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Inter-Cultural Language Use and Language Learning

287 Pages · 2007 · 1.94 MB · English

  • Inter-Cultural Language Use and Language Learning

    Intercultural Language Use and Language Learning Intercultural Language Use


    and Language Learning


    Edited by


    Eva Alcón Soler


    Universitat Jaume I,


    Spain



    and



    Maria Pilar Safont Jordà


    Universitat Jaume I,


    Spain AC.I.P.CataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongress.


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    (cid:73)(cid:83)(cid:66)(cid:78)(cid:32)(cid:57)(cid:55)(cid:56)(cid:45)(cid:49)(cid:45)(cid:52)(cid:48)(cid:50)(cid:48)(cid:45)(cid:53)(cid:54)(cid:51)(cid:57)(cid:45)(cid:48)(cid:32)(cid:40)(cid:101)(cid:45)(cid:98)(cid:111)(cid:111)(cid:107)(cid:41)


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    andexecutedonacomputersystem,forexclusiveusebythepurchaserofthework. Contents


    Acknowledgements vii


    Introduction 1


    Eva Alcón Soler and Maria Pilar Safont Jordà


    1. What Is an ‘Intercultural Speaker’? 7


    Juliane House


    2. Linguistic Unity and Cultural Diversity in Europe: Implications


    for Research on English Language and Learning 23


    Eva Alcón Soler


    3. Rethinking the Role of Communicative Competence


    in Language Teaching 41


    Marianne Celce-Murcia


    4. Dealing with Intercultural Communicative Competence


    in the Foreign Language Classroom 59


    Maria José Coperías Aguilar


    5. A Role for English as Lingua Franca in the Foreign


    Language Classroom? 79


    Anne Ife


    6. Writing-to-learn in Instructed Language Learning Contexts 101


    Rosa M. Manchón and Julio Roca de Larios


    7. The Acquisition of Pragmatic Competence and Multilingualism


    in Foreign Language Contexts 123


    Jasone Cenoz


    8. Interindividual Variation in Self-perceived Oral Proficiency


    of English L2 Users 141


    Jean Marc Dewaele


    v vi Contents


    9. Pragmatic Production of Third Language Learners: A Focus


    on Request External Modification Items 167


    Maria Pilar Safont Jordà


    10. North Korean Schools in Japan: An Observation


    of Quasi-Native Heritage Language Use in Teaching


    English as a Third Language 191


    Robert J. Fouser


    11. Examining Mitigation in Requests: A Focus on Transcripts


    in ELT Coursebooks 207


    Patricia Salazar Campillo


    12. The Presentation and Practice of the Communicative Act


    of Requesting in Textbooks: Focusing on Modifiers 223


    Esther Usó-Juan


    13. Analysing Request Modification Devices in Films:


    Implications for Pragmatic Learning in Instructed Foreign


    Language Contexts 245


    Alicia Martínez-Flor


    Index 281 Acknowledgements


    First and foremost, we would like to thank all contributors in the volume


    for accepting to take part in this project. We are also very grateful to the


    reviewers of preliminary versions of some chapters for their comments and


    thoughtful suggestions.


    Special thanks to Elina Vilar, and also particularly to Otilia Martí, for


    their help regarding the format and layout of the volume. Our gratitude to


    the members of the LAELA (Lingüística Aplicada a l’Ensenyament de la


    Llengua Anglesa) research group at Universitat Jaume I for their involve-


    ment in this project.


    We would like to state that parts of the volume and some studies


    included in it have been conducted within the framework of a research


    project funded by (a) the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia


    (HUM2004-04435/FILO), co-funded by FEDER, and by (b) Fundació


    Universitat Jaume I and Caixa Castelló-Bancaixa.



    vii Introduction


    Eva Alcón Soler


    Maria Pilar Safont Jordà


    Universitat Jaume I, Spain


    The main purpose of the present book is to broaden the scope of research on


    the development of intercultural communicative competence. Bearing this


    purpose in mind, English learners are considered as intercultural speakers


    who share their interest for engaging in real life communication. According


    to Byram and Fleming (1998), the intercultural speaker is someone with


    knowledge of one or more cultures and social identities, and who enjoys


    discovering and maintaining relationships with people from other cultural


    backgrounds, although s/he has not been formally trained for that purpose.


    Besides, possessing knowledge of at least two cultures is the case of


    many learners in bilingual or multilingual communities. In these contexts,


    the objective of language learning should then focus on developing


    intercultural competence, which in turn may involve promoting language


    diversity while encouraging English as both a means and an end of


    instruction (see Alcón, this volume). This is the idea underlying the


    volume, which further sustains Kramsch’s argument (1998) against the


    native/ non-native dichotomy. Following that author, we also believe that


    in a multilingual world where learners may belong to more than one


    speech community, their main goal is not to become a native speaker of


    English, but to use this language as a tool for interaction among many


    other languages and cultures. Hence, pedagogical norms should adjust to


    that reality (Kramsch 2002) by accounting for diversity and variation in the


    English classroom (Valdman 1992). In this respect the establishment of


    such norms should be research-based (Bardovi-Harlig and Gass 2002), and


    it should also account for existing and ongoing studies in applied


    linguistics. From this perspective, the present book deals with research on


    English acquisition and use with a special focus on the development of


    communicative competence by intercultural speakers. Proposals deriving


    from the theoretical accounts and studies presented here may help cover the


    need for establishing variable pedagogical norms in English language


    teaching and learning. Furthermore, we believe that revisions of key notions


    1


    E. Alcón Soler and M.P. Safont Jordà (eds.), Intercultural Language Use and Language Learning, 1–6.


    © 2007 Springer.


