Introduction to Environmental Control in the Petroleum Industry

Introduction to Environmental Control in the Petroleum Industry

Introduction to Environmental Control in the Petroleum Industry

287 Pages ·2003·12.62 MB ·English

Introduction to Environmental Control in the Petroleum Industry

ENVIRONMENTAL


CONTROL


IN


PETROLEUM


ENGINEERING This page intentionally left blank ENVIRONMENTAL


CONTROL


IN


IN


PETR OLEUM


ENGINEERING


JOHN C. REIS


Gulf Publishing Company


Houston, London, Paris, Zurich, Tokyo ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL


IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING


Copyright © 1996 by Gulf Publishing Company,


Houston, Texas. All rights reserved. Printed in the


United States of America. This book, or parts thereof,


may not be reproduced in any form without permission


of the publisher.


Gulf Publishing Company


Book Division


P.O. Box 2608 n Houston, Texas 77252-2608


10 9 8 7 6 54 3 21


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Reis, John C.


Environmental control in petroleum engineering /


John C. Reis.


p. cm.


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN 0-88415-273-1 (alk. paper)


1. Petroleum engineering—Environmental


aspects. 2. Pollution. I. Reis, John C. II. Title.


TD195.P4R45 1996


665.6—dc20 95-48462


CIP


Printed on Acid-Free Paper (°°) Contents


Acknowledgments viii


Preface ix


CHAPTER 1


Introduction to Environmental Control


in the Petroleum Industry 1


Overview of Environmental Issues, 2. A New Attitude. 11.


References, 16.


CHAPTER 2


Drilling and Production Operations 18


Drilling, 18. Production. 39. Air Emissions, 57.


References, 65.


CHAPTER 3


The Impact of Drilling and Production Operations 71


Measuring Toxicity, 71. Hydrocarbons, 77. Salt, 96.


Heavy Metals, 100. Production Chemicals, 105.


Drilling Fluids, 106. Produced Water, 120. Nuclear


Radiation, 121. Air Pollution, 126. Acoustic Impacts, 127.


Effects of Offshore Platforms, 128. Risk Assessment, 128.


References, 131.


CHAPTER 4


Environmental Transport of Petroleum Wastes 139


Surface Paths, 139. Subsurface Paths, 140. Atmospheric


Paths, 142. References, 142. CHAPTER 5


Planning for Environmental Protection .144


Environmental Audits, 145. Waste Management Plans, 149.


Waste Management Actions, 151. Certification of Disposal


Processes, 162. Contingency Plans, 163. Employee


Training, 165. References, 166.


CHAPTER 6


Waste Treatment Methods 172


Treatment of Water, 172. Treatment of Solids, 185.


Treatment of Air Emissions, 194. References, 196.


CHAPTER 7


Waste Disposal Methods .......203


Surface Disposal, 203. Subsurface Disposal, 207.


References, 212.


CHAPTER 8


Remediation of Contaminated Sites.. ....216


Site Assessment, 216. Remediation Processes, 220.


References, 226.


APPENDIX A


Environmental Regulations...... 230


United States Federal Regulations, 231. State


Regulations, 249. Local Regulations, 249. Regulations


in Other Countries, 249. Cost of Environmental


Compliance, 250. References, 251.


APPENDIX B


Sensitive Habitats 256


Rain Forests, 256. Arctic Regions, 257. References, 257. APPENDIX C


Major U.S. Chemical Waste Exchanges ..258


APPENDIX D


Offshore Releases of Oil 261


Natural Dispersion of Oil, 261. Enhanced Removal


of Oil, 264. References, 268.


Index 271 Acknowledgments


I would like to thank the many students who provided feedback on


the course notes that eventually lead to this book. I would also like


to thank Larry Henry for his thoughtful review of the manuscript. I


gratefully acknowledge the donation of the reports by the American


Petroleum Institute that are cited in this book. Preface


With the rise of the environmental protection movement, the


petroleum industry has placed greater emphasis on minimizing the


environmental impact of its operations. Improved environmental


protection requires better education and training of industry personnel.


There is a tremendous amount of valuable information available on


the environmental impact of petroleum operations and on ways to


minimize that impact; however, this information is scattered among


thousands of books, reports, and papers, making it difficult for industry


personnel to obtain specific information on controlling the environ-


mental effects of particular operations. This book assembles a sub-


stantial portion of this information into a single reference.


The book has been organized and written for a target audience


having little or no training in the environmental issues facing the


petroleum industry. The first chapter provides a brief overview of these


issues. The second chapter focuses on the various aspects of drilling


and production operations, while the third chapter discusses the


specific impacts associated with them. Chapter 4 discusses ways in


which toxic materials can be transported away from their release sites.


(Actual waste transport modeling is a very complex topic and


is beyond the scope of this book.) The fifth chapter presents ways


to plan and manage activities that minimize or eliminate potential


environmental impacts without severely disrupting operations.


The sixth chapter discusses the treatment of drilling and production


wastes to reduce their toxicity and/or volume before ultimate disposal.


Chapter 7 presents disposal methods for various petroleum industry


wastes. The final chapter reviews available technologies for remediat-


ing sites contaminated with petroleum wastes. A summary of major


United States federal regulations, a list of major U.S. chemical waste


exchanges, and discussions of sensitive habitats and offshore releases


of oil are provided in the appendixes.


