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Islam at War: A History

293 Pages · 2008 · 2 MB · English

  • Islam at War: A History

    Islam at War ISLAM AT WAR


    A History


    George F. Nafziger


    and Mark W. Walton LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData


    Nafziger,GeorgeF.


    /


    Islamatwar:ahistory GeorgeF.NafzigerandMarkW.Walton.


    p.cm.


    Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.


    ISBN0–275–98101–0(alk.paper)


    1.Islam—History. I.Walton,MarkW.,1949– II.Title.


    BP50.N335 2003


    297⬘.09—dc21 2002044957


    BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataisavailable.


    Copyright䉷2003byGeorgeF.NafzigerandMarkW.Walton


    Allrightsreserved.Noportionofthisbookmaybe


    reproduced,byanyprocessortechnique,withoutthe


    expresswrittenconsentofthepublisher.


    LibraryofCongressCatalogCardNumber:2002044957


    ISBN:0–275–98101–0


    Firstpublishedin2003


    PraegerPublishers,88PostRoadWest,Westport,CT06881


    AnimprintofGreenwoodPublishingGroup,Inc.


    www.praeger.com


    PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica


    Thepaperusedinthisbookcomplieswiththe


    PermanentPaperStandardissuedbytheNational


    InformationStandardsOrganization(Z39.48–1984).


    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENTS


    Introduction vii


    1. Birth of Islam: Islamic Expansion and Muhammad as


    Battlefield Commander 1


    2. The Great Conquests 15


    3. Islam and the Crusades 37


    4. The Sword and India: The Moghul Conquest 51


    5. Egypt in the World of Islam 63


    6. The Muslim Conquest and Loss of Spain 81


    7. The Rise of the Ottoman Empire 91


    8. The Sick Man of Europe: The Balkans and the Fall of the


    Ottoman Empire 109


    9. The Sword and the Sea: Muslim Navies, Lepanto, and Malta 141


    10. Mullahs and Machine Guns: Colonial Wars in the Middle East 153


    11. Mullahs and Missiles: Islamic Wars since 1945 171


    12. Islam and Jihad: For It Is Ordained unto You 207


    13. Dying for God: The Assassins—Pastand Present 235 vi CONTENTS


    14. Conclusion 255


    Bibliography 263


    Index 267 INTRODUCTION


    OnSeptember11,2001,AmericasuddenlydiscoveredtheIslamicworld.


    The word jihad became commonplace in the spoken American lexicon.


    An unknown people with unusual customs and even more unusual ideas


    struckattheAmericanheartlandandsecuredourundividedattention.Yet,


    despite the thousands of words spoken by the media since September 11


    thehistoryoftheIslamicworldhasbarelybeenexposedtoourview.And


    we are even less aware of what has motivated this attack on our peace


    and tranquility.


    ManyintheIslamicworldseetheeventsofSeptember11asamilitary


    operation. Surely Osama bin Laden did. Many will be surprised to dis-


    coverthatthisisnotthefirstblowstruckbytheIslamicworldagainstthe


    Christian world or the West, nor the worst blow. It is merely the latest.


    Indeed, a large part of the Islamic world’shistory revolvesaroundarmed


    conflict, much of it with the Christian and Western worlds. Warhasbeen


    part of the Islamic world since the Archangel Gabriel first spoke to Mu-


    hammad,anditistheprincipalprocessbywhichIslamspreadthroughout


    the world.


    It is the intent of this work to explore that ancient and rich military


    history. It beginswith Muhammad, thefirstMuslimwarlord,andfollows


    the first world superpower, the Ottoman Empire, as it rose from the ob-


    scurity ofthe central Asian steppesandvanishedatthestrokeofapenin


    1918. It explores the history of suicidal religious zealots that fought the


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