    2 Alcón Soler and Safont Jordà


    like those of communicative competence and intercultural speakers (see


    chapters 1 and 3) may facilitate the adoption of a more realistic perspective


    in the study of language learning and teaching, that of multilingualism.


    As the title suggests, our focus will be that of the intercultural language


    use and language learning. In so doing, the volume may be subdivided into


    three main parts. First, we deal with the theoretical tenets that support our


    view of the intercultural speaker. This first part includes chapters 1 to 3


    with references to the notion of the intercultural speaker, an account of the


    multilingual reality in European countries, and an updated revision of the


    construct of communicative competence. Drawing on these ideas, the


    second part of the volume includes the issue of English as lingua franca


    (henceforth ELF) as described in chapter 4 to 7 by referring to particular


    learning settings. Within the global context of ELF, each chapter includes


    a state-of-the-art revision of the following aspects: (i) materials for the


    teaching of English as a lingua franca, (ii) benefits deriving from such


    teaching, (iii) the issue of text creation, and (iv) pragmatic development in


    the classroom. Finally, the third part of the book comprises empirical


    research conducted in instructed settings where English is the target


    language. These studies may be distributed into two subgroups: those


    dealing with multilingual and multicultural issues, and those focusing on


    pragmatic input in EFL settings. On the one hand, chapters 8 to 10 focus


    on individual variation in oral production of language learners, the role of


    bilingualism in the use of request acts, and identity in the teaching of


    English. On the other hand, chapters 11 to 13 focus on the presence of


    request mitigation devices in three different sources of pragmatic input that


    are available to language learners, namely those of oral transcripts, EFL


    textbooks and films. Pragmatic competence is regarded in these studies as


    a key issue when dealing with the development of communicative


    competence in English language learning contexts.


    Although the whole volume is devoted to the issue of communication in


    intercultural encounters, the concepts of intercultural language use and


    language learning are tackled from different perspectives in each chapter.


    As has been previously mentioned, the first three chapters (see House,


    Alcón and Celce-Murcia, this volume) provide the theoretical framework


    for the volume. They present and develop the three main notions that arise


    in subsequent chapters, and that also constitute our proposal for the study


    of English acquisition and use in intercultural settings. These are the


    notions of the intercultural speaker, the construct of intercultural


    communicative competence, and the use of English as a lingua franca.


    House argues for a description of the term intercultural speaker which may


    differ from the notion adopted in publications following an educational


    perspective. In this first chapter, the author provides us with an in-depth Introduction 3


    analysis of the term intercultural and its use in education and in applied


    linguistics literature. Her analysis involves deconstructing the term


    intercultural by pointing to the notion of culture and the meaning of inter.


    In so doing, the author sets the basis for the idea of intercultural speaker


    that underlies the whole volume, and suggests that one of the various


    languages of that intercultural speaker will be English, given its


    international scope as means of communication. In the second chapter,


    Alcón discusses the spread of English in continental Europe as a


    controversial issue that needs to be clarified if a language policy towards


    plurilingualism is to be accomplished. The author also proposes a research


    agenda on English in Europe, taking into account that the notion of


    communicative competence is the objective of language learning. In this


    line, Celce-Murcia revises previous models of communicative competence


    and justifies her new proposal of the construct of communicative


    competence on the basis of previous research in the third chapter.


    Chapters 4 to 6 (see Coperías, Ife and Machón and Roca, this volume)


    specifically deal with the idea of English as a lingua franca by pointing to


    various language learning settings. In chapter 4 Coperías presents an


    overview of existing foreign language teaching material by raising the


    need to consider intercultural competence as a teaching goal. The author


    also points to recent proposals that include intercultural communicative


    competence as part of the foreign language teaching and learning process.


    In chapter 5 Ife focuses on the benefits of the lingua franca in language


    learning. The author particularly refers to added L2 benefits in a context


    where both first (henceforth L1) and second language (henceforth L2)


    speakers find themselves on neutral territory. Written communication is


    the focus of chapter 6. Manchón and Roca refer to the process of text


    creation by users of English as a lingua franca in an instructed context. The


    authors present an extensive overview of research dealing with the writing


    process. They also include a research agenda and some pedagogical


    implications deriving from existing studies.


    One aspect that has traditionally received less attention in language


    learning contexts has been that of pragmatic development. Chapter 7


    focuses on one particular aspect of pragmatic development, that of


    pragmatic acquisition from a multilingual perspective. Cenoz deals with


    the multicompetence model in describing pragmatic competence of foreign


    language learners. In so doing, we are provided with a different view of


    pragmatic development to that presented by other scholars (Kasper and


    Rose 2002; Barron 2003), who have mainly considered second language


    learning contexts or who have not paid much attention to individual


    variables, like those of the learners’ mother tongue or bilingualism. Some


    of these variables like the typological distance between the learners’ L1


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