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Introduction to Psychology - College of Lake County

426 Pages · 2016 · 10.01 MB · English

  • Introduction to Psychology - College of Lake County

    Introduction to Psychology



    Adapted by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French














    Introduction to Psychology



    Adapted by: College of Lake County Faculty: Martha Lally and Suzanne


    Valentine-French



    (Revised July 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014)



    This project was funded by a grant from the College of Lake County Foundation.



    Adapted College of Lake County text can be found at:


    http://dept.clcillinois.edu/psy/IntroductionToPsychologyText.pdf



    Original text materials for Introduction to Psychology by Stangor 2011 (non-HCC version) at:


    http://www.saylor.org/site/textbooks/Introduction%20to%20Psychology.pdf


    Adapted by: Houston Community College Faculty: Carol Laman, Sandra Greenstone, Huong Ho,


    Jennifer Suarez, Sheila Weick, Kenneth Woodruff, Robert Morecook, Eileen Mello, Saundra Boyd, Ilija


    Gallego, Karen Saenz (Revised May, 2013).


    Houston Community College 2013 revision for Introduction to Psychology by Stangor, 2011 at:


    http://learning.hccs.edu/faculty/robert.morecook/free-psychology-2301-textbook-dsm-5-version-2013




    Original Publication Under the following license:





    This work is licensed under the


    Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 unported license to view a copy of this


    license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171


    Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.



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    Table of Contents



    Chapter 1 -- Introducing Psychology




    Chapter 2 -- Psychological Science




    Chapter 3 – Brain and Behavior




    Chapter 4 – Learning




    Chapter 5 – Memory and Cognition




    Chapter 6 – Intelligence and Language




    Chapter 7 – Lifespan Development




    Chapter 8 – Personality




    Chapter 9 – Social Psychology




    Chapter 10 – Defining Psychological Disorders




    Chapter 11 – Treating Psychological Disorders




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    Contents


    ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1


    Introduction to Psychology ........................................................................................................................... 2


    Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................................... 3


    Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology ................................................................................................................. 7


    Psychology as a Science ............................................................................................................................. 8


    The Evolution of Psychology: Central Questions, History, and Contemporary Perspectives ......... 12


    The Many Disciplines of Psychology ..................................................................................................... 27


    Chapter 2 Psychological Science.................................................................................................................. 36


    Psychologists Use the Scientific Method to Guide Their Research ..................................................... 37


    Psychologists Use Descriptive, Correlational, and Experimental Research Designs to Understand


    Behavior ................................................................................................................................................. 45


    Factors that Contribute to Credible Research ..................................................................................... 56


    Chapter 3 Brain and Behavior ..................................................................................................................... 64


    The Neuron Is the Building Block of the Nervous System................................................................... 64


    The Brain ................................................................................................................................................ 71


    Psychologists Study the Brain Using Many Different Methods ........................................................... 81


    The Nervous System and the Endocrine System ................................................................................. 86


    Sleeping and Dreaming ......................................................................................................................... 92


    Chapter 4 Learning .................................................................................................................................... 108


    Classical Conditioning ......................................................................................................................... 109


    Operant Conditioning ......................................................................................................................... 116


    Cognition and Conditioning ................................................................................................................ 124


    Other Forms of Learning based on Cognition ................................................................................... 125


    Chapter 5 Memory and Cognition ............................................................................................................. 137


    Encoding and Storage: How Our Perceptions Become Memories .................................................... 138


    Retrieval ............................................................................................................................................... 150


    The Biology of Memory ....................................................................................................................... 152


    Cues to Improving Memory ................................................................................................................. 155


    Cognition and Cognitive Biases .......................................................................................................... 158


    Problem-Solving Strategies ................................................................................................................. 168


    Chapter 6 Intelligence and Language ........................................................................................................ 176


    Defining and Measuring Intelligence .................................................................................................. 176


    Group Differences in Intelligence ....................................................................................................... 187


    The Development and Use of Language ............................................................................................. 194


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    Chapter 7 Lifespan Development .............................................................................................................. 213


    Conception and Prenatal Development .............................................................................................. 214


    Physical Development across the Lifespan ....................................................................................... 218


    Cognitive Development across the Lifespan ..................................................................................... 223


    Social Development across the Lifespan ............................................................................................ 235


    Chapter 8 Personality ................................................................................................................................ 255


    Personality as Traits ........................................................................................................................... 255


    Studying the Nature of Personality .................................................................................................... 259


    Studying the Nurture of Personality .................................................................................................. 266


    Personality Assessment ......................................................................................................................... 271


    Chapter 9 Social Psychology ...................................................................................................................... 287


