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Introduction to Environmental Control in the Petroleum Industry

287 Pages · 2003 · 12.62 MB · English

  • Introduction to Environmental Control in the Petroleum Industry

    ENVIRONMENTAL


    CONTROL


    IN


    PETROLEUM


    ENGINEERING This page intentionally left blank ENVIRONMENTAL


    CONTROL


    IN


    IN


    PETR OLEUM


    ENGINEERING


    JOHN C. REIS


    Gulf Publishing Company


    Houston, London, Paris, Zurich, Tokyo ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL


    IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING


    Copyright © 1996 by Gulf Publishing Company,


    Houston, Texas. All rights reserved. Printed in the


    United States of America. This book, or parts thereof,


    may not be reproduced in any form without permission


    of the publisher.


    Gulf Publishing Company


    Book Division


    P.O. Box 2608 n Houston, Texas 77252-2608


    10 9 8 7 6 54 3 21


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Reis, John C.


    Environmental control in petroleum engineering /


    John C. Reis.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 0-88415-273-1 (alk. paper)


    1. Petroleum engineering—Environmental


    aspects. 2. Pollution. I. Reis, John C. II. Title.


    TD195.P4R45 1996


    665.6—dc20 95-48462


    CIP


    Printed on Acid-Free Paper (°°) Contents


    Acknowledgments viii


    Preface ix


    CHAPTER 1


    Introduction to Environmental Control


    in the Petroleum Industry 1


    Overview of Environmental Issues, 2. A New Attitude. 11.


    References, 16.


    CHAPTER 2


    Drilling and Production Operations 18


    Drilling, 18. Production. 39. Air Emissions, 57.


    References, 65.


    CHAPTER 3


    The Impact of Drilling and Production Operations 71


    Measuring Toxicity, 71. Hydrocarbons, 77. Salt, 96.


    Heavy Metals, 100. Production Chemicals, 105.


    Drilling Fluids, 106. Produced Water, 120. Nuclear


    Radiation, 121. Air Pollution, 126. Acoustic Impacts, 127.


    Effects of Offshore Platforms, 128. Risk Assessment, 128.


    References, 131.


    CHAPTER 4


    Environmental Transport of Petroleum Wastes 139


    Surface Paths, 139. Subsurface Paths, 140. Atmospheric


    Paths, 142. References, 142. CHAPTER 5


    Planning for Environmental Protection .144


    Environmental Audits, 145. Waste Management Plans, 149.


    Waste Management Actions, 151. Certification of Disposal


    Processes, 162. Contingency Plans, 163. Employee


    Training, 165. References, 166.


    CHAPTER 6


    Waste Treatment Methods 172


    Treatment of Water, 172. Treatment of Solids, 185.


    Treatment of Air Emissions, 194. References, 196.


    CHAPTER 7


    Waste Disposal Methods .......203


    Surface Disposal, 203. Subsurface Disposal, 207.


    References, 212.


    CHAPTER 8


    Remediation of Contaminated Sites.. ....216


    Site Assessment, 216. Remediation Processes, 220.


    References, 226.


    APPENDIX A


    Environmental Regulations...... 230


    United States Federal Regulations, 231. State


    Regulations, 249. Local Regulations, 249. Regulations


    in Other Countries, 249. Cost of Environmental


    Compliance, 250. References, 251.


    APPENDIX B


    Sensitive Habitats 256


    Rain Forests, 256. Arctic Regions, 257. References, 257. APPENDIX C


    Major U.S. Chemical Waste Exchanges ..258


    APPENDIX D


    Offshore Releases of Oil 261


    Natural Dispersion of Oil, 261. Enhanced Removal


    of Oil, 264. References, 268.


    Index 271 Acknowledgments


    I would like to thank the many students who provided feedback on


    the course notes that eventually lead to this book. I would also like


    to thank Larry Henry for his thoughtful review of the manuscript. I


    gratefully acknowledge the donation of the reports by the American


    Petroleum Institute that are cited in this book. Preface


    With the rise of the environmental protection movement, the


    petroleum industry has placed greater emphasis on minimizing the


    environmental impact of its operations. Improved environmental


    protection requires better education and training of industry personnel.


    There is a tremendous amount of valuable information available on


    the environmental impact of petroleum operations and on ways to


    minimize that impact; however, this information is scattered among


    thousands of books, reports, and papers, making it difficult for industry


    personnel to obtain specific information on controlling the environ-


    mental effects of particular operations. This book assembles a sub-


    stantial portion of this information into a single reference.


    The book has been organized and written for a target audience


    having little or no training in the environmental issues facing the


    petroleum industry. The first chapter provides a brief overview of these


    issues. The second chapter focuses on the various aspects of drilling


    and production operations, while the third chapter discusses the


    specific impacts associated with them. Chapter 4 discusses ways in


    which toxic materials can be transported away from their release sites.


    (Actual waste transport modeling is a very complex topic and


    is beyond the scope of this book.) The fifth chapter presents ways


    to plan and manage activities that minimize or eliminate potential


    environmental impacts without severely disrupting operations.


    The sixth chapter discusses the treatment of drilling and production


    wastes to reduce their toxicity and/or volume before ultimate disposal.


    Chapter 7 presents disposal methods for various petroleum industry


    wastes. The final chapter reviews available technologies for remediat-


    ing sites contaminated with petroleum wastes. A summary of major


    United States federal regulations, a list of major U.S. chemical waste


    exchanges, and discussions of sensitive habitats and offshore releases


    of oil are provided in the appendixes.


    This book has evolved from course notes developed by the author


    for use in undergraduate and graduate classes. In preparing the book,


    the author has read thousands of pages of papers, reports, manuals,


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