This book has evolved from course notes developed by the author


for use in undergraduate and graduate classes. In preparing the book,


the author has read thousands of pages of papers, reports, manuals,


ENVIRONMENTAL


CONTROL


IN


PETROLEUM


ENGINEERING This page intentionally left blank ENVIRONMENTAL


CONTROL


IN


IN


PETR OLEUM


ENGINEERING


JOHN C. REIS


Gulf Publishing Company


Houston, London, Paris, Zurich, Tokyo ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL


IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING


Copyright © 1996 by Gulf Publishing Company,


Houston, Texas. All rights reserved. Printed in the


United States of America. This book, or parts thereof,


may not be reproduced in any form without permission


of the publisher.


Gulf Publishing Company


Book Division


P.O. Box 2608 n Houston, Texas 77252-2608


10 9 8 7 6 54 3 21


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Reis, John C.


Environmental control in petroleum engineering /


John C. Reis.


p. cm.


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN 0-88415-273-1 (alk. paper)


1. Petroleum engineering—Environmental


aspects. 2. Pollution. I. Reis, John C. II. Title.


TD195.P4R45 1996


665.6—dc20 95-48462


CIP


Printed on Acid-Free Paper (°°) Contents


Acknowledgments viii


Preface ix


CHAPTER 1


Introduction to Environmental Control


in the Petroleum Industry 1


Overview of Environmental Issues, 2. A New Attitude. 11.


References, 16.


CHAPTER 2


Drilling and Production Operations 18


Drilling, 18. Production. 39. Air Emissions, 57.


References, 65.


CHAPTER 3


The Impact of Drilling and Production Operations 71


Measuring Toxicity, 71. Hydrocarbons, 77. Salt, 96.


Heavy Metals, 100. Production Chemicals, 105.


Drilling Fluids, 106. Produced Water, 120. Nuclear


Radiation, 121. Air Pollution, 126. Acoustic Impacts, 127.


Effects of Offshore Platforms, 128. Risk Assessment, 128.


References, 131.


CHAPTER 4


Environmental Transport of Petroleum Wastes 139


Surface Paths, 139. Subsurface Paths, 140. Atmospheric


Paths, 142. References, 142. CHAPTER 5


Planning for Environmental Protection .144


Environmental Audits, 145. Waste Management Plans, 149.


Waste Management Actions, 151. Certification of Disposal


Processes, 162. Contingency Plans, 163. Employee


Training, 165. References, 166.


CHAPTER 6


Waste Treatment Methods 172


Treatment of Water, 172. Treatment of Solids, 185.


Treatment of Air Emissions, 194. References, 196.


CHAPTER 7


Waste Disposal Methods .......203


Surface Disposal, 203. Subsurface Disposal, 207.


References, 212.


CHAPTER 8


Remediation of Contaminated Sites.. ....216


Site Assessment, 216. Remediation Processes, 220.


References, 226.


APPENDIX A


Environmental Regulations...... 230


United States Federal Regulations, 231. State


Regulations, 249. Local Regulations, 249. Regulations


in Other Countries, 249. Cost of Environmental


Compliance, 250. References, 251.


APPENDIX B


Sensitive Habitats 256


Rain Forests, 256. Arctic Regions, 257. References, 257. APPENDIX C


Major U.S. Chemical Waste Exchanges ..258


APPENDIX D


Offshore Releases of Oil 261


Natural Dispersion of Oil, 261. Enhanced Removal


of Oil, 264. References, 268.


Index 271 Acknowledgments


I would like to thank the many students who provided feedback on


the course notes that eventually lead to this book. I would also like


to thank Larry Henry for his thoughtful review of the manuscript. I


gratefully acknowledge the donation of the reports by the American


Petroleum Institute that are cited in this book. Preface


With the rise of the environmental protection movement, the


petroleum industry has placed greater emphasis on minimizing the


environmental impact of its operations. Improved environmental


protection requires better education and training of industry personnel.


There is a tremendous amount of valuable information available on


the environmental impact of petroleum operations and on ways to


minimize that impact; however, this information is scattered among


thousands of books, reports, and papers, making it difficult for industry


personnel to obtain specific information on controlling the environ-


mental effects of particular operations. This book assembles a sub-


stantial portion of this information into a single reference.


The book has been organized and written for a target audience


having little or no training in the environmental issues facing the


petroleum industry. The first chapter provides a brief overview of these


issues. The second chapter focuses on the various aspects of drilling


and production operations, while the third chapter discusses the


specific impacts associated with them. Chapter 4 discusses ways in


which toxic materials can be transported away from their release sites.


(Actual waste transport modeling is a very complex topic and


is beyond the scope of this book.) The fifth chapter presents ways


to plan and manage activities that minimize or eliminate potential


environmental impacts without severely disrupting operations.


The sixth chapter discusses the treatment of drilling and production


wastes to reduce their toxicity and/or volume before ultimate disposal.


Chapter 7 presents disposal methods for various petroleum industry


wastes. The final chapter reviews available technologies for remediat-


ing sites contaminated with petroleum wastes. A summary of major


United States federal regulations, a list of major U.S. chemical waste


exchanges, and discussions of sensitive habitats and offshore releases


of oil are provided in the appendixes.


This book has evolved from course notes developed by the author


for use in undergraduate and graduate classes. In preparing the book,


the author has read thousands of pages of papers, reports, manuals,


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