    Social Cognition ................................................................................................................................... 287


    Social Influences .................................................................................................................................. 295


    Social Relationships ............................................................................................................................ 311


    Chapter 10 Defining Psychological Disorders ............................................................................................ 331


    Defining a Disorder .............................................................................................................................. 332


    Anxiety, OCD, and PTSD ....................................................................................................................... 337


    Depressive and Bipolar Disorders ...................................................................................................... 344


    Schizophrenia ...................................................................................................................................... 351


    Personality Disorders .......................................................................................................................... 356


    Disorders Originating in Childhood ................................................................................................... 361


    Chapter 11 Treating Psychological Disorders ............................................................................................. 374


    Psychotherapy ..................................................................................................................................... 375


    Biomedical Therapy ............................................................................................................................ 385


    Social and Community Therapy ......................................................................................................... 392


    Eclectic Approach to Therapy and Seeking Treatment .................................................................... 397



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    Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology



    Learning Objective




    1. Define psychology.




    Psychology is the scientific study of mind (mental processes) and behavior. The word


    “psychology” comes from the Greek words “psyche,” meaning life, and “logos,” meaning


    explanation.



    Because we are frequently exposed to the work of


    psychologists in our everyday lives, we all have


    an idea about what psychology is and what


    psychologists do. In many ways your conceptions


    are correct. Psychologists do work in forensic


    fields, and they do provide counseling and


    therapy for people in distress. But there are


    hundreds of thousands of psychologists in the


    world, and many of them do other types of work



    Many psychologists work in research laboratories,


    hospitals, and other field settings where they


    study the behavior of humans and animals.


    Psychologists also work in schools and


    businesses, and they use a variety of methods,


    including observation, questionnaires, interviews,


    and laboratory studies, to help them understand


    behavior.



    This chapter provides an introduction to the broad


    field of psychology and the many approaches that


    psychologists take to understanding human



    behavior. We will consider how psychologists Figure 1.1


    conduct scientific research. We will look at some Psychology is in part the study of behavior. Why


    of the most important approaches used and topics do you think these people are behaving the way


    studied by psychologists. We will consider the they are?


    variety of fields in which psychologists work and


    Sources: “The Robot: It's not a dance, it's a lifestyle!” photo courtesy of Alla,


    the careers that are available to people with http://www.flickr.com/photos/alla2/2481846545/. Other photos © Thinkstock.



    psychology degrees. You may find that at least


    some of your preconceptions about psychology will be challenged and changed, and you will


    learn that psychology is a field that will provide you with new ways of thinking about your own


    thoughts, feelings, and actions.





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    Psychology as a Science



    Learning Objective




    1. Describe the differences among opinions, values and facts, and explain how the


    scientific method is used to provide evidence for facts.




    Despite the differences in their interests, areas of study, and approaches, all psychologists have


    one thing in common: They rely on the scientific method. Research psychologists use scientific


    methods to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior. Practitioners, such as clinical,


    counseling, industrial-organizational, and school psychologists, primarily use existing research


    to help solve problems.



    In a sense all humans are scientists. We all have an interest in asking and answering questions


    about our world. We want to know why things happen, when and if they are likely to happen


    again, and how to reproduce or change them. Such knowledge enables us to predict our own


    behavior and that of others. We may even collect data, or any information collected through


    formal observation or measurement, to aid us in this undertaking. It has been argued that people


    are “everyday scientists” who conduct research projects to answer questions about behavior


    (Nisbett & Ross, 1980). When we perform poorly on an important test, we try to understand


    what caused our failure to remember or understand the material and what might help us do better


    the next time. When our good friends Monisha and Charlie break up, we try to determine what


    happened. When we think about the rise of terrorism around the world, we try to investigate the


    causes of this problem by looking at the terrorists themselves, the situation, and others’


    responses.




    The Problem of Intuition



    The results of these “everyday” research projects can teach us many principles of human


    behavior. We learn through experience that if we give someone bad news, he or she may blame


    us even though the news was not our fault. We learn that people may become depressed after


    they fail at an important task. We see that aggressive behavior occurs frequently in our society,


    and we develop theories to explain why this is so. These insights are part of everyday social life.


    In fact, much research in psychology involves the scientific study of everyday behavior (Heider,


    1958; Kelley, 1967).




