Introduction to Environmental Control in the Petroleum Industry

287 Pages · 2003 · 12.62 MB · English

  • Introduction to Environmental Control in the Petroleum Industry





    ENGINEERING This page intentionally left blank ENVIRONMENTAL







    Gulf Publishing Company

    Houston, London, Paris, Zurich, Tokyo ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL


    Copyright © 1996 by Gulf Publishing Company,

    Houston, Texas. All rights reserved. Printed in the

    United States of America. This book, or parts thereof,

    may not be reproduced in any form without permission

    of the publisher.

    Gulf Publishing Company

    Book Division

    P.O. Box 2608 n Houston, Texas 77252-2608

    10 9 8 7 6 54 3 21

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Reis, John C.

    Environmental control in petroleum engineering /

    John C. Reis.

    p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN 0-88415-273-1 (alk. paper)

    1. Petroleum engineering—Environmental

    aspects. 2. Pollution. I. Reis, John C. II. Title.

    TD195.P4R45 1996

    665.6—dc20 95-48462


    Printed on Acid-Free Paper (°°) Contents

    Acknowledgments viii

    Preface ix


    Introduction to Environmental Control

    in the Petroleum Industry 1

    Overview of Environmental Issues, 2. A New Attitude. 11.

    References, 16.


    Drilling and Production Operations 18

    Drilling, 18. Production. 39. Air Emissions, 57.

    References, 65.


    The Impact of Drilling and Production Operations 71

    Measuring Toxicity, 71. Hydrocarbons, 77. Salt, 96.

    Heavy Metals, 100. Production Chemicals, 105.

    Drilling Fluids, 106. Produced Water, 120. Nuclear

    Radiation, 121. Air Pollution, 126. Acoustic Impacts, 127.

    Effects of Offshore Platforms, 128. Risk Assessment, 128.

    References, 131.


    Environmental Transport of Petroleum Wastes 139

    Surface Paths, 139. Subsurface Paths, 140. Atmospheric

    Paths, 142. References, 142. CHAPTER 5

    Planning for Environmental Protection .144

    Environmental Audits, 145. Waste Management Plans, 149.

    Waste Management Actions, 151. Certification of Disposal

    Processes, 162. Contingency Plans, 163. Employee

    Training, 165. References, 166.


    Waste Treatment Methods 172

    Treatment of Water, 172. Treatment of Solids, 185.

    Treatment of Air Emissions, 194. References, 196.


    Waste Disposal Methods .......203

    Surface Disposal, 203. Subsurface Disposal, 207.

    References, 212.


    Remediation of Contaminated Sites.. ....216

    Site Assessment, 216. Remediation Processes, 220.

    References, 226.


    Environmental Regulations...... 230

    United States Federal Regulations, 231. State

    Regulations, 249. Local Regulations, 249. Regulations

    in Other Countries, 249. Cost of Environmental

    Compliance, 250. References, 251.


    Sensitive Habitats 256

    Rain Forests, 256. Arctic Regions, 257. References, 257. APPENDIX C

    Major U.S. Chemical Waste Exchanges ..258


    Offshore Releases of Oil 261

    Natural Dispersion of Oil, 261. Enhanced Removal

    of Oil, 264. References, 268.

    Index 271 Acknowledgments

    I would like to thank the many students who provided feedback on

    the course notes that eventually lead to this book. I would also like

    to thank Larry Henry for his thoughtful review of the manuscript. I

    gratefully acknowledge the donation of the reports by the American

    Petroleum Institute that are cited in this book. Preface

    With the rise of the environmental protection movement, the

    petroleum industry has placed greater emphasis on minimizing the

    environmental impact of its operations. Improved environmental

    protection requires better education and training of industry personnel.

    There is a tremendous amount of valuable information available on

    the environmental impact of petroleum operations and on ways to

    minimize that impact; however, this information is scattered among

    thousands of books, reports, and papers, making it difficult for industry

    personnel to obtain specific information on controlling the environ-

    mental effects of particular operations. This book assembles a sub-

    stantial portion of this information into a single reference.

    The book has been organized and written for a target audience

    having little or no training in the environmental issues facing the

    petroleum industry. The first chapter provides a brief overview of these

    issues. The second chapter focuses on the various aspects of drilling

    and production operations, while the third chapter discusses the

    specific impacts associated with them. Chapter 4 discusses ways in

    which toxic materials can be transported away from their release sites.

    (Actual waste transport modeling is a very complex topic and

    is beyond the scope of this book.) The fifth chapter presents ways

    to plan and manage activities that minimize or eliminate potential

    environmental impacts without severely disrupting operations.

    The sixth chapter discusses the treatment of drilling and production

    wastes to reduce their toxicity and/or volume before ultimate disposal.

    Chapter 7 presents disposal methods for various petroleum industry

    wastes. The final chapter reviews available technologies for remediat-

    ing sites contaminated with petroleum wastes. A summary of major

    United States federal regulations, a list of major U.S. chemical waste

    exchanges, and discussions of sensitive habitats and offshore releases

    of oil are provided in the appendixes.

    This book has evolved from course notes developed by the author

    for use in undergraduate and graduate classes. In preparing the book,

    the author has read thousands of pages of papers, reports, manuals,

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