Islam at War: A History

Islam at War: A History

Islam at War: A History

293 Pages ·2008·2 MB ·English

Islam at War: A History

Islam at War ISLAM AT WAR


A History


George F. Nafziger


and Mark W. Walton LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData


Nafziger,GeorgeF.


/


Islamatwar:ahistory GeorgeF.NafzigerandMarkW.Walton.


p.cm.


Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.


ISBN0–275–98101–0(alk.paper)


1.Islam—History. I.Walton,MarkW.,1949– II.Title.


BP50.N335 2003


297⬘.09—dc21 2002044957


BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataisavailable.


Copyright䉷2003byGeorgeF.NafzigerandMarkW.Walton


Allrightsreserved.Noportionofthisbookmaybe


reproduced,byanyprocessortechnique,withoutthe


expresswrittenconsentofthepublisher.


LibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:2002044957


ISBN:0–275–98101–0


Firstpublishedin2003


PraegerPublishers,88PostRoadWest,Westport,CT06881


AnimprintofGreenwoodPublishingGroup,Inc.


www.praeger.com


PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica


Thepaperusedinthisbookcomplieswiththe


PermanentPaperStandardissuedbytheNational


InformationStandardsOrganization(Z39.48–1984).


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENTS


Introduction vii


1. Birth of Islam: Islamic Expansion and Muhammad as


Battlefield Commander 1


2. The Great Conquests 15


3. Islam and the Crusades 37


4. The Sword and India: The Moghul Conquest 51


5. Egypt in the World of Islam 63


6. The Muslim Conquest and Loss of Spain 81


7. The Rise of the Ottoman Empire 91


8. The Sick Man of Europe: The Balkans and the Fall of the


Ottoman Empire 109


9. The Sword and the Sea: Muslim Navies, Lepanto, and Malta 141


10. Mullahs and Machine Guns: Colonial Wars in the Middle East 153


11. Mullahs and Missiles: Islamic Wars since 1945 171


12. Islam and Jihad: For It Is Ordained unto You 207


13. Dying for God: The Assassins—Pastand Present 235 vi CONTENTS


14. Conclusion 255


Bibliography 263


Index 267 INTRODUCTION


OnSeptember11,2001,AmericasuddenlydiscoveredtheIslamicworld.


The word jihad became commonplace in the spoken American lexicon.


An unknown people with unusual customs and even more unusual ideas


struckattheAmericanheartlandandsecuredourundividedattention.Yet,


despite the thousands of words spoken by the media since September 11


thehistoryoftheIslamicworldhasbarelybeenexposedtoourview.And


we are even less aware of what has motivated this attack on our peace


and tranquility.


ManyintheIslamicworldseetheeventsofSeptember11asamilitary


operation. Surely Osama bin Laden did. Many will be surprised to dis-


coverthatthisisnotthefirstblowstruckbytheIslamicworldagainstthe


Christian world or the West, nor the worst blow. It is merely the latest.


Indeed, a large part of the Islamic world’shistory revolvesaroundarmed


conflict, much of it with the Christian and Western worlds. Warhasbeen


part of the Islamic world since the Archangel Gabriel first spoke to Mu-


hammad,anditistheprincipalprocessbywhichIslamspreadthroughout


the world.


It is the intent of this work to explore that ancient and rich military


history. It beginswith Muhammad, thefirstMuslimwarlord,andfollows


the first world superpower, the Ottoman Empire, as it rose from the ob-


scurity ofthe central Asian steppesandvanishedatthestrokeofapenin


1918. It explores the history of suicidal religious zealots that fought the


Islam at War ISLAM AT WAR


A History


George F. Nafziger


and Mark W. Walton LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData


Nafziger,GeorgeF.


/


Islamatwar:ahistory GeorgeF.NafzigerandMarkW.Walton.


p.cm.


Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.


ISBN0–275–98101–0(alk.paper)


1.Islam—History. I.Walton,MarkW.,1949– II.Title.


BP50.N335 2003


297⬘.09—dc21 2002044957


BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataisavailable.


Copyright䉷2003byGeorgeF.NafzigerandMarkW.Walton


Allrightsreserved.Noportionofthisbookmaybe


reproduced,byanyprocessortechnique,withoutthe


expresswrittenconsentofthepublisher.


LibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:2002044957


ISBN:0–275–98101–0


Firstpublishedin2003


PraegerPublishers,88PostRoadWest,Westport,CT06881


AnimprintofGreenwoodPublishingGroup,Inc.


www.praeger.com


PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica


Thepaperusedinthisbookcomplieswiththe


PermanentPaperStandardissuedbytheNational


InformationStandardsOrganization(Z39.48–1984).


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENTS


Introduction vii


1. Birth of Islam: Islamic Expansion and Muhammad as


Battlefield Commander 1


2. The Great Conquests 15


3. Islam and the Crusades 37


4. The Sword and India: The Moghul Conquest 51


5. Egypt in the World of Islam 63


6. The Muslim Conquest and Loss of Spain 81


7. The Rise of the Ottoman Empire 91


8. The Sick Man of Europe: The Balkans and the Fall of the


Ottoman Empire 109


9. The Sword and the Sea: Muslim Navies, Lepanto, and Malta 141


10. Mullahs and Machine Guns: Colonial Wars in the Middle East 153


11. Mullahs and Missiles: Islamic Wars since 1945 171


12. Islam and Jihad: For It Is Ordained unto You 207


13. Dying for God: The Assassins—Pastand Present 235 vi CONTENTS


14. Conclusion 255


Bibliography 263


Index 267 INTRODUCTION


OnSeptember11,2001,AmericasuddenlydiscoveredtheIslamicworld.


The word jihad became commonplace in the spoken American lexicon.


An unknown people with unusual customs and even more unusual ideas


struckattheAmericanheartlandandsecuredourundividedattention.Yet,


despite the thousands of words spoken by the media since September 11


thehistoryoftheIslamicworldhasbarelybeenexposedtoourview.And


we are even less aware of what has motivated this attack on our peace


and tranquility.


ManyintheIslamicworldseetheeventsofSeptember11asamilitary


operation. Surely Osama bin Laden did. Many will be surprised to dis-


coverthatthisisnotthefirstblowstruckbytheIslamicworldagainstthe


Christian world or the West, nor the worst blow. It is merely the latest.


Indeed, a large part of the Islamic world’shistory revolvesaroundarmed


conflict, much of it with the Christian and Western worlds. Warhasbeen


part of the Islamic world since the Archangel Gabriel first spoke to Mu-


hammad,anditistheprincipalprocessbywhichIslamspreadthroughout


the world.


It is the intent of this work to explore that ancient and rich military


history. It beginswith Muhammad, thefirstMuslimwarlord,andfollows


the first world superpower, the Ottoman Empire, as it rose from the ob-


scurity ofthe central Asian steppesandvanishedatthestrokeofapenin


1918. It explores the history of suicidal religious zealots that fought the


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