    Unfortunately, the way people collect and interpret data in their everyday lives is not always


    scientific. Often, when one explanation for an event seems “right,” we adopt that explanation as


    the truth. However, this reasoning is more intuitive than scientific. Intuition is thinking that is


    more experiential, emotional, automatic, and unconscious, and does not lead to careful analysis


    of all the variables in a situation (Kahneman, 2011). Other explanations might be possible and


    and even more accurate. For example, eyewitnesses to violent crimes are often extremely


    confident in their identifications of criminals. But research finds that eyewitnesses are just as


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    confident when they are wrong as when they are right (Cutler & Wells, 2009; Wells & Hasel,


    2008). People may also believe in extrasensory perception (ESP), or the predictions of astrology,


    when there is no evidence for either (Gilovich, 1993). Furthermore, psychologists have also


    found that there are a variety of biases that can influence our perceptions. These biases lead us


    to draw faulty conclusions (Fiske & Taylor, 2007; Hsee & Hastie, 2006). In addition, most


    individuals listen to people they know and trust to give them accurate information rather than


    doing research to determine what scientific studies show. In summary, accepting explanations


    for events without testing them thoroughly may lead us to think that we know the causes of


    things when we really do not.



    Hindsight Bias



    Once we learn about the outcome of a given event, such as when we read about the results of a


    research project, we frequently believe that we would have been able to predict the outcome


    ahead of time. For instance, if half of a class of students is told that research concerning


    attraction between people has demonstrated that “opposites attract” and the other half is told that


    research has demonstrated that “birds of a feather flock together,” most of the students will


    report believing that the outcome that they just read about is true, and that they would have


    predicted the outcome before they had read about it. Of course, both of these contradictory


    outcomes cannot be true. In fact, psychological research finds that “birds of a feather flock


    together” is generally the case. The problem is that just reading a description of research findings


    leads us to think of the many cases we know that support the findings, and thus makes them


    seem believable. The tendency to think that we could have predicted something that has already


    occurred that we probably would not have been able to predict is called the hindsight bias.



    Why Psychologists Rely on Empirical Methods



    All scientists, whether they are physicists, chemists, biologists, or psychologists, use empirical


    research to study the topics that interest them. We can label the scientific method as the set of


    assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use to conduct empirical research. Empirical


    research methods include collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data, reaching conclusions, and


    sharing information.












    Figure 1.2


    Psychologists use a variety of techniques to measure and understand human behavior.



    Sources: Poster photo courtesy of Wesleyan University, http://newsletter.blogs.wesleyan.edu/files/2009/04/psychposter11.jpg. Language lab photo courtesy of Evansville University,


    http://psychology.evansville.edu/langlab.jpg. Other photo © Thinkstock.



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    Although scientific research is an important method of studying human behavior, not all


    questions can be answered using scientific approaches. Statements that cannot be objectively


    measured or objectively determined to be true or false are not within the domain of scientific


    inquiry. Scientists generally do not attempt to prove values, beliefs, or opinions to be true or


    false. Values are personal statements such as “Abortion should not be permitted in this


    country.” Religious beliefs include statements such as “I will go to heaven when I die.”


    Opinions are individual ideas such as “It is important to study psychology.” Facts are objective


    statements determined to be accurate through empirical study. The following are two examples


    of facts. “There were more than 21,000 homicides in the United States in 2009.” “Research


    demonstrates that individuals who are exposed to highly stressful situations over long periods of


    time develop more health problems than those who are not.”



    Because values cannot be either true or false, science cannot prove or disprove them.


    Nevertheless, as shown in Table 1.1, research can sometimes provide facts that can help people


    develop their values. For instance, scientists may be able to objectively measure the effect of


    capital punishment on the crime rate in the United States. This factual information can and


    should be made available to help people formulate their values about capital punishment. People


    also use values to decide which research is appropriate or important to conduct. For instance, the


    U.S. government has recently provided funding for research on HIV, AIDS, and terrorism, while


    denying funding for some research using human stem cells.



    Table 1.1 Examples of Values and Facts in Scientific Research



    Personal value Scientific fact


    The United States government should provide The U.S. government paid $32 billion in benefits in 2016.


    financial assistance to its citizens.



    There were 33,599 deaths caused by handguns in the United States in


    Handguns should be outlawed.


    2014.



    More than 35% of college students indicate that blue is their favorite


    Blue is my favorite color.


    color.


    It is important to quit smoking. Smoking increases the incidence of cancer and heart disease.




    Scientific procedures do not necessarily guarantee that the answers to questions will be unbiased.


    However, since information from scientific research is shared, knowledge is continually


    challenged. New research follows, and scientific facts can be modified when new evidence is


    found. Particularly in fields involving human behavior, scientists may find it necessary to update


    their research on a regular basis. Norms for behavior 50 years ago may no longer be “facts”


    today. Cell phones and the internet are now part of everyday communications. Psychologists


    must update their research on relationships to include online dating, multitasking, and cyber


    bullying.



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