed-Loop Control


    Notice that Figure 3 also


    shows a calibration Control


    function. Irrespective of


    whether it is a soil moisture Calibration


    sensor on a sprinkler—or a


    counter on a machine—


    Feedback


    there must be some way of


    setting the control so that it


    will respond in a


    predetermined way. In a Figure 3: A closed-loop machine control.


    4 Learning Spoken English


    machine application, the calibration function could be a counter which


    is set so that the machine will produce a certain number of finished


    parts.



    Human speech is a closed-loop system


    Human speech is a complex learned skill and is dependent on a


    number of memory and neurological functions. Speech is a closed-loop


    system because sensors within the system itself give feedback to the


    control portion of the system. The control then corrects and coordinates


    ongoing speech. In this case, the mind is in control of the closed-loop


    system, the mouth produces the desired product (speech), and auditory


    feedback from the ears and feedback from the nerve sensors in the


    mouth allow the mind to coordinate the speech process in real time.[1]


    When you speak your own language, your mind stores all of the


    vocabulary you need. Your mind also controls your tongue, mouth, and


    breathing. Your hearing is also an important part of the control because


    your ears hear everything your mouth says. Therefore, what you say


    next is partially dependent on the vocabulary and other information


    stored in your mind. But what you say next is also dependent on what


    your ears are hearing your mouth say, and on the feedback that is


    coming from the nerves in your tongue and mouth.


    Because you have spoken your own language all of your life, all of


    this control is automatic—you do not need to think about it. But when


    you learn to speak English, you must retrain all of these processes so


    that they will all work together at the same time. It is not enough to


    simply put new vocabulary words or grammar drills into your memory.


    You must retrain your mind to use all of the new sounds your ears will


    hear, as well as the new movements of your tongue, mouth, and


    breathing. Yet, since all of these things must happen together for you to


    speak fluent English, all retraining of your memory, hearing, and the


    nerves in your mouth must be done simultaneously.


    The inter-relationship of these functions is shown in the table below.


    The meanings of specialized words are given below the table.




    Teaching Your Tongue to Speak English 5



    The Organ or Primary Function(s) Comments


    Sense


    The mind 1. vocabulary mem- The mind is the storage


    provides: ory bank for vocabulary.


    2. partial syntax con- Memory is also involved


    trol in structuring syntax.


    3. feedback coordina- The mind uses both


    tion auditory and propriocep-


    4. calibration by the tive feedback to monitor


    speaker to give and calibrate speech in


    meaning to the real time.


    sounds


    The mouth and 1. sound production The proprioceptive


    related organs 2. breath regulation sense is involved in both


    provide: 3. proprioceptive pronunciation and syntax


    feedback to the feedback. It is essential


    mind in real time for speech control.


    which regulates


    pronunciation and


    provides partial


    syntax control


    Hearing 1. auditory feedback Auditory and proprio-


    provides: to the mind in real ceptive feedback are


    time combined in the mind


    for essential speech con-


    trol.




    Table 1: The three components of human speech and their primary


    functions.


    Proprioceptive.[2] Human speech would be impossible without the


    proprioceptive sense. (Proprioceptive refers to the sense within the


    organism itself which detects or controls the movement and location of


    the muscles, tendons, and joints which are used to create speech.) Our


    mouth, vocal cords, diaphragm, and lungs incorporate thousands of


    nerve sensors which the brain uses to control the movement and


    position of these same organs—the mouth, vocal cords, diaphragm, and


    lungs. Imagine the complexity of pronouncing even a single word with



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