2

Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus

422 Pages · 2011 · 10.1 MB · English

  • Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus

    JERUSALEM


    in the Time of Jesus JOACHIM JEREMIAS


    JERUSALEM


    in the Time of Jesus


    An Investigation into Economic and


    Social Conditions during the


    New Testament Period


    FORTRESS PRESS


    PHILADELPHIA Translated by F. H. and C. H. Cave


    from the German


    Jerusalem zur Zeit Jesu


    3rd edition published 1962 by Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht


    Gottingen


    with author's revisions to 1967.


    An earlier draft translation was contributed


    by M. E. Dahl.


    Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 77-81530


    First published in English 1969


    Translation © SCM Press Ltd 1969


    Printed in Great Britain C O N T E N TS


    Translators9 note xi


    Editions used xii


    Abbreviations xiii


    PART ONE


    ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN


    THE CITY OF JERUSALEM


    I INDUSTRIES 3


    A The industries of Jerusalem 4


    1. Industries which served the general public 4


    A Goods for domestic use 4


    B Food trades 6


    c Luxury goods 8


    D The building trade 10


    i. Building activity 10


    ii. The building workers 14


    (a) Ordinary building 14


    Skilled craftsmanship in building 15


    (y) Building maintenance 16


    E Other trades 17


    2. Guilds within individual industries 18


    A The layout of the city 18


    B The distribution of industries in the city 19


    c The organization of the trades 21


    3. Industries connected with the Temple 21


    A The buildings 21


    B The cultus 25


    c Organization of Temple workers 26


    B The individuality of Jerusalem 27


    1. The position of the city 27


    2. The political and religious significance of the city 27


    II COMMERCE 31


    A Evidence of commerce in Jerusalem 31


    1. In general 31 vi CONTENTS


    2. Foreign trade 35


    3. Local trade 38


    A Grain 39


    B Fruit and vegetables 41


    c Livestock 46


    D Raw materials 49


    B The influence of Jerusalem on commerce 51


    1. The city's geographical position 51


    2. Political and religious importance of the city 54


    III FOREIGN VISITORS 58


    A Evidence for foreign visitors in the city 58


    1. In general 58


    A The Journey to Jerusalem 58


    B Accommodation in Jerusalem 60


    2. Visitors from a distance 62


    A Gaul, etc. 63


    B Rome 63


    c Greece 64


    D Cyprus 64


    E Asia Minor 65


    F Mesopotamia 66


    G Parthia 67


    H Syria 68


    1 Arabia 68


    J Egypt 69


    K Cyrene 71


    L Ethiopia 71


    3. Visitors from within Palestine 71


    B The unique character of Jerusalem 73


    1. The city's geographical position 73


    2. Political and religious importance of the city 73


    Excursus The number of pilgrims at Passover 77


    Additional Note on calculating the number of


    festival pilgrims 84


    PART Two


    ECONOMIC STATUS


    IV THE RICH 87


    A The court 87 C O N T E N TS Vll


    B The wealthy class 92


    1. Extravagance 92


    2. Representatives of the wealthy class 95


    V T HE M I D D LE C L A SS 100


    VI T HE P O OR 109


    A Slaves and day labourers 110


    B The subsidized sections of the population 111


    VII D E C I S I VE F A C T O RS IN D E T E R M I N I NG T HE


    E C O N O M IC C I R C U M S T A N C ES OF T HE P E O P LE


    OF J E R U S A L EM 120


    A Economic and geographic situation of the city 120


    1. The cost of living in normal times 120


    2. The cost of living in times of emergency 121


    B The political situation 123


    1. Taxation 124


    2. War and spoliation 126


    c Religion and cult us 126


    1 • Acts of charity 126


    2. Pilgrim traffic 134


    3. Income from the Cultus 138


    Excursus 1 The historicity of Matthew 27.7 138


    Excursus 11 Disasters in Jerusalem 140


    P A RT T H R EE


    SOCIAL STATUS


    ^III T HE C L E R GY 147


    A The high priest 147


    B The chief priests and chief Levites 160


    c The priestly aristocracy 181


    Excursus The chronology of Maccabees 182


    D The 'ordinary' priests 198


    E The Levites 207


    F The hereditary character of the priesthood 213


    IX T HE L AY N O B I L I TY 222 viii CONTENTS


    X THE SCRIBES 233


    XI THE PHARISEES 246


    PART FOUR


    THE MAINTENANCE OF RACIAL PURITY


    XII THE STRUCTURE OF THE NATIONAL


    COMMUNITY 271


    XIII ISRAELITES OF PURE ANCESTRY 275


    A Legitimacy of ancestry 275


    B Historical value of lay genealogies 284


    c Civil rights of full Israelites 297


    XIV DESPISED TRADES AND JEWISH SLAVES 303


    A Despised trades 303


    B Jewish slaves 312


    XV ILLEGITIMATE ISRAELITES 317


    A Israelites with slight blemish 317


    1. Illegitimate descendants of priests 317


    2. Proselytes 320


    3. Freed Gentile slaves 334


    B Israelites with grave blemish 337


    1. Bastards 337


    2. Temple slaves, fatherless, foundlings, eunuchs 342


    XVI GENTILE SLAVES 345


    XVII THE SAMARITANS 352


    XVIII THE SOCIAL POSITION OF WOMEN 359


    List of High Priests 377


    Jerusalem Scribes 379


    Index of Names and Subjects 381


    Index of References 385


    Old Testament 385


    New Testament 388


    Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha 392


    Qumran Writings 392 CONTENTS ix


    The Mishnah 393


    The Tosephta 396


    The Babylonian Talmud 397


    The Jerusalem Talmud 399


    The Extra-canonical Tractates 400


    Midrash Rabbah 400


    Josephus 401


    Philo 4°